Root beer is a sweet North American beverage traditionally made using the root bark of the sassafras tree Sassafras albidum or the vine of Smilax ornata as the primary flavor. Root beer is but not non-alcoholic, caffeine-free, carbonated, it has a thick and foamy head when poured. Modern, commercially produced root beer is sweet, carbonated, non-alcoholic, flavored using artificial sassafras flavoring. Sassafras root is still used to flavor traditional root beer, but since sassafras was banned by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration due to the carcinogenicity of its constituent safrole, most commercial recipes do not contain sassafras; some commercial root beers do use a safrole-free sassafras extract. Major producers include A&W Root Beer, Barq's, Dad's Root Beer, Hires Root Beer, Mug Root Beer. Sassafras root beverages were made by indigenous peoples of the Americas for culinary and medicinal reasons before the arrival of Europeans in North America, European culinary techniques have been applied to making traditional sassafras-based beverages similar to root beer since the 16th century.
Root beer has been sold in confectionery stores since the 1840s, written recipes for root beer have been documented since the 1860s. It was combined with soda as early as the 1850s, root beer sold in stores was most sold as a syrup rather than a ready-made beverage; the tradition of brewing root beer is thought to have evolved out of other small beer traditions that produced fermented drinks with low alcohol content that were thought to be healthier to drink than tainted local sources of drinking water, enhanced by the medicinal and nutritional qualities of the ingredients used. Beyond its aromatic qualities, the medicinal benefits of sassafras were well known to both Native Americans and Europeans, druggists began marketing root beer for its medicinal qualities. Pharmacist Charles Elmer Hires was the first to market a commercial brand of root beer. Hires developed his root tea made from sassafras in 1875, debuted a commercial version of root beer at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876, began selling his extract.
Hires was a teetotaler who wanted to call the beverage "root tea". However, his desire to market the product to Pennsylvania coal miners caused him to call his product "root beer", instead. In 1886, Hires began to bottle a beverage made from his famous extract. By 1893, root beer was distributed across the United States. Non-alcoholic versions of root beer became commercially successful during Prohibition. Not all traditional or commercial root beers were sassafras-based. One of Hires's early competitors was Barq's, which began selling its sarsaparilla-based root beer in 1898 and was labeled as "Barq's". In 1919, Roy Allen opened his root-beer stand in Lodi, which led to the development of A&W Root Beer. One of Allen's innovations was that he served his homemade root beer in frosty mugs. IBC Root Beer is another brand of commercially-produced root beer that emerged during this period and is still well-known today. Safrole, the aromatic oil found in sassafras roots and bark that gave traditional root beer its distinctive flavor, was banned for commercially mass-produced foods and drugs by the FDA in 1960.
Laboratory animals that were given oral doses of sassafras tea or sassafras oil that contained large doses of safrole developed permanent liver damage or various types of cancer. While sassafras is no longer used in commercially produced root beer and is sometimes replaced with artificial flavors, natural extracts with the safrole distilled and removed are available. One traditional recipe for making root beer involves cooking a syrup from molasses and water, letting the syrup cool for three hours, combining it with the root ingredients. Yeast was added, the beverage was left to ferment for 12 hours, after which it was strained and rebottled for secondary fermentation; this recipe resulted in a beverage of 2% alcohol or less, although the recipe could be modified to produce a more alcoholic beverage. Root beer is identified by its classic foam. Root beer was made with sassafras root bark which foamed, giving it its distinctive look. Root beer manufacturers carbonated the drink to add bubbles adding a surfactant to lower the surface tension and let the bubbles last longer.
Different brands of root beer have different foams, giving each a different identity. Commercial root beer is now produced in every U. S. in Canada. Although this beverage's popularity is greatest in North America, brands are produced in other countries, including Australia, the United Kingdom, Argentina, the Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Sweden and Thailand; the flavor of these beverages may vary from typical North American versions. While no standard recipe exists, the primary ingredients in modern root beer are filtered water and artificial sassafras flavoring, which complements other flavors. Common flavorings are vanilla, caramel,wintergreen, black cherry bark, licorice root, sarsaparilla root, acacia, molasses, sweet birch, honey. Soybean protein is sometimes used to create a foamy quality, caramel coloring is used to make the beverage brown. Ingredients in early and traditional root beers include allspice, birch bark, juniper, wintergreen, burdock root, dandelion root, pipsissewa, guaiacum chips, spicewood, wild cherry bark, yellow dock, prickly ash bark, sassafras r
"Don't Let Me Down" is a pop song written by Richard Stannard, Julian Gallagher, D. Morgan, Will Young and Simon Hale, performed by Will Young, it was released as his fourth single, along with the track "You and I". It reached number two in the UK Singles Chart; the double A-side single was released in aid of Children in Need. CD2 included a limited edition poster. CD1 "Don't Let Me Down" — 4:46 "You and I" — 4:06 "If That's What You Want" — 4:17 "You and I" CD2 "Don't Let Me Down" "You and I" "Ready or Not" Published by Sony Music/EMI Music Publishing/Biffco Publishing/Copyright Control Produced by Richard "Biff" Stannard and Julian Gallagher for Biffco Productions Recorded and mixed by Alvin Sweeney at Biffco Studios, Dublin Assisted by Paul J. Brady Guitars by Dave Morgan Bass by Steve Lewinson Keyboards by Simon Hale Drums by Alvin Sweeney and Richard "Biff" Stannard Programmed by Julian Gallagher and Alvin Sweeney Backing vocals by Sharon Murphy and Richard "Biff" Stannard
EMERGENCY is a humanitarian NGO that provides free medical treatment to the victims of war and landmines. It was founded in 1994. Gino Strada, one of the organisation's co-founders, serves as EMERGENCY's Executive Director. EMERGENCY has treated over 10 million patients since its inception; the organisation has active operations in Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Italy, Sierra Leone and Uganda. EMERGENCY operates based on the premise that access to high-quality healthcare is a fundamental human right. Projects involve the construction and operation of permanent hospitals. Gino Strada and the co-founders aim was to bring free of charge, high-quality medical and surgical assistance to war victims. Over time, their humanitarian projects assumed a broader view, with the charity now providing specialist and ongoing medical care, including maternity services and open-heart surgery, in locations that require these facilities and expertise; the Anabah Maternity Centre in Anabah and the Salam Centre for Cardiac Surgery in Khartoum, are examples of EMERGENCY's focus on tertiary level care.
Alongside its medical activities, EMERGENCY promotes a culture of solidarity. EMERGENCY was recognised as a Non-profit Organisation in 1998, received jurisdictional approval as a Non-Governmental Organization in 1999. EMERGENCY has been an official partner of the United Nations Department of Public Information since 2006, a special consultant for the United Nations Economic and Social Council since 2015. EMERGENCY builds hospitals, trains local staff, provides medical assistance to victims of war and poverty, its vision of healthcare provision is rooted in the principles of equality and social responsibility. On the basis of these values, EMERGENCY advocates that: each and every human being has the fundamental right to medical treatment. EMERGENCY’s stated goal is to provide quality medical assistance to victims of war and poverty around the world; the organisational aim is to employ first class medical services as a means to tackle boundaries and inequalities. EMERGENCY begins operations in a specific region or country based on two major factors: the need for specialized medical assistance from the local population, the absence of similar humanitarian projects in that given country.
Once a project is initiated, specialized international personnel construct and operate high-quality facilities, as well as first aid posts, health centres for basic medical assistance. EMERGENCY deals with endemic diseases such as polio and malaria and provides basic health care in these circumstances, as well as establishing social development projects, not only in war-torn areas, but in high poverty regions. Since 2005, it has worked in Italy to provide healthcare to marginalised communities. All of EMERGENCY's facilities are dedicated to training local staff so that they may take over the running of operations from the NGO’s international personnel. EMERGENCY builds and manages: Hospitals dedicated to war victims and surgical emergencies. On the basis of this aim, EMERGENCY has employed thousands of local staff in the countries they operate to cover both medical and non-medical positions; the organisation provides both theoretical and practical training and EMERGENCY considers this an integral part of its programmes.
EMERGENCY has been working in Afghanistan since 2000, when the organization began renovating and expanding a former nursery school in the center of the capital, destroyed by a rocket. In April 2001, this structure re-opened as a Surgical Center for victims of war and landmines. Since over 36,000 patients have been admitted to the facility. EMERGENCY runs a Surgical Center in Lashkar-Gah. EMERGENCY operates two centers in the district of Anabah, Panjshir Valley: a medical-surgical center opened in 1999 and a maternity center opened in 2003. To other projects, EMERGENCY has established a network of First Aid Posts and Primary Health Clinics connected to the center. EMERGENCY operates two projects in Central African Republic; the Bangui Pediatric Center was built in 2009 and provides free healthcare for children up to the age of 14, 24 hours a day. The center organizes numerous outreach programmes, including health promotion for families and training for local medical staff. EMERGENCY has been working with migrants and disadvantaged individuals in Italy since 2005.
Through a network of Outpatient clinics, the NGO has provided over 210,000 consultations. EMERGENCY runs Mobile Clinics across Italy, which are intended to provide healthcare in places were access to public facilities is limited, including farming areas and migrant re
The 2018 Kenyan Premier League is the 15th season of the Kenyan Premier League since it began in 2003, the 55th season of top-division football in Kenya since 1963. It is scheduled to end on 7 October. Gor Mahia are the defending champions. Relegated from Premier LeagueMuhoroni Youth Western StimaPromoted from National Super LeagueVihiga United Wazito Seven of the participating teams are based in the capital, while Bandari is the only team based at the Coast; the table lists the positions of teams after each week of matches. In order to preserve chronological evolvements, any postponed matches are not included to the round at which they were scheduled, but added to the full round they were played afterwards. For example, if a match is scheduled for matchday 13, but postponed and played between days 16 and 17, it will be added to the standings for day 16. 2018 FKF President's Cup
CMT Hot Twenty is a weekly live music video show that counts down the twenty most popular country music videos. The show features a live audience, in-studio performances, interviews, it premiered January 2013, on CMT and airs Saturday and Sunday mornings. It replaced the long-running Top 20 Countdown that aired from 2001–12 and is similar to CMT Most Wanted Live, which aired from 2001–04 and featured a live daily countdown; the show is taped at Music City Tower in Nashville, along with viewer interaction through various social networking channels. The program features the standard format of a video countdown, interview, in-studio guest and feature segments. Voting is determined through both CMT management and viewers, as two pre-determined videos are listed for viewers to determine the vote; the # 20 video determined by a ` Hot or Not' vote by viewers. Cody Alan Katie Cook Alecia Davis CMT Hot Twenty'90s Country Forever aired on December 22, 2018. Color key Official website Official website
"Bomb Iran" is the name of several parodies of the Regents' 1961 song "Barbara Ann" written by Fred Fassert and popularized in a "party" cover version by the Beach Boys in 1965. The most popular of the parodies was recorded by Vince Vance & The Valiants in 1980. "Bomb Iran" gained a resurgence in notoriety in 2007 during John McCain's 2008 presidential campaign. In reaction to the Iran hostage crisis which began in November 1979, the first publicly known version of this parody was recorded by a group called "The Baritone Dwarfs" and aired on the radio in Boston in December 1979. A second version, with different lyrics, aired on KIXS-FM in Killeen, Texas for a single weekend in January 1980. At least five more "Bomb Iran" songs were written and copyrighted in 1980; the lyrics have the line Tell the Ayatollah..."Gonna put you in a box!, which refers to ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. In addition to these parodies, another version of "Bomb Iran" was written by radio personalities Dana Michaels and Tom Rivers.
This version of the song was produced by Rivers and performed by Michaels, Ernie Norris, John Rode, Mark Lewis, Tony Blake, who called themselves the "Not Current in This Time Zone Singers". It was first aired on KFQD Radio in Anchorage, Alaska on April 25, 1980 after an attempt to rescue the American hostages in Tehran failed. Rivers wrote in Billboard Magazine, "...the phones lit up like a Christmas tree. We logged more than 20,000 calls in three days...and they were 97 percent positive." Because of the song’s popularity in Australia and New Zealand, EMI Records called Rivers to discuss a possible recording contract and tour. Another version of "Bomb Iran" was recorded in 1980 by a group called "J. C. & the B-1 Bombers". The most popular version of "Bomb Iran" was recorded by Vince Vance & The Valiants in 1980; the single was popular and requested on the radio, but never charted because it lacked distribution and the rights to the music were not properly acquired. The song provoked death threats and other altercations against the lead singer.
However, after some legal wrangling, the single was re-released by Paid Records in September 1980. After its second release, the song reached number 101 in the Billboard Bubbling Under Hot 100 Singles; the 1980 recording, along with a 1987 remix, was included in the band's album I Know What it Means to Miss New Orleans, released in 1996. One year after the original single release, in 1981, the band released another parody on the same topic called "Nuke Iran", to the tune of Gene Chandler's "Duke of Earl". In 2005, they created a themed parody of The Coasters' song "Yakety Yak", this time with Iraq as the target, called "Yakety Yak". Foreshadowing this, The Rush Limbaugh Show in 1990 featured a parody of "Barbara Ann" called "Bomb Iraq" following the start of the Gulf War; the parody lived on and became political fodder when, on April 17, 2007, in Senator John McCain's campaign for the 2008 presidential election, at an appearance in Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, he responded to an audience question about military action against Iran by referring to "that old Beach Boys song,'Bomb Iran'," singing the parody chorus, "Bomb, bomb, anyway, ah..." McCain claimed he was only joking, but his opponents used his comments against him throughout the 2008 campaign.