Roosendaal railway station
Roosendaal is a railway station in the city of Roosendaal, Netherlands. The station opened on 3 July 1854 on the Antwerp–Lage Zwaluwe railway and is the beginning of the Roosendaal–Vlissingen railway. Roosendaal was the first station in North Brabant to be built. Roosendaal is a border station between the Netherlands and Belgium. Trains in Belgium run on the left side of double-track whereas in the Netherlands right-hand running is the norm. At some borders, the changeover is achieved by using a flyover, but at Roosendaal trains stop and await a signal to allow them to proceed to the opposite track. Since June 2015 there has been an NMBS ticket machine at the station to buy Belgian train tickets; the station is served by the following services: 2x per hour intercity service Amsterdam - Haarlem - Leiden - The Hague - Rotterdam - Dordrecht - Roosendaal - Vlissingen 2x per hour intercity services Zwolle - Deventer - Zutphen - Arnhem - Nijmegen -'s-Hertogenbosch - Tilburg - Breda - Roosendaal 2x per weekday intercity service Roosendaal - Vlissingen 1x per hour local service Roosendaal - Essen - Antwerp - Antwerp-South - Puurs 2x per hour local service Dordrecht - RoosendaalAs of April 9, 2018 the international service Amsterdam - Brussels will be running on the HSL-Zuid with a stop at Breda and does not call at Dordrecht and Roosendaal anymore.
Passengers for Belgium can take a train to Breda and change trains there or can take the local service Roosendaal - Puurs and change trains at Antwerp for Mechelen, Brussels Airport and Brussels Roosendaal is served by city bus services as well as regional bus services. All bus services are operated by Arriva There are 4 city bus lines. From the railway station the city bus lines provides services to/from: Roselaar busstation Bravis Ziekenhuis WVS The neighbourhoods Burgerhout, Fatimawijk, Kortendijk, Langdonk and WeihoekThe neighbourhood Westrand and the Rosada Factory Outlet Center are served by regional bus services The routes of the city buses are as follows: The regional bus lines provides services to/from: Roselaar busstation The Rosada Factory Outlet Center Zegestede Cemetery The neighbourhoods Fatimawijk and Westrand The nearby cities Bergen op Zoom and Etten-Leur Villages around RoosendaalThe routes of the regional buses, serving Roosendaal, are as follows: NS website Dutch Public Transport journey planner
Antonius "Antoine" Hendrikus Mazairac was a Dutch cyclist who competed in the 1928 Summer Olympics. He won the silver medal in the sprint competition. List of Dutch Olympic cyclists profile at the Wayback Machine
Draai van de Kaai
Draai van de Kaai is an elite men's and women's professional road bicycle racing event held annually in Roosendaal, Netherlands on the second Monday after the Tour de France. The first edition was in 1980 and since 2008 the event includes a women's race. Source Source Official website
Intensive care medicine
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and intensive monitoring. Patients requiring intensive care may require support for cardiovascular instability lethal cardiac arrhythmias, airway or respiratory compromise, acute renal failure, or the cumulative effects of multiple organ failure, more referred to now as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, they may be admitted for intensive/invasive monitoring, such as the crucial hours after major surgery when deemed too unstable to transfer to a less intensively monitored unit. Medical studies suggest a relation between ICU volume and quality of care for mechanically ventilated patients. After adjustment for severity of illness, demographic variables, characteristics of the ICUs, higher ICU volume was associated with lower ICU and hospital mortality rates. For example, adjusted ICU mortality was 21.2% in hospitals with 87 to 150 mechanically ventilated patients annually, 14.5% in hospitals with 401 to 617 mechanically ventilated patients annually.
Hospitals with intermediate numbers of patients had outcomes between these extremes. ICU delirium and inaccurately referred to as ICU psychosis, is a syndrome common in intensive care and cardiac units where patients who are in unfamiliar, monotonous surroundings develop symptoms of delirium; this may include interpreting machine noises as human voices, seeing walls quiver, or hallucinating that someone is tapping them on the shoulder. There exists systematic reviews in which interventions of sleep promotion related outcomes in the ICU have proven impactful in the overall health of patients in the ICU. In general, it is the most expensive, technologically advanced and resource-intensive area of medical care. In the United States, estimates of the 2000 expenditure for critical care medicine ranged from US$15–55 billion. During that year, critical care medicine accounted for 0.56% of GDP, 4.2% of national health expenditure and about 13% of hospital costs. In 2011, hospital stays with ICU services accounted for just over one-quarter of all discharges but nearly one-half of aggregate total hospital charges in the United States.
The mean hospital charge was 2.5 times higher for discharges with ICU services than for those without. Intensive care takes a system-by-system approach to treatment; as such, the nine key systems are each considered on an observation-intervention-impression basis to produce a daily plan. In addition to the key systems, intensive care treatment raises other issues including psychological health, pressure points and physiotherapy, secondary infections. In alphabetical order, the nine key systems considered in the intensive care setting are: cardiovascular system, central nervous system, endocrine system, gastro-intestinal tract, integumentary system, microbiology and respiratory system. Intensive care is provided in a specialized unit of a hospital called the intensive care unit or critical care unit. Many hospitals have designated intensive care areas for certain specialities of medicine, such as the coronary intensive care unit for heart disease, medical intensive care unit, surgical intensive care unit, pediatric intensive care unit, neuroscience critical care unit, overnight intensive-recovery, shock/trauma intensive-care unit, neonatal intensive care unit, other units as dictated by the needs and available resources of each hospital.
The naming is not rigidly standardized. For a time in the early 1960s, it was not clear that specialized intensive care units were needed, so intensive care resources were brought to the room of the patient that needed the additional monitoring and resources, it became evident, that a fixed location where intensive care resources and dedicated personnel were available provided better care than ad hoc provision of intensive care services spread throughout a hospital. Common equipment in an intensive care unit includes mechanical ventilation to assist breathing through an endotracheal tube or a tracheotomy. Critical care medicine is an important medical specialty. Physicians with training in critical care medicine are referred to as intensivists. In the United States, the specialty requires additional fellowship training for physicians having completed their primary residency training in internal medicine, anesthesiology, surgery or emergency medicine. US board certification in critical care medicine is available through all five specialty boards.
Intensivists with a primary training in internal medicine sometimes pursue combined fellowship training in another subspecialty such as pulmonary medicine, infectious disease, or nephrology. The American Society of Critical Care Medicine is a well-established multiprofessional society for practitioners working in the ICU including nurses, respiratory therapists, physicians. Most medical research has demonstrated that ICU care provided by intensivists produces better outcomes and more cost-effective care; this has led the Leapfrog Group
The Korps Commandotroepen is the special forces unit of the Royal Netherlands Army. It is one of the three principal units tasked with special operations in the Netherlands, it is deployable anywhere in the world under any circumstance, conducting all conceivable missions from the full spectrum of special operations, including counter-terrorism overseas; the roots of the KCT go back to World War II. Under the name No.2 Troop, the first Dutch commandos were trained in Achnacarry, Scotland, as part of No. 10 Commando. The unit was formed on March 22, 1942, the birthday of the present KCT, its purpose was to conduct special operations, which, at the time, were operations that were considered too complex and too dangerous for conventional military personnel. The unit was disbanded in October 1945, but its members continued fighting in the Dutch East Indies, while others formed the Stormschool, located in Bloemendaal. In 1949, the Stormschool relocated itself to the Engelbrecht van Nassaukazerne in Roosendaal, now the home garrison of the present KCT.
Korps Insulinde was tasked with conducting guerrilla warfare in Sumatra against the Japanese. After the Japanese capitulation, the Korps Insulinde was tasked with the rescue of POWs. In November 1945, the unit was disbanded, its members hooked up with Depot Speciale Troepen and former members of No.2 Troop to form the Korps Speciale Troepen. This new unit was involved in the Indonesian independence wars after World War II. After Indonesia's independence was acknowledged by the Dutch government in 1949, the KST returned to the Netherlands. On 1 July 1950, on parliamentary recommendation, the KST merged with the Stormschool in Roosendaal to form the present Korps Commandotroepen. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, much changed. Particular events shaped the organisation and capacity of the armed forces, in particular, that of the KCT. With the threat of Cold War receding, many new conflicts appeared throughout the world. Since the 9/11 Attacks, worldwide terrorism has become the biggest threat, there has been a high demand for specialist counter-terrorism units, able to operate overseas.
To keep up with these demands, the KCT's old role of Commando Waarnemer-verkenner was replaced by that of the modern and versatile Commando Speciale Operaties. The KCT switched from a "part conscript, part professional force" to a professional unit in 1995; the last conscripts made way for professional operators in 1996, when Dutch conscription was suspended. From here, the KCT underwent drastic changes in its structure and operational capability, with great success, it grew to a mature and versatile SF unit and built up a considerable reputation. Deployments to Bosnia, Macedonia and more Afghanistan provided many new insights and knowledge. Successful CT operations in Côte d'Ivoire and the Middle-East proved once again that the KCT is an able independent and versatile unit. KCT operators wear a Commando Green beret; this shade of green is in use by British Commando Qualified personnel and internationally worn by other commando units. The brass KCT beret emblem displays a Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife, hand grenade and a ribbon with the unit's Nunc aut Nunquam motto on it.
The background of the emblem consist of a gothic typeface "W", indicating the name Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands from 1898-1948. The beret emblem is worn on a black background with a green border. Current structure: Staff Company 103 Commando Company 104 Commando Company 105 Commando Company 108 Commando Company Training company; the KCT accepts applications from both serving military personnel and civilians. To conform to the recruitment guidelines of the Royal Netherlands Army, the KCT accepts both male and female applicants. Phase zero In order to be considered for the KCT, all civilian and military candidates must participate in a three-day try-out; this try-out is to test each individual's physical and mental stamina, monitored by the KCT cadre and Defense psychologists, who will make a profile of each participant. The try-out's lay-out is kept secret, as a means to see how participants cope with sudden changes and stress. Military candidates additionally require certain military skills such as forced marches, obstacle course and speed march at a set time with medium load.
Phase one Once positively considered, candidates continue to the psychological and medical screening, if these are met with positive outcomes, they commence with initial training. Civilian candidates will be taken to the AMOL, a 23-week Air Assault school indoctrination with the Luchtmobiele Brigade, as a means to prepare them with basic military skills and drills. Military candidates will skip this part, start with the 8-week vooropleiding, the "warm-up" as a preparation for the elementary commando course, the selection. Civilian candidates fresh out of the Air Assault School will join the military candidates here and train together towards 8–9 weeks. Phase two With an attrition rate of 80-95% for experienced military personnel and 95-100% for civilian candidates, the ECO serves as the final training phase and selection. Though secretive, one can think of continuous physical and mental conditioning. Most of the 8–9 weeks is done outside of Roosendaal, some parts in the Belgian h
Carnival is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent. The main events occur during February or early March, during the period known as Shrovetide. Carnival involves public celebrations, including events such as parades, public street parties and other entertainments, combining some elements of a circus. Elaborate costumes and masks allow people to set aside their everyday individuality and experience a heightened sense of social unity. Participants indulge in excessive consumption of alcohol and other foods that will be forgone during upcoming Lent. Traditionally, butter and other animal products were not consumed "excessively", their stock was consumed as to reduce waste. Pancakes and other desserts were prepared and eaten for a final time. During Lent, animal products are no longer eaten, individuals have the ability to give up a certain object or activity of desire. Other common features of carnival include mock battles such as food fights.
The term Carnival is traditionally used in areas with a large Catholic presence, as well as in Greece. In Evangelical Lutheran countries, the celebration is known as Fastelavn, in areas with a high concentration of Anglicans and other Protestants, pre-Lenten celebrations, along with penitential observances, occur on Shrove Tuesday or Mardi Gras. In Slavic Eastern Orthodox nations, Maslenitsa is celebrated during the last week before Great Lent. In German-speaking Europe and the Netherlands, the Carnival season traditionally opens on 11/11; this dates back to celebrations before the Advent season or with harvest celebrations of St. Martin's Day; the Latin-derived name of the holiday is sometimes spelled Carnaval in areas where Dutch, French and Portuguese are spoken, or Carnevale in Italian-speaking contexts. Alternative names are used for local celebrations; the word is said to come from the Late Latin expression carne levare, which means "remove meat". In either case, this signifies the approaching fast.
The word carne may be translated as flesh, producing "a farewell to the flesh", a phrase embraced by certain carnival celebrants to embolden the festival's carefree spirit. The etymology of the word Carnival thus points to a Christian origin of the celebratory period. Other scholars argue that the origin is the festival of the Navigium Isidis, where the image of Isis was carried to the seashore to bless the start of sailing season; the festival consisted of a parade of masks following an adorned wooden boat, called in Latin carrus navalis the source of both the name and the parade floats. The word Carnival is of Christian origin, in the Middle Ages, it referred to a period following Epiphany season that reached its climax before midnight on Shrove Tuesday; because Lent was a period of fasting, "Carnival therefore represented a last period of feasting and celebration before the spiritual rigors of Lent." Meat was plentiful during this part of the Christian calendar and it was consumed during Carnival as people abstained from meat consumption during the following liturgical season, Lent.
In the last few days of Carnival, known as Shrovetide, people confessed their sins in preparation for Lent as well. In 1605, a Shrovetide play spoke of Christians who painted their faces to celebrate the season: From an anthropological point of view, carnival is a reversal ritual, in which social roles are reversed and norms about desired behavior are suspended. Winter was thought of as the reign of the winter spirits. Carnival can thus be regarded as a rite of passage from darkness to light, from winter to summer: a fertility celebration, the first spring festival of the new year. Traditionally, a Carnival feast was the last opportunity for common people to eat well, as there was a food shortage at the end of the winter as stores ran out; until spring produce was available, people were limited to the minimum necessary meals during this period. On what nowadays is called vastenavond, all the remaining winter stores of lard and meat which were left would be eaten, for these would otherwise soon start to rot and decay.
The selected livestock had been slaughtered in November and the meat would be no longer preservable. All the food that had survived the winter had to be eaten to assure that everyone was fed enough to survive until the coming spring would provide new food sources. Several Germanic tribes celebrated the returning of the daylight; the winter would be driven out. A central figure of this ritual was the fertility goddess Nerthus. There are some indications that the effigy of Nerthus or Freyr was placed on a ship with wheels and accompanied by a procession of people in animal disguise and men in women's clothes. Aboard the ship a marriage would be consummated as a fertility ritual. Tacitus wrote in his Germania: Germania 9.6: Ceterum nec cohibere parietibus deos neque in ullam humani oris speciem adsimulare ex magnitudine caelestium arbitrator – "The Germans, however, do not consider it consistent with the grandeur of celestial beings to confin
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late