Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, conservationist and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900; as a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is ranked as one of the five best presidents. Roosevelt was born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, but he overcame his physical health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle, he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College.
His book, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. Following the near-simultaneous deaths of his wife and mother, he escaped to a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President William McKinley, but resigned from that post to lead the Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War. Returning a war hero, he was elected Governor of New York in 1898. After the death of Vice President Garret Hobart, the New York state party leadership convinced McKinley to accept Roosevelt as his running mate in the 1900 election. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously, the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket won a landslide victory based on a platform of peace and conservation. After taking office as Vice President in March 1901, he assumed the presidency at age 42 following McKinley's assassination that September, remains the youngest person to become President of the United States.
As a leader of the Progressive movement, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established many new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, he expanded the Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States' naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to broker the end of the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, he avoided controversial money issues. Elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, many of which were passed in Congress. Roosevelt groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, Taft won the 1908 presidential election to succeed him. Frustrated with Taft's conservatism, Roosevelt belatedly tried to win the 1912 Republican nomination, he failed, walked out and founded a third party, the Progressive, so-called "Bull Moose" Party, which called for wide-ranging progressive reforms.
He ran in the 1912 election and the split allowed the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win the election. Following his defeat, Roosevelt led a two-year expedition to the Amazon basin, where he nearly died of tropical disease. During World War I, he criticized President Wilson for keeping the country out of the war with Germany, his offer to lead volunteers to France was rejected. Though he had considered running for president again in 1920, Roosevelt's health continued to deteriorate, he died in 1919. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 1858, at East 20th Street in New York City. He was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr.. He had an older sister, Anna, a younger brother, a younger sister, Corinne. Elliott was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of Theodore's distant cousin, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, his paternal grandfather was of Dutch descent. Theodore Sr. was the fifth son of businessman Cornelius Van Schaack "C.
V. S." Roosevelt and Margaret Barnhill. Theodore's fourth cousin, James Roosevelt I, a businessman, was the father of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mittie was the younger daughter of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. "Patsy" Stewart. Through the Van Schaacks, Roosevelt was a descendant of the Schuyler family. Roosevelt's youth was shaped by his poor health and debilitating asthma, he experienced sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused the experience of being smothered to death, which terrified both Theodore and his parents. Doctors had no cure, he was energetic and mischievously inquisitive. His lifelong interest in zoology began at age seven. Having learned the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with animals that he killed or caught. At age nine, he recorded his observation of insects in a paper entitled "The Natural History of Insects". Roosevelt'
1904 Republican National Convention
The 1904 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in the Chicago Coliseum, Cook County, Illinois, on June 21 to June 23, 1904. The popular President Theodore Roosevelt had ensured himself of the nomination, though a threat had come from the Old Guard favourite Ohio Senator Mark Hanna, the loyal kingmaker in Republican politics, but the senator had died early in 1904 therefore ending all opposition in the Republican Party. There were very informal talks with future president William Howard Taft about trying for the nomination, but Taft refused these motions as evidenced by a letter to Henry Hoyt, the Solicitor General, in 1903. Roosevelt was nominated by 994 votes to none; the other threat to Roosevelt, Indiana Senator Charles W. Fairbanks was nominated for Vice President; the 1904 Republican platform favored the protective tariff, increased foreign trade, the gold standard, expansion of the Merchant Marine and strengthening of the United States Navy. Vice President Roosevelt had ascended to the presidency in 1901 after the death of President William McKinley.
As the 25th Amendment had not yet been passed, there was no way to fill the vice presidential vacancy. So the 1904 convention had the task of choosing a running mate for Roosevelt. Entering the convention, Senator Charles Fairbanks of Indiana was considered the favorite for the vice presidential nomination, but the Roosevelt administration favored Illinois Representative Robert R. Hitt or Secretary of War William Howard Taft of Ohio. Speaker Joseph Gurney Cannon of Illinois had support among the delegates, but Cannon had no desire to leave his position in the House. However, the administration did not launch a fight over the nomination of Fairbanks, Fairbanks was nominated by acclamation. There were fewer speakers at the 1904 convention there are at a typical convention today; this is. This was before the primary era so the delegates were expected to nominate the candidate at the actual convention as well as more typical tasks such as electing the chairman and handling other business which varies in importance at the Republican Convention today.
Nonetheless, there were speeches by the following individuals at the 1904 Republican National Convention: Opening prayer by Rev. Timothy Prescott Frost, D. D. Elihu Root, United States Secretary of War Opening prayer by Rev. Thomas E. Cox Joseph Gurney Cannon, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and Convention Chairman. Opening prayer by Rev. Thaddeus A. Snively. Frank S. Black, Governor of New York. Albert J. Beveridge, United States Senator from Indiana. George A. Knight and Businessman H. S. Edwards, Southern Writer William O'Connell Bradley, Former Kentucky Governor Joseph B. Cotton, Former Minnesota State Representative. Harry Sythe Cummings, First African-American City Councilman from Baltimore, Maryland Jonathan P. Dolliver, United States Senator from Iowa Chauncey Depew, United States Senator from New York Joseph B. Foraker, United States Senator from Ohio and former Governor of Ohio Samuel W. Pennypacker, Governor of Pennsylvania Thomas H. Carter, United States Senator from MontanaRoosevelt and his running mate Charles Fairbanks, were unanimously nominated but unlike candidates today they did not give convention speeches instead having individuals give nominating speeches for them.
Roosevelt's nomination speech was made by former New York Governor Frank S. Black and it was seconded by Indiana Senator Albert Beveridge. Fairbanks's nomination speech was made by Iowa Senator Jonathan P. Dolliver and seconded by New York Senator Chauncey Depew. History of the United States Republican Party List of Republican National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention United States presidential election, 1904 1904 Democratic National Convention Republican Party platform of 1904 at The American Presidency Project
Coal strike of 1902
The Coal strike of 1902 was a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners struck for shorter workdays and the recognition of their union; the strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to major American cities. At that time, residences were heated with anthracite or "hard" coal, which produces higher heat value and less smoke than "soft" or bituminous coal. President Theodore Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike; the strike never resumed, as the miners received a 10% wage increase and reduced workdays from ten to nine hours. It was the first labor dispute in which the U. S. federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator. The United Mine Workers of America had won a sweeping victory in the 1897 strike by the soft-coal miners in the Midwest, winning significant wage increases, it grew from 10,000 to 115,000 members. A number of small strikes took place in the anthracite district from 1899 to 1901, by which the labor union gained experience and unionized more workers.
The 1899 strike in Nanticoke, demonstrated that the unions could win a strike directed against a subsidiary of one of the large railroads. It hoped to make similar gains in 1900, but found the operators, who had established an oligopoly through concentration of ownership after drastic fluctuations in the market for anthracite, to be far more determined opponents than it had anticipated; the owners refused to arbitrate with the union. Republican Party Senator Mark Hanna from Ohio, himself an owner of bituminous coal mines, sought to resolve the strike as it occurred less than two months before the presidential election, he worked through the National Civic Federation which brought labor and capital representatives together. Relying on J. P. Morgan to convey his message to the industry that a strike would hurt the reelection of Republican William McKinley, Hanna convinced the owners to concede a wage increase and grievance procedure to the strikers; the industry refused, on the other hand, to formally recognize the UMWA as the representative of the workers.
The union dropped its demand for union recognition. The issues that led to the strike of 1900 were just as pressing in 1902: the union wanted recognition and a degree of control over the industry; the industry, still smarting from its concessions in 1900, opposed any federal role. The 150,000 miners wanted their weekly pay envelope. Tens of millions of city dwellers needed coal to heat their homes. John Mitchell, President of the UMWA, proposed mediation through the National Civic Federation a body of progressive employers committed to collective bargaining as a means of resolving labor disputes. In the alternative, Mitchell proposed that a committee of eminent clergymen report on conditions in the coalfields. George Baer, President of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, one of the leading employers in the industry, brushed aside both proposals dismissively: Anthracite mining is a business, not a religious, sentimental, or academic proposition.... I could not if I would delegate this business management to so a respectable body as the Civic Federation, nor can I call to my aid... the eminent prelates you have named.
On May 12, 1902, the anthracite miners voting in Scranton, went out on strike. The maintenance employees, who had much steadier jobs and did not face the special dangers of underground work, walked out on June 2; the union had the support of eighty percent of the workers in this area, or more than 100,000 strikers. Some 30,000 left the region; the strike soon produced threats of violence between the strikers on one side and strikebreakers, the Pennsylvania National Guard, local police, hired detective agencies on the other. On June 8, President Theodore Roosevelt asked his Commissioner of Labor, Carroll D. Wright, to investigate the strike. Wright investigated and proposed reforms that acknowledged each side's position, recommending a nine-hour day on an experimental basis and limited collective bargaining. Roosevelt chose not to release the report, for fear of appearing to side with the union; the owners, for their part, refused to negotiate with the union. As George Baer wrote when urged to make concessions to the strikers and their union, the "rights and interests of the laboring man will be protected and cared for—not by the labor agitators, but by the Christian men to whom God in His infinite wisdom has given the control of the property interests of the country."
The union used this letter to sway public opinion in favor of the strike. Roosevelt wanted to intervene, but he was told by his Attorney General, Philander Knox, that he had no authority to do so. Hanna and many others in the Republican Party were concerned about the political implications if the strike dragged on into winter, when the need for anthracite was greatest; as Roosevelt told Hanna, "A coal famine in the winter is an ugly thing and I fear we shall see terrible suffering and grave disaster."Roosevelt convened a conference of representatives of government and management on October 3, 1902. The union considered the mere holding of a meeting to be tantamount to union recognition and took a conciliatory tone; the owners told Roosevelt that strikers had killed over 20 men and
Second inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt
The second inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt as President of the United States, took place on Saturday, March 4, 1905. The inauguration marked the beginning of the second term of Theodore Roosevelt as President and the only term of Charles W. Fairbanks as Vice President; the Chief Justice, Melville W. Fuller, administered the Oath of office. Roosevelt had a thankful and optimistic tone to his second inaugural address. In it, the President touches on Americans hardiness and the fact that the United States has a clean slate that the rest of the world does not have, he warns that any success in the future will only come with hard work. He speaks not only to ourselves but to the rest of the world as well; the United States must show good deeds through actions as well as words with all nations of the world. Justice and generosity are counted as most important, however he warns of those wishing to wrong America. Roosevelt righteous, he comments on how any weak nation shall have nothing to fear from the US, but warns that America will not be the subject for insolent aggression.
The President cites good relations with the world as being important, but relations among Americans as most important. All of the growth and success has come with problems the Founding Fathers could not have foreseen, but assures that these are problems that all great nations face. Roosevelt speaks about the complexity of modern life, the advances of industry, he speaks about the difficulty of self-government, warns that should America fail, it would shake all free nations to their foundations. Roosevelt calls this a heavy responsibility, to Americans, to the world, to the unborn generations, he gives no reason to fear the future or unseen problems, but encourages the problems be met head-on. In his closing, Theodore Roosevelt knows that the problems facing Americans differs from those of the Founding Fathers, but insists that these problems be met with the same spirit. While it may be difficult, it must not be abandoned. America has been blessed with a heritage, to be unwasted and enlarged for all future generations.
To do this, America has to show each day, that she possesses intelligence, hardiness and devotion of a lofty ideal, which helped to build and defend this great nation. It is said that "The inaugural celebration was the largest and most diverse of any in memory—cowboys, coal miners and students were some of the groups represented." This was to illustrate how diverse a man that Teddy Roosevelt was. There is actual footage of the parade. Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt First inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt United States presidential election, 1904 President Theodore Roosevelt's Second Inauguration Second Inaugural Parade Footage on YouTube Text of Roosevelt's Inaugural Address
Treaty of Portsmouth
The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905 after negotiations lasting from August 6 to August 30, at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, United States. U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt was instrumental in the negotiations and won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts; the war of 1904–05 was fought between the Empire of Russia, an international power with one of the largest armies in the world, the Empire of Japan, a nation which had only industrialized after two-and-a-half centuries of isolation. A series of battles in the Liaodong Peninsula had resulted in Russian armies being driven from southern Manchuria, the Battle of Tsushima had resulted in a cataclysm for the Imperial Russian Navy; the war was unpopular with the Russian public, the Russian government was under increasing threat of revolution at home. On the other hand, the Japanese economy was strained by the war, with mounting foreign debts, its forces in Manchuria faced the problem of ever-extending supply lines.
No Russian territory had been seized, the Russians continued to build up reinforcements via the Trans-Siberian Railway. Recognizing that a long-term war was not to Japan's advantage, as early as July 1904 the Japanese government had begun seeking out intermediaries to assist in bringing the war to a negotiated conclusion; the intermediary approached by the Japanese side was the United States President Theodore Roosevelt, who had publicly expressed a pro-Japanese stance at the beginning of the war. However, as the war progressed, Roosevelt had begun to show concerns on the strengthening military power of Japan and its impact on long-term United States interests in Asia. In February 1905, Roosevelt sent messages to the Russian government via the US ambassador to St Petersburg; the Russians were unresponsive, with Tsar Nicholas II still adamant that Russia would prove victorious in time. At this point, the Japanese government was lukewarm to a peace treaty, as Japanese armies were enjoying an unbroken string of victories.
However, after the Battle of Mukden, costly to both sides in terms of manpower and resources, Japanese Foreign Minister Komura Jutarō judged that the time was now critical for Japan to push for a settlement. On March 8, 1905, Japanese Army Minister Terauchi Masatake met with the American minister to Japan, Lloyd Griscom, to convey word to Roosevelt that Japan was ready to negotiate. However, from the Russian side, a positive response did not come until after the loss of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima. Two days after the battle, Tsar Nicholas II met with his grand dukes and military leadership and agreed to discuss peace. On June 7, 1905, Roosevelt met with Kaneko Kentarō, a Japanese diplomat, on June 8 received a positive reply from Russia. Roosevelt chose Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as the site for the negotiations because the talks were to begin in August, the cooler climate in Portsmouth would avoid subjecting the parties to the sweltering Washington, D. C. summer. The Japanese delegation to the Portsmouth Peace Conference was led by Foreign Minister Komura Jutarō, assisted by ambassador to Washington Takahira Kogorō.
The Russian delegation was led by former Finance Minister Sergei Witte, assisted by former ambassador to Japan Roman Rosen and international law and arbitration specialist Friedrich Martens. The delegations arrived in Portsmouth on August 8 and stayed in New Castle, New Hampshire, at the Hotel Wentworth, were ferried across the Piscataqua River each day to the naval base in Kittery, where the negotiations were held; the negotiations took place at the General Stores Building. Mahogany furniture patterned after the Cabinet Room of the White House was ordered from Washington. Before the negotiations began Tsar Nicholas had adopted a hard line, forbidding his delegates to agree to any territorial concessions, reparations, or limitations on the deployment of Russian forces in the Far East; the Japanese demanded recognition of their interests in Korea, the removal of all Russian forces from Manchuria, substantial reparations. They wanted confirmation of their control of Sakhalin, which Japanese forces had seized in July 1905 for use as a bargaining chip in the negotiations.
A total of twelve sessions were held between August 9 and August 30. During the first eight sessions, the delegates were able to reach an agreement on eight points; these included an immediate cease-fire, recognition of Japan's claims to Korea, the evacuation of Russian forces from Manchuria. Russia was required to return its leases in southern Manchuria to China, to turn over the South Manchuria Railway and its mining concessions to Japan. Russia was allowed to retain the Chinese Eastern Railway in northern Manchuria; the remaining four sessions addressed the most difficult issues, those of reparations and territorial concessions. On August 18, Roosevelt proposed that Rosen offer to divide the island of Sakhalin to address the territory issue. On August 23, Witte proposed that the Japanese keep Sakhalin and drop their claims for reparations; when Komura rejected this proposal, Witte warned that he was instructed to cease negotiations and that the war would resume. This ultimatum came as four new Russian divisions arrived in Manchuria, the Russian delegation made an ostentatious show of packing their bags and preparing to depart.
Witte was convinced that the Japanese could not afford to restart the war, applied pressure via the American media and his American hosts to convince the Japanese that monetary compensation was something that Russia would never compromise on. Outmaneuvered by Wit
Assassination of William McKinley
On September 6, 1901, William McKinley, the 25th President of the United States, was shot on the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, New York. He was shaking hands with the public when Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist, shot him twice in the abdomen. McKinley died eight days on September 14 of gangrene caused by the gunshot wounds, he was the third American president to have been assassinated, following Abraham Lincoln in 1865 and James A. Garfield in 1881. McKinley had been elected for a second term in 1900, he enjoyed meeting the public, was reluctant to accept the security available to his office. Secretary to the President George B. Cortelyou feared that an assassination attempt would take place during a visit to the Temple of Music and took it off the schedule twice. McKinley restored it each time. Czolgosz had lost his job during the economic Panic of 1893 and turned to anarchism, a political philosophy adhered to by recent killers of foreign leaders. Regarding McKinley as a symbol of oppression, Czolgosz was convinced that it was his duty as an anarchist to kill him.
Unable to get near the President during the presidential visit earlier, Czolgosz shot McKinley twice as the President reached to shake his hand in the reception line at the temple. One bullet grazed McKinley. McKinley appeared to be recovering, but took a turn for the worse on September 13 as his wounds became gangrenous, died early the next morning. After McKinley's assassination, for which Czolgosz was sentenced to death in the electric chair, Congress passed legislation to charge the Secret Service with the responsibility for protecting the President. In September 1901, William McKinley was at the height of his power as president. Elected in 1896, during the serious economic depression resulting from the Panic of 1893, he had defeated his Democratic rival, William Jennings Bryan. McKinley led the nation both to a return to prosperity and to victory in the Spanish–American War in 1898, taking possession of such Spanish colonies as Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Re-elected handily in a rematch against Bryan in 1900, according to historical writer Eric Rauchway, "it looked as if the McKinley Administration would continue peaceably unbroken for another four years, a government devoted to prosperity".
McKinley's original vice president, Garret Hobart, had died in 1899, McKinley left the choice of a running mate to the 1900 Republican National Convention. In advance of the convention, New York's Republican political boss, Senator Thomas C. Platt, saw an opportunity to politically sideline his state's governor, former Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt, by pushing for his nomination as vice president. Roosevelt was elected on McKinley's ticket. Leon Czolgosz was born in Michigan, in 1873, the son of Polish immigrants; the Czolgosz family moved several times as Paul Czolgosz, Leon's father, sought work throughout the Midwest. As an adult, Leon Czolgosz worked in a Cleveland factory until he lost his job in a labor dispute in 1893. Thereafter, he worked irregularly and attended political and religious meetings, trying to understand the reasons for the economic turmoil of the Panic of 1893. In doing so, he became interested in anarchism. By 1901, this movement was feared in the United States — New York's highest court had ruled that the act of identifying oneself as an anarchist in front of an audience was a breach of the peace.
Anarchists had taken a toll in Europe by assassinating or attempting assassinations of a half-dozen officials and members of royal houses, had been blamed for the 1886 Haymarket bombing in Chicago. Two American presidents had been assassinated in the 19th century—Abraham Lincoln in 1865 and James A. Garfield in 1881. Considering this history, McKinley did not like security personnel to come between him and the people; when in his hometown, Ohio, he walked to church or the business district without protection, in Washington went on drives with his wife without any guard in the carriage. McKinley gave a short speech at his second inauguration on March 4, 1901. Having long been an advocate of protective tariffs, believing the Dingley Tariff, passed during his first year in office, had helped the nation reach prosperity, McKinley planned to negotiate reciprocal trade agreements with other countries; this would open foreign markets to US manufacturers that had dominated the domestic market thanks to the tariff, who sought to expand.
During a long trip planned for the months after his inauguration, he intended to make major speeches promoting this plan, culminating in a visit and address at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on June 13. McKinley, his wife Ida, their official party left Washington on April 29 for a tour of the nation by train, scheduled to conclude in Buffalo for a speech on what had been designated as "President's Day", he met with rapturous receptions in the Far West. In California, the First Lady became ill, for a time was thought to be dying, she recovered in San Francisco, but her husband canceled the remainder of the tour and the McKinleys returned to Washington. The speech at the Exposition was postponed until September 5, after McKinley spent some weeks in Washington and two months in Canton, he used his time in his Ohio home working on the Buffalo speech and in supervising improvements to his house. He intended to remain based in Canton until October. Czolgosz had lived on his parents' farm near Cleveland beginning in 1898, working little—he may have suffered a nervous breakdown.
He is known to have attended a speech by anarchist Emma Goldman in May 1901 in Cleveland