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Roof garden

A roof garden is a garden on the roof of a building. Besides the decorative benefit, roof plantings may provide food, temperature control, hydrological benefits, architectural enhancement, habitats or corridors for wildlife, recreational opportunities, in large scale it may have ecological benefits; the practice of cultivating food on the rooftop of buildings is sometimes referred to as rooftop farming. Rooftop farming is done using green roof, aeroponics or air-dynaponics systems or container gardens. Humans have grown plants atop structures since the ziggurats of ancient Mesopotamia had plantings of trees and shrubs on aboveground terraces. An example in Roman times was the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii, which had an elevated terrace where plants were grown. A roof garden has been discovered around an audience hall in Roman-Byzantine Caesarea; the medieval Egyptian city of Fustat had a number of high-rise buildings that Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described as rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on the top story complete with ox-drawn water wheels for irrigating them.

Among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are depicted as tall structures holding vegetation. Roof gardens are most found in urban environments. Plants have the ability to reduce the overall heat absorption of the building which reduces energy consumption. "The primary cause of heat build-up in cities is insolation, the absorption of solar radiation by roads and buildings in the city and the storage of this heat in the building material and its subsequent re-radiation. Plant surfaces however, as a result of transpiration, do not rise more than 4–5 °C above the ambient and are sometimes cooler." This translates into a cooling of the environment between 3.6–11.3 °C, depending on the area on earth. The study was performed by the University of Cardiff. A study at the National Research Council of Canada showed the differences between roofs with gardens and roofs without gardens against temperature; the study shows temperature effects on different layers of each roof at different times of the day.

Roof gardens are very beneficial in reducing the effects of temperature against roofs without gardens. “If adopted, rooftop gardens could reduce the urban heat island, which would decrease smog episodes, problems associated with heat stress and further lower energy consumption.” Aside from rooftop gardens providing resistance to thermal radiation, rooftop gardens are beneficial in reducing rain run off. A roof garden can delay run off. “As cities grow, permeable substrates are replaced by impervious structures such as buildings and paved roads. Storm water run-off and combined sewage overflow events are now major problems for many cities in North America. A key solution is to reduce peak flow by retaining run-off. Rooftop gardens can delay peak flow and retain the run-off for use by the plants.” “In an accessible rooftop garden, space becomes available for localized small-scale urban agriculture, a source of local food production. An urban garden can supplement the diets of the community it feeds with fresh produce and provide a tangible tie to food production.”

At Trent University, there is a working rooftop garden which provides food to the student café and local citizens. Available gardening areas in cities are seriously lacking, the key impetus for many roof gardens; the garden may be on the roof of an autonomous building which takes care of its own waste. Hydroponics and other alternative methods can expand the possibilities of roof top gardening by reducing, for example, the need for soil or its tremendous weight. Plantings in containers are used extensively in roof top gardens. Planting in containers prevents added stress to the roof's waterproofing. One high-profile example of a building with a roof garden is Chicago City Hall. For those who live in small apartments with little space, square foot gardening, or green walls can be a solution; these use much less space than traditional gardening. These encourage environmentally responsible practices, eliminating tilling, reducing or eliminating pesticides, weeding, encouraging the recycling of wastes through composting.

Becoming green is a high priority for urban planners. The environmental and aesthetic benefits to cities is the prime motivation, it was calculated that the temperature in Tokyo could be lowered by 0.11–0.84 °C if 50% of all available rooftop space were planted with greenery. This would lead to a savings of 100 million yen Singapore is active in green urban development. "Roof gardens present possibilities for carrying the notions of nature and open space further in tall building development." When surveyed, 80% of Singapore residents voted for more roof gardens to be implemented in the city's plans. Recreational reasons, such as leisure and relaxation, beautifying the environment, greenery and nature, received the most votes. Planting roof gardens on tops of building is a way to make cities more efficient. A roof garden can be distinguished from a green roof, although the two terms are used interchangeably; the term roof garden is well suited to roof spaces that incorporate recreation and provide additional outdoor living space for the building's residents.

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Metropolitan Cathedral of Our Lady Mother of God, Porto Alegre

The Metropolitan Cathedral of Our Lady Mother of God called Catedral Metropolitana de Porto Alegre is a cathedral of the Catholic Church, located in the city center, in the Praça da Matriz in Porto Alegre a town in the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. The story of the founding of the parish of Our Lady Mother of God is related to the origin of the city of Porto Alegre. With the transfer of the state capital of Viamão to Porto dos Casais, it became clear the need to build a new church, with dimensions corresponding to the new status of the city. On July 12, 1772, the viceroy ordered that land for the construction demarcate; the project, in Baroque style, with a body of openings flanked trer two bell towers, which were brought from Rio de Janeiro in 1774, its author remains unknown. The current cathedral was built in 1921-1972. Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Porto Alegre Roman Catholicism in Brazil Metropolitan cathedral

Giles White

Giles William White, is a former English cricketer and now the Director of Cricket of Hampshire County Cricket Club. He was a right-handed batsman and a right-handed leg-break bowler, as well as being an occasional wicketkeeper, he started his first-class career at Somerset, however, he is more noted for his career at Hampshire, where he played for eight years. Though he started his career as early as 1989 with Devon, where he played in the Minor Counties Championship making a Finals appearance in his final year for the county in 1992, making his first-class debut against the touring Sri Lankans in 1991, which the tourists won despite a double century from Jimmy Cook, his first foray into the County Championship came in 1994, where he played for Hampshire until 2002 sticking with the team beyond their year-long excursion into the Second Division in 2001. Having played extensively through the beginning of the 2002 season, White didn't play a single game from August onwards, choosing to hang up his gloves, leaving the team along with Jason Laney, James Schofield and Irfan Shah.

Giles White at Cricinfo Giles White at CricketArchive