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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Roots rock

Roots rock is rock music that looks back to rock's origins in folk and country music. It is associated with the creation of hybrid subgenres from the 1960s including country rock and Southern rock, which have been seen as responses to the perceived excesses of dominant psychedelic and developing progressive rock; because roots music is used to mean folk and world musical forms, roots rock is sometimes used in a broad sense to describe any rock music that incorporates elements of this music. In the 1980s, roots rock enjoyed a revival in response to trends in punk rock, new wave and heavy metal music. In 1966, as many rock artists moved towards expansive and experimental psychedelia, Bob Dylan spearheaded the back-to-basics roots revival when he went to Nashville to record the album Blonde on Blonde, using notable local musicians like Charlie McCoy. This, the subsequent more country-influenced albums, John Wesley Harding and Nashville Skyline, have been seen as creating the genre of country folk, a route pursued by a number of acoustic, folk musicians.

Other acts that followed the back to basics trend in different ways were the Canadian/American group the Band and the California-based Creedence Clearwater Revival, both of which mixed basic rock and roll with folk and blues, to be among the most successful and influential bands of the late 1960s. The same movement saw the beginning of the recording careers of Californian solo artists like Ry Cooder, Bonnie Raitt and Lowell George; the back to basics tendency would be evident in the Rolling Stones' Beggars Banquet and Exile on Main St. the Beatles' The White Album and Let It Be, the Doors' Morrison Hotel and L. A. Woman, as well as the Grateful Dead's Workingman's Dead and American Beauty albums. Dylan's lead was followed by the Byrds, who were joined by Gram Parsons in 1968. Earlier in the year Parsons had recorded Safe at Home with the International Submarine Band, which made extensive use of pedal steel guitar and is seen by some as the first true country-rock album; the result of Parsons tenure in the Byrds was Sweetheart of the Rodeo considered one of the finest and most influential recordings in the genre.

The Byrds continued for a brief period in the same vein, but Parsons left soon after the album was released to be joined by another ex-Byrds member Chris Hillman in forming the Flying Burrito Brothers. Over the next two years they recorded the albums The Gilded Palace of Sin and Burrito Deluxe, which helped establish the respectability and parameters of the genre, before Parsons departed to pursue a solo career. Country rock was a popular style in the California music scene of the late 1960s, was adopted by bands including Hearts and Flowers and New Riders of the Purple Sage; some folk-rockers followed the Byrds into the genre, among them the Beau Brummels and the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band. A number of performers enjoyed a renaissance by adopting country sounds, including: the Everly Brothers, whose Roots album is considered some of their finest work. One of the few acts to move from the country side towards rock were the bluegrass band The Dillards; the greatest commercial success for country rock came in the 1970s, with the Doobie Brothers mixing in elements of R&B, Emmylou Harris becoming the "Queen of country-rock" and Linda Ronstadt creating a successful pop-orientated brand of the genre.

Members of Ronstadt's former backing band went on to form the Eagles, emerged as one of the most successful rock acts of all time, producing albums that included Desperado and Hotel California. Country rock began to fade in the late 1970s in the face of punk and new wave trends. Although the Southern states had been, as much as anywhere, the birthplace of rock and roll, after the decline of rockabilly in the late 1950s, it was not until the early 1970s that a distinctive regional style of rock music emerged.. The founders of Southern rock are thought to be the Allman Brothers Band, who developed a distinctive sound derived from blues rock, but incorporating elements of boogie and country. Of the acts that followed the Allmans into the emerging genre, the most successful was Lynyrd Skynyrd, who with songs like "Free Bird" and "Sweet Home Alabama" helped establish the "Good ol' boy" image of the subgenre and the general shape of 1970s guitar rock, they were followed by many other bands, including The Atlanta Rhythm Section, ZZ Top, Black Oak Arkansas, the more country-influenced The Marshall Tucker Band, Wet Willie, The Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Johnny Winter, Edgar Winter Group, the Dixie Dregs.

After the loss of original members of the Allmans and Lynyrd Skynyrd, the genre began to fade in popularity in the late 1970s, but was sustained the 1980s with acts like The Outlaws, The Fabulous Thunderbirds, Stevie Ray Vaughan & Double Trouble, Pointblank.38 Special, Molly Hatchet. The term heartland rock was first used in the early 1970s to describe Midwestern arena rock groups like Kansas, REO Speedwago

SÍF Sandavágur

SÍF Sandavágur is a Faroese Football club based in Sandavágur on the island of Vágar. SÍF Sandavágur was founded in 1906; the best league finish in the top flight was 8th Place in 1989. In 1993, SÍF merged with MB Miðvágur to form FS Vágar. SÍ Sørvágur became part of the merger in 1998, they played in the top league between 1995–97 and again in 2000. After the 2004 season the merger collapsed and the 3 clubs separated. After the split, SIF Sandavágur joined 3. Deild in the 2007 season, this was the last season they played at adult level and the club hasn't participated in the Football League since; because SÍF became part of the newly named club, 07 Vestur. But participates independently in the youth divisions under the original name. 1. Deild: 4 2. Deild: 1 official website

Madonna del Lino, Brescia

Madonna del Lino or Santa Maria del Mercato del Lino is a Roman Catholic church located on the Southwest corner of Piazza Mercato in Brescia, region of Lombardy, Italy. Construction of the church, awkwardly placed flanking the piazza, began in 1608 to designs by Pietro Maria Bagnadore, aiming to shelter a venerated icon of the Madonna and Child, painted on a fountain at the site; the church takes its name from the Market of the Linens, held in the piazza. The small church has two layer dome placed atop a square nave with a short bell-tower. An inventory of works in 1826 noted an altarpiece of St Anne and young St Mary with Sts Joseph and John the Baptist by Andrea Celesti. At present the church holds only remnants of frescoes by Giovanni Paolo Cavagna; the Celesti altarpiece is now in the Sacristy, was replaced by a St Charles, Antony of Padua and Joseph venerate the Crucifix by Antonio Dusi

Wyvern (vessel)

Wyvern is a 60-foot open sea sailing ship operated by Stavanger Maritime Museum. The ship was designed by Colin Archer on a commission from British-born Frederick Croft and was launched on 10 August 1897, she sailed under the German flag from 1909. The Norwegian newspaper editor Rolf Thommessen bought her in 1924 and renamed her Havfruen III; this name was kept by the English owners and Terrence Carr, who acquired her in 1947 and sold her to Christian-Frederick Mattner in 1970--who renamed her to the original'Wyvern'. She was contracted for sale to a Norwegian consortium for £ 50 000 //of which £30 000 is still owed// after having been hijacked from San Antonio Ibiza. In 1984, Wyvern was donated to the Stavanger Maritime Museum by local companies which had paid for her restoration, she sank in the Baltic Sea on 11 July 2013 during the 2013 Tall Ships' Race. The crew were rescued, she was returned to Stavanger. In December 2013, Her repairs started at a Denmark shipyard; the vessel is 18.2 metres long, with a depth of 3.25 metres.

Her main mast is 24 metres. The vessel carries 253 square metres of sail and has a 170 horsepower Volvo Penta diesel engine as auxiliary power, she is assessed as 42.8 GRT, 15.8 NRT. Frederick Croft, a timber merchant, born in Hull, United Kingdom but lived in Skien, commissioned the vessel in 1894 from Colin Archer, a ship designer and ship builder who built Fram for the explorer Fridtjov Nansen; the construction took place at the shipbuilding yard Porsgrund Baatbyggeri, headed by Thor Martin Jensen. Named after the heraldic beast wyvern, the vessel was launched in 1897. Croft used her among other things to sail to his hometown Hull, she sailed, from 1909, under the German flag and the name Tatjana, but returned to Norway. Newspaper editor Rolf Thommessen bought her in 1924 and renamed her Havfruen III; this name was kept when she was sold in 1934 to the English couple Terrence Carr. They sailed her for 27 years; the Carrs crossed the Atlantic twelve times and in the 1950s sailed around the world in the vessel.

In 1970 she was acquired by Christian-Frederick Mattner and renamed back to "Wyvern'. In 1973/4 ` Wyvern' was extensively registered in Panama. In 1978'Wyvern' was contracted, for Sterling£ 50000.- to a Norwegian consortium--which loaded Wyvern/ without the owners consent/onto a Norwegian Oil-supply ship/ without paying the Purchase monies in full/ Sterling £ 30000,- is still outstanding. After an initiative by the Norwegian Maritime Museum, she was brought back to Norway for restoration by companies in the oil industry in Rogaland in 1978. In 1984, she was given to Stavanger Maritime Museum as a cultural monument by Crown Prince Haakon. Sailed by volunteers, she has represented Stavanger in several national and international sailing regattas and gatherings, including five Tall Ship races. On 11 July 2013, during the 2013 Tall Ships' Race, Wyvern started to take in water between the Swedish islands Gotland and Öland. Sweden’s air and sea rescue service retrieved the ten crew members. Three crew members from the Dutch sailship Wylde Swan, which participated in the Tall Ships' race, went onboard Wyvern shortly before she sank in an attempt to rescue the vessel by pumping out water.

Two of the crew were rescued, but a third crew member went down with the ship. He was found in the sea on 14 July 2013. Wyvern lay about 50 metres under water after the foundering and various oil companies donated money to salvage her. Salvagers raised her from the Baltic Sea on 11 August 2013 and brought her to Stavanger on board the ship Island Constructor, she arrived in Stavanger on 15 August 2013. The cause of the foundering was found to be fractures in three keel bolts. Note from C>F>Mattner // owner 1970-1978. F. Mattner's decision selling the vessel. In December 2013, Wyvern sailed to Denmark for repairs at a shipyard

Climate change and invasive species

Human-caused climate change and the rise in invasive species have been directly linked through changing of ecosystems. This relationship is notable because climate change and invasive species are considered by the USDA to be two of the top four causes of global biodiversity loss. Global warming and the related increase in climate temperature has a cascading effect on the plants and animals of affected regions and habitats. Impacts may include an increase in CO2, change in the pH of water, death of species; these factors lead to physiological stress and challenges to native organisms in an ecosystem. Measurably warmer or colder conditions create opportunities for non-native terrestrial and marine organisms to migrate to new zones and compete with established native species in the same habitat. Given their remarkable adaptability, non-native plants may invade and take over the ecosystem in which they were introduced. Humans are one of the biggest influences on global warming; the biggest cause is the use of fossil fuels which creates CO2 that gets trapped in the atmosphere.

CO2 in the atmosphere traps heat and changes the temperature of its climate. Some smaller but meaningful human influences include, deforestation and shifts in vegetation. Deforestation can release gas into the atmosphere to trap heat. Urbanization is the construction of land that causes death of native species and replacement with non native species. Which can affect trophic levels in ecosystems. Lastly is shifts in vegetation. Global warming can can cause droughts in dryland, this on can kill plants who require heavy water use from soil, it can shift invasive species into this dryland that require water as well. Which in turn can further deplete water supply for plants of that region. All of these influences can lead to physiological stress of organism, thus increasing invasion and further destroying the native ecosystem. Food webs and chains are two varying ways to examine energy transfer and predation through a community. While food webs tend to be more realistic and easy to identify in environments, food chains highlight the importance of energy transfer between trophic levels.

Air temperature influences not only germination of vegetative species but the foraging and reproductive habits of animal species. In either way of approaching relationships between populations, it is important to realize that species cannot and will not adjust to climate change in the same way or at the same rate; this phenomenon is known as ‘decoupling’ and has detrimental effects on the successful functioning of affected environments. In the Arctic, caribou calves are beginning to miss out on food as vegetation begins growing earlier in the season as a result of rising temperatures. Specific examples of decoupling within an environment include the time lag between air warming and soil warming and the relationship between temperature and heterotrophic organisms; the former example results from the ability of soil to hold its temperature. Similar to how water has a higher specific heat than air, which results in ocean temperatures being warmest at the close of the summer season, soil temperature lags behind that of air.

This results in a decoupling of above and below ground subsystems. This affects invasion. Invasive species have better tolerance to different environmental conditions increasing their survival rate when climate changes; this translates to when species die because they can not live in that ecosystem any more. The new organisms that move in have less biodiversity to worry about and can take over that ecosystem. Higher temperatures mean longer growing seasons for plants and animals will migrate poleward. Poleward migration changes the migration patterns of many animals. Longer growing seasons means the time of arrival for species changes. Which changes the amount of food supply available at the time of arrival altering the species reproductive success and survival. There is secondary effects global warming has on species such as changes in habitat, food source, predators of that ecosystem. Which could lead to death of species or migration to a new area sustainable for that species. Insect pests have always been viewed as a nuisance, most for their damaging effects on agriculture, parasitism of livestock, impacts on human health.

Influenced by climate change and invasions, they have been looked at as a significant threat to both biodiversity and ecosystem functionality. Forestry industries are at risk for being affected. There are a plethora of factors that contribute to existing concerns regarding the spread of insect pests: all of which stem from increasing air temperatures. Phenological changes, over-wintering, increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and increasing rates of population growth all impact pests’ presence and impact both directly and indirectly. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, western corn rootworm, migrated from North America to Europe. In both continents, western corn rootworm has had significant impacts on corn production and therefore economic costs. Phenological changes and warming of air temperature have allowed this pests’ upper boundary to expand further northward. In a similar sense of decoupling, the upper and lower limits of a species’ spread is not always paired neatly with one another.

Mahalanobis distance and multidimensional envelope analysis performed by Pedro Aragon and Jorge M. Lobo predict that as the pests’ range expands northward invaded European communities will remain within the pests’ f

Sheer Sound

Sheer Sound is a South African independent record label formed in 1994 by Damon Forbes. Sheer Sound was formed in November 1994, shortly after South Africa's first democratic elections; the label was a home for jazz and world music and fast gained a reputation for its extensive South African and African jazz catalogue. By the mid-1990s, a young music marketer, Damon Forbes, was getting restless with the limited vision of his industry. "I sunk my teeth into jazz. I just looked at the market and I saw the economics of the people of South Africa changing, due to better access to education.... The workplace was going to change. With all that, comes the aspiration to listen to better quality music; the market, in the long term, is going to increase." With what he calls "R1 500 and a dream", Forbes established Sheer Sound. In 2006 two imprint labels, Seed and 2Feet Music, were formed under the Sheer Sound umbrella and has since released some of the most prolific rock and singer-songwriter music in South Africa.

Farryl Purkiss Chris Letcher Nibs van der Spuy Shawn Phillips Baz Corden Simon van Gend Wonderboom Myepic Cassette Bed on Bricks Paul E. Flynn Martin Rocka and The Sick Shop Misled Pestroy Insek Libido Gently Scar'd Underbelly New Academics Lionel Bastos Elusion The Dirty Skirts Mann Friday Gonzo Republic eVoid Walt Jaziel Brothers Lesego Mina Nawe Phinda Naledi Jeff Maluleke McCoy Mrubata Winston Mankunku Ngozi Paul Hanmer Voice Louis Mhlanga Gavin Minter Tony Cox Ernie Smith List of record labels Sheer Sound official site Ansell, Gwen. 2005. Soweto Blues. New York: Continuum Books