Rondo and the part-equivalent French term, are words long used in music in a number of ways, most in reference to a musical form. Despite the common etymological root and rondeau as musical forms are different. Rondo is an instrumental musical form, developed beginning in the 17th century. Rondeau, on the other hand, is a vocal musical form, developed as monophonic music and as polyphonic music. Notably, both vocal forms of rondeau nearly disappeared from the repertoire by the beginning of the 16th century. In rondo form, a principal theme alternates with one or more contrasting themes called "episodes", but occasionally referred to as "digressions" or "couplets". Possible patterns in the Classical period include: ABA, ABACA, or ABACABA; these are sometimes designated "first rondo", "second rondo", "third rondo", respectively. The first rondo is distinguished from the three-part song form principally by the fact that at least one of the themes is a song form in itself, but the difference in melodic and rhythmic content of the themes in the rondo form is greater than in the song form, the accompanimental figuration in the parts of the rondo is contrasted.

The number of themes can vary from piece to piece, the recurring element is sometimes embellished and/or shortened in order to provide for variation. The best-known example of rondo form is Beethoven's "Für Elise", an ABACA rondo; the pattern of repeats, however, in eighteenth-century ballet music, that is, in music intended for dancing rather than listening, is not predictable. An instructive example comes from the pasticcio pantomime ballet Le peintre amoureux de son modèle, extant in the Ferrère manuscript; the final contredanse générale, for example, taken from J.-P. Rameau’s Les fêtes d’Hébé and, to be played “en rondeau,” has a repeat structure of AA x 4. A Baroque predecessor to the rondo was the ritornello. Ritornello form was used in the fast movements of baroque concertos, in many baroque vocal and choral works; the ripieno plays the main ritornello theme. As typical of Baroque continuo playing, in the tutti sections the soloists play as part of the ensemble. While Rondo form is similar to ritornello form, it is different in that ritornello brings back the subject or main theme in fragments and in different keys, but the rondo brings back its theme complete and in the same key.

Cedric Thorpe Davie is one author, who considers the ritornello form the ancestor, not of the rondo form, but of the classical concerto form A common expansion of rondo form is to combine it with sonata form, to create the sonata rondo form. Here, the second theme acts in a similar way to the second theme group in sonata form by appearing first in a key other than the tonic and being repeated in the tonic key. Unlike sonata form, thematic development does not need to occur except in the coda; the last movement of Beethoven's Sonata Pathétique is an example of a sonata rondo. Johann Sebastian Bach: E major Violin Concerto, last movement Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Horn Concerto No. 4 in E-flat major, last movement Ludwig van Beethoven: Rage Over a Lost Penny Ludwig van Beethoven: Rondo for piano and orchestra, WoO, 6 Ludwig van Beethoven: Piano Sonata Op. 53, last movement Ludwig van Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 5, last movement Antonín Dvořák: Cello Concerto in B minor, third movement Antonín Dvořák: Symphony No.

6, second movement Aram Khachaturian: Violin Concerto, second movement Sergei Prokofiev: Symphony No. 5, fourth movement Rondo as a character-type refers to music, fast and vivacious – Allegro. Many classical rondos feature music of a popular or folk character. Music, designated as "rondo" subscribes to both the form and character. On the other hand, there are many examples of slower, reflective works that are rondo in form but not in character; the term and the formal principle may have derived from the medieval poetic form rondeau, which contains repetitions of a couplet separated by longer sections of poetry. However, it has been musicologically preferred that the term rondeau be reserved to the vocal musical form, while the term rondo be reserved for the instrumental musical form. A well-known operatic vocal genre of the late 18th century, referred to at that time by the same name but distinguished today in English and German writing by the differently accented term "rondò" is cast in two parts, slow-fast.

Rondo and Ritornello Forms in Tonal Music Rondo form in traditional marches from Limoux' carnival Texts on Wikisource: "Rondo". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Rondeau". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920

Stan Borys

Stan Borys or Stanisław Guzek is a Polish singer-songwriter, actor and poet. He is a charismatic person and a versatile artist who has a broad musical taste and directing capabilities. In his over 50-year-long musical career he has recorded 8 albums, has been a performer at many festivals, won many awards. Since his early years he has been interested in poetry. At the age of 20 he won a countrywide recitation competition. Gifted with a strong voice and a good diction he started an acting career at the theatre in his hometown and moved to the capital city of Poland, Warsaw. In 1965 he met Tadeusz Nalepa, with whom he created the band "Blackout". After two years of playing together he split with the "Blackout" and started playing with band "Bizony"; as a vocalist with this band he changed his name, stage appearance and recorded his big holiday hit song "Spacer Dziką Plażą". He was aiming into a more ambitious repertoire and in 1968 he appeared at the Opole music festival with the song "To Ziemia", winning the journalists' prize.

In 1973 he won another award performing "Jaskółka Uwięziona" at the Opole festival. Since 1970 he started acting only as soloist, he was singing in many festivals in Poland, abroad winning prizes. Because of his "Jesus-like-look" image, liberty-themed songs, he experienced problems with the communist government which cut off his appearances on TV, censored his lyrics. Stan Borys has always been fascinated with the United States, in 1975, after several attempts and going through obstacles created by the government, under the pretense of going on an artist exchange, he managed to relocate permanently to the US. On the other side of the Atlantic, he continued his musical career and started singing at various music clubs, working with Polish and American artists and polishing his English. Despite being thousands of miles away from Poland, he cherished his love for Polish poetry, which he promoted in his radio program in Chicago. In 1983, celebrating the 100th anniversary of C. K. Norwid's death during the World Norwid Conference held at the University of Illinois in Chicago, he directed and starred in the theater performance "Norwid".

His acting and vocal talent led to acting roles in other plays e.g. "The good Woman of Setzuan", "Polish Bethlehem". He was married several times, his third wife was Agata Pilitowska. After 1989 he started visiting Poland again. In 1991 he performed at the Opole and Sopot festivals, played Jean Valjean in the musical Les Misérables. In 1998 he recorded a new album "Niczyj" with several well-known international artists as well as performed on tour in Canada, throughout the US; the album had not been available in Poland until 2004. Stan Borys performed during the celebrations of the Polish accession to the European Union on 30 April 2004; the same year he took part in some charity concerts. Because of many performances in Poland Stan Borys has now a house near Warsaw. In the USA he lives near Death Valley. Stan Borys practices yoga as well as meditation techniques and breathing exercises, which helps him in his vocal performances, he is a fan of muscle cars. His first automobile after moving to the United States was a Pontiac sports car.

He drives a Nissan Z. Studnia bez wody To ziemia Krzyczę przez sen Naga Szukam przyjaciela Portret Piszę pamiętnik artysty Niczyj Znieczulica Piszę pamiętnik artysty - Hańba temu, kto o tym źle myśli The Best of Stan Borys Złote przeboje Idę drogą nieznaną Jaskółka uwięziona Stan Borys' Official website Official biography Official YouTube channel Fan group at

University of Montana School of Journalism

The University of Montana School of Journalism is located at the University of Montana in Missoula, is one of the oldest accredited journalism programs in the United States. Founded in 1914 with eight students, the school operated out of a number of army surplus tents on the university grounds moved to a bicycle shed before settling in a newly built wooden building; the next journalism building was completed in 1936. In June 2007, the journalism program relocated again to the newly constructed Don Anderson Hall; the j-school offers both undergraduate and graduate level studies in five main areas: print reporting and editing broadcast reporting and editing photojournalism Radio-TV production Master's in Environmental Science and Natural Resource JournalismThe program is accredited and is in partnership with the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications. The University of Montana's Master's program in Environmental Science and Natural Resource Journalism was created in 2010.

The program was announced less than a month after Columbia University, in New York City, suspended their Earth and Environmental Science Journalism dual master's degree program. Accepting eight students a year who wish to specialize in reporting environmental issues, the Master's program invites applicants with undergraduate degrees in science and environmental studies, along with applicants with degrees or professional experience in journalism. Applications are only accepted for fall semester; the application deadline is February 15. The two year interdisciplinary program requires course work in hard sciences; the program trains graduate students to communicate environmental issues through various platforms such as print and photo stories, multimedia projects, web and broadcast documentaries. The program is based on a total of 36 credits. Graduate level journalism courses consist of 18 credits, while 12 credits must be earned in non-journalism graduate courses in environmental sciences; the journalism graduate courses available to students range from skill focused classes like learning documentary photojournalism to covering and reporting on Native American issues across the Montana's seven reservations.

An internship is required for the degree, but the program challenges students to apply for intern positions at natural resource and environmental science organizations, like the United States Forest Service. The program's website explains. "The purpose of the externship is to "switch sides": Rather than working as reporters, editors or communications specialists, as they would during an internship, students work as firefighters, field technicians, lab assistants or contract laborers. They shadow company executives and contribute to research, but they don't help develop publications or write press releases."Graduate students are required to produce a professional project. The project is an in-depth story covering an environmental science or natural resource issue; the project may be one large, documentary style piece or a series of shorter thematically related stories. The topic is subjected to approval by the student's project committee; the Montana Kaimin became a daily newspaper in 1938, allowing students to hone their journalism skills in a real-world environment.

The campus radio station KBGA provides opportunities for students in broadcast journalism, radio production programs. The school and its students/alumni have achieved significant national in international success, including: Seven alumni who played major roles in winning Pulitzer Prizes. Three Rhodes Scholars The first woman to win an Ernie Pyle award. Two George Polk award winners. One recipient of a Freedom Forum Journalism Professor of the Year Award. Well-known alumni include: A. B. Guthrie Dorothy M. Johnson Carroll O'Connor Clarence Streit