Jean-Claude Killy is a former French World Cup alpine ski racer. Born in Saint-Cloud, Hauts-de-Seine, he dominated the sport in the late 1960s, he was a triple Olympic champion, winning the three alpine events at the 1968 Winter Olympics, becoming the most successful athlete there. He won the first two World Cup titles, in 1967 and 1968. Killy was born in Saint-Cloud, a suburb of Paris, during the German occupation of World War II, but was brought up in Val-d'Isère in the Alps, where his family had relocated in 1945 following the war, his father, was a former Spitfire pilot for the Free French, opened a ski shop in the Savoie village, would operate a hotel. In 1950, his mother Madeline abandoned the family for another man, leaving Robert to raise Jean-Claude, age 7, his older sister, their infant brother. Jean-Claude was sent to boarding school in Chambéry, 80 miles down the valley, but he despised being shut up in a classroom. Killy turned his attention to skiing rather than school, his father allowed him to drop out at age 15, he made the French national junior team a year later.
As a young racer, Killy was fast, but did not complete his races, the early 1960s were not successful for him. In December 1961, at age 18, Killy won a giant slalom; the event took place in his home village of Val-d'Isere. Killy had started 39th, a position that should have been a severe disadvantage; the French coach picked Killy for the giant slalom in the 1962 World Championships in Chamonix, France, 50 miles away in the shadow of Mont Blanc. But Killy, unaware of his selection, was still attempting to qualify for the downhill event in northeastern Italy at Cortina d'Ampezzo. Only three weeks before the world championships, he skied in his typical reckless style. About two hundred yards from the finish, Killy hit a stretch of ice in a compression and went down, rose then crossed the finish on just one ski—and the fastest time, his other leg was broken, he watched the 1962 World Championships on crutches. Two years at age 20, Killy was entered in all three of the men's events at the 1964 Olympics, because his coach wanted to prepare him for 1968.
Killy was plagued by recurrences of amoebic dysentery and hepatitis, ailments that he had contracted in 1962 during a summer of compulsory service with the French Army in Algeria. His form was off, he fell a few yards after the start of the downhill, lost a binding in the slalom, finished fifth in the giant slalom, in which he had been the heavy favorite, yet a few weeks he dominated a giant slalom race at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in Bavaria, counting for the prestigious Arlberg-Kandahar events, the oldest'Classic' in the sport. A year he triumphed at another major competition, the slalom of the Hahnenkamm races at Kitzbühel that he clinched three times in a row until 1967. Although the first half of the decade was a relative disappointment, Killy began to improve his results afterwards to become one of the best technical ski racers. In August 1966, the Frenchman, nicknamed'Toutoune' by some of his colleagues and friends, scored his first win in a downhill race against an international field at the 1966 World Championships in Portillo and took gold in the combined.
Killy was peaking as the first World Cup season was launched in January 1967, with the 1968 Winter Olympics in France only a year away. 6 titles – 18 wins – 24 podiums – ^ Results from the 1968 Winter Olympics were included in the World Cup standings. Killy was the first World Cup champion in 1967, winning 12 of 17 races to take the overall title, he won the season standings in each of the three "Classic" alpine disciplines. The following year, Killy won the Triple Crown of Alpine Skiing with a sweep of all three Olympic gold medals in controversial circumstances at the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France. By finishing first in all races, he captured the FIS world championship title in the combined event. Electrical timing by Omega was accurate to one-hundredth of a second. Killy relied on his upper-body strength to hit the bar while moving forward, giving himself a slight edge; this spectacular start appears to have helped him to beat his teammate Guy Perillat by a few hundredths in the Olympic downhill.
With the Olympic events included in the World Cup standings, Killy defended his title in 1968 as the overall champion, placing first in the giant slalom and second in the downhill and slalom season standings. He retired following the 1968 season, moved to Geneva, Switzerland, in 1969. 1962: injured In May 1968, Killy signed with International Management Group, the sports management firm headed by Mark McCormack. After racing on Dynamic VR17 and Rossignol skis during the part of his career when he was dominant, Killy signed a deal with Head Ski in the fall 1968 to endorse a metal and fiberglass ski named for him, the Killy 800. Head, acquired by AMF the following year, manufactured a line of Killy skis for at least two years. In television advertisements, Killy promoted the American Express card, he became a spokesman for Schwinn bicycles, United Airlines, Chevrolet automobiles. Killy starred as a ski instructor in the 1972 crime movie Snow Job, released in the UK as The Ski Raiders, US TV as The Great Ski Caper.
Rezidor Hotel Group
Rezidor Hotel Group AB Rezidor SAS Hospitality and SAS International Hotels, is a Swedish listed company and a hotel group. Founded by Scandinavian conglomerate SAS Group as a hotel in 1960, it became a listed company in 2006; the global headquarters of Rezidor relocated to Brussels, Belgium circa 1989. The listed company managed hotel chains that under the brands such as Radisson SAS, Park Inn, Country Inns & Suites and etc.. The brands were franchised from American hospitality and travel conglomerate Carlson Companies from 1994 and 2002 respectively. In 2005, Carlson acquired 25% shares of Rezidor Hotel Group from SAS Group. Since 2007, SAS Group ceased to be a shareholder of the company. In 2010, Carlson Companies acquired the controlling influence on the listed company. In 2012, Rezidor Hotel Group started to integrate with direct parent company, Carlson Hotels, Inc. which both companies would collectivity known as Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group. Carlson–Rezidor was one of the top hotel corporations in 2013.
Carlson Hotels, Inc. and subsidiaries, including Rezidor Hotel Group, were sold to Chinese conglomerate HNA Group in 2016. However, in 2018, the Carlson–Rezidor group was re-sold to a consortium led by Jin Jiang International Holdings. In 2018, Rezidor Hotel Group AB losing its corporate identity, renamed to Radisson Hospitality AB; the direct parent company, Carlson Hotels, Inc. had became Radisson Hospitality, Inc. the whole hotel group had a new trading name Radisson Hotel Group. SAS Group, the flag carrier of Scandinavian countries, opened their first hotel in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1960; the hotel, the SAS Royal Hotel, was the world's first designer hotel, designed by Arne Jacobsen. The hotel was under the catering division of the group; the hospitality and catering division became SAS Catering and Hotels. In 1982, the hotels were spin-off as a separate division, it became a subsidiary known as SAS International Hotels in 1985. Future President and chief executive officer of SAS International Hotels, Kurt Ritter, joined the company as a junior manager in 1976.
He was promoted as the president and CEO in 1989. According to the Financial Times, he "lays claim to several innovations ", he struck a franchise deal for the company with Carlson Hotels in 1995, which made SAS International Hotels had "a decade of compound annual growth north of 20 per cent". Rezidor SAS Hospitality, was a company headquartered in Belgium; as of January 2005, it was a wholly owned subsidiary of SAS Group. The subsidiary was known as SAS International Hotels until 2001; the headquarters of the subsidiary was relocated to Brussels soon after Ritter became President & CEO of the subsidiary in 1989. In April 2005, Rezidor SAS signed a partnership agreement with Carlson Hotels Worldwide, a subsidiary of Carlson Companies; the agreement included Carlson acquired 25% shares of Rezidor SAS, as well as Rezidor SAS acquired the rights to use the Carlson-owned brands, such as Radisson SAS, Park Inn and Country Inns & Suites, in the Europe, the Middle East and Africa markets. Rezidor SAS, at that time known as SAS International Hotels, signed a similar agreement in 1994 with Radisson Hotels International, another subsidiary of Carlson Companies.
That agreement give birth of the hotel chain Radisson SAS. Radisson SAS was known as Radisson Blu since 2009; the franchise agreement was renewed in 2002, which added three more brands: Park Inn and Country Inn in the new agreement. In February 2005, Rezidor signed an agreement to convert 7 former Holiday Inn hotels in Germany to Park Inn: Park Inn Bochum, Park Inn Dortmund-City Centre, Park Inn Düsseldorf/Kaarst, Park Inn Hanover, Park Inn Kamen/Unna, Park Inn Köln-Belfortstraße and Park Inn Cologne City-West. However, 6 of the aforementioned hotels, except Cologne City-West, were converted to Mercure brand of AccorHotels in 2014. In 2005, Rezidor SAS opened 4 more Radisson hotels in the Republic of Ireland. 2 Park Inn hotels were opened in Dundalk and Mulranny in the same year. However, Park Inn Dundalk was closed down in 2010; the former Park Inn Dundalk was under Ramada brand of Wyndham Hotels and managed by another company Lester Hotels since 2016. In February 2006, Rezidor opened a Park Inn hotel in Baku, the first Park Inn hotel in the Commonwealth of Independent States.
In 2006, SAS Group floated Rezidor SAS Hospitality as Rezidor Hotel Group AB on the Stockholm Stock Exchange. The listed company is incorporated in Sweden. After the listing, as of 2007, SAS Group ceased to be a shareholder of Rezidor Hotel Group, while Carlson Hotels Worldwide owned about 42% shares. In the 2010s, Rezidor Hotel Group became part of a larger hotel group, which trading as Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group. Carlson Hotels increased its ownership ratio of the Rezidor Hotel Group to 50.1% in 2010 and integrating the two hotel groups. In January 2012, it was announced that Carlson hotel group and Rezidor hotel group would runs hotels under one name Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group. In 2010, Carlson and Rezidor had sold the brand Regent to Formosa International Hotels; the enlarged group, Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group, was one of the top hotel corporations in 2013. Carlson–Rezidor group was acquired by Chinese conglomerate HNA Group, via their division, HNA Tourism Group, in 2016 from Carlson Companies.
The takeover triggered a mandatory bid for the remaining shares of the listed company. However, HNA Group re-sold Carlson–Rezidor group to a consortium led by Jin Jiang International Holdings, another Chinese conglomerate. In May 2018, Rezid
Bernhard Russi is a former World Cup alpine ski racer from Switzerland. Born in Andermatt in the canton of Uri, he is an Olympic, World Cup, World champion in the downhill event. Russi made his World Cup debut at age 19 in January 1968 at a giant slalom in Adelboden. After two races in 1968 and six in 1969, he joined the World Cup circuit full-time in December 1969, but he was a stuntman in principal filming for »On Her Majesty’s Secret Service« which were made in the Switzerland but he became injured with a fracture of one cervical vertebra. After an injury lay-off he was able to compete in the Downhill Race at Val d'Isère on December 14, 1969, becoming 14th, he could gain World Cup Points at first by recording his first World Cup top ten finish, but not before achieving a fourth place in the Downhill at Garmisch-Partenkirchen he was qualified as a Swiss Team Racer at the 1970 World Championships, won his first event, the downhill at the ahead of Karl Cordin of Austria and Australian Malcolm Milne.
It was a race with fresh snow, he was the 15th racer - a good number for such conditions. He did win with a hand fracture which he did suffer a week before in a practice race, therefore he did race that actual run with pain, but to be able to win there was another method necessary: His coach did scrap off skiwax directly before the start, Russi did race without skiwax. Because the result of the World Championships 1970 at Val Gardena did count as a World Cup race too, his win was a World Cup Race victory. Two years at the 1972 Olympics in Sapporo, Japan, he won the gold medal in the same discipline on Mt. Eniwa. Countryman Roland Collombin secured the silver and a Swiss "double victory." Russi won the World Cup season title in downhill in 1971 and 1972. Anew, he was awarded as "Swiss sportsman of the Year" he was awarded with the "Skieur d’Or" und the "Étoile d’Or", his performance in the 1974 World Championships in his home country Switzlerland was disappointing by only finishing 13th in the Downhill.
At the 1976 Olympics in Innsbruck, Russi nearly retained his Olympic title with a fast time in the downhill at Patscherkofel, but took the silver medal. He finished 0.33 seconds behind Franz Klammer of Austria, who started 15th, the last of the top seeds. To date no men's Olympic champion in the downhill has defended his title. Like in 1974, he couldn't achieve a good result in the 1978 World Championships, when he finished 14th in the Downhill; as a result of this he retired from international competition a few days with 10 World Cup victories, 28 podiums, 52 top ten finishes. In addition to his two downhill titles in 1971 and 1972, Russi was second in 1973 and third in 1976 and 1977, his best finish in the overall standings was fifth, achieved three times in 1971, 1972, 1977From 1948 through 1980, the Winter Olympics served as the world championships for alpine skiing. During the early seasons of the World Cup, the Olympics and world championships were included in the World Cup season standings.
Russi serves as the chairman of the FIS Alpine Committee and is a FIS technical advisor for downhill course design. Beginning with the 1988 Winter Olympics, Russi has been noted as the designer of the downhill courses for the Olympics, he did design such courses for the FIS Alpine Skiing World Championships; the Rattlesnake-course at Vail in 1989 was a "formidable challenge" to him. Another famous course was the Face de Bellevarde at Val-d’Isère, he was the construction supervisor at the downhill course Rosa Chutor at Krasnaja Poljana; this stemmed from dissatisfaction with the courses at the 1984 games. He serves as a commentator for alpine ski racing on Swiss television. - He is an advertiser for Japanese car Subaru and for several Swiss companies. After the end of his marriage to Michèle Rubi he married Mari Bergström from Sweden, he has a son by a daughter by his second wife. 10 wins – 28 podiums – ^ Results from the 1970 World Championships were included in the World Cup standings. From 1948 through 1980, the Winter Olympics were the World Championships for alpine skiing.
Video – 1972 Winter Olympics – men's downhill – gold & bronze medalists – from Japanese television – 1972-02-05 on YouTube Bernhard Russi at the International Ski Federation Ski-db.com – results – Bernhard Russi Bernhard Russi at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com – Olympic results Official website –
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012. From 2008 to 2012, Medvedev served as the third President of Russia. Regarded as more liberal than his predecessor and successor as president, Vladimir Putin, Medvedev's top agenda as president was a wide-ranging modernisation programme, aiming at modernising Russia's economy and society, lessening the country's reliance on oil and gas. During Medvedev's tenure, the New START nuclear arms reduction treaty was signed by Russia and the United States, Russia emerged victorious in the Russo-Georgian War, recovered from the Great Recession. Medvedev initiated a substantial law enforcement reform and launched an anti-corruption campaign, despite having been accused of corruption himself. Dmitry Medvedev was born in the Soviet Union, his father, Anatoly Afanasyevich Medvedev, was a chemical engineer teaching at the Leningrad State Institute of Technology. Dmitry's mother, Yulia Veniaminovna Medvedeva, studied languages at Voronezh University and taught Russian at Herzen State Pedagogical University.
She would work as a tour guide at Pavlovsk Palace. The Medvedevs lived in a 40 m² apartment at 6 Bela Kun Street in the Kupchino Municipal Okrug of Leningrad. Dmitry was his parents' only child; the Medvedevs were regarded as Soviet intelligentsia family of the time. His maternal grandparents were Ukrainians, whose surname was Kovalev Koval. Medvedev traces his family roots to the Belgorod region; as a child, Medvedev was bookish and studious, described by his first grade teacher Vera Smirnova as a "dreadful why-asker". After school, he would spend some time playing with his friends before hurrying home to work on his assignments. In the third grade, Medvedev studied the ten-volume Small Soviet Encyclopedia belonging to his father. In the second and third grades, he showed interest in dinosaurs and memorized primary Earth's geologic development periods, from the Archean up to the Cenozoic. In the fourth and fifth grades, he demonstrated interest in chemistry, conducting elementary experiments, he was involved to some degree with sport.
In grade seven, adolescent curiosity blossomed through Svetlana Linnik, his future wife, studying at the same school in a parallel class. The relationship affected Medvedev's school performance. Medvedev calls the school's final exams in 1982 a "tough period when I had to mobilize my abilities to the utmost for the first time in my life." In the autumn of 1982, 17-year-old Medvedev enrolled at Leningrad State University to study law. Although he considered studying linguistics Medvedev said he never regretted his choice, finding his chosen subject fascinating, stating that he was lucky "to have chosen a field that genuinely interested him and that it was really'his thing". Fellow students described Medvedev as a correct and diplomatic person who in debates presented his arguments without offending. During his student years, Medvedev was a fan of the English rock bands Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, fond of sports and participated in athletic competitions in rowing and weight-lifting.
He graduated from the Law Department of Leningrad State University in 1987. After graduating, Medvedev considered joining the prosecutor's office to become an investigator however, he took an opportunity to pursue graduate studies as the civil law chair, deciding to accept three budget-funded post-graduate students to work at the chair itself. In 1990, Medvedev defended his dissertation titled, "Problems of Realisation of Civil Juridical Personality of State Enterprise" and received his Candidate of Sciences degree in private law. Anatoly Sobchak, a major democratic politician of the 1980s and 1990s was one of Medvedev's professors at the university. In 1988, Medvedev joined Sobchak's team of democrats and served as the de facto head of Sobchak's successful campaign for a seat in the new Soviet parliament, the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR. After Sobchak's election campaign Medvedev continued his academic career in the position of docent at his alma mater, now renamed Saint Petersburg State University.
He taught civil and Roman law until 1999. According to one student, Medvedev was a popular teacher. During his tenure Medvedev co-wrote a popular three-volume civil law textbook which over the years has sold a million copies. Medvedev worked at a small law consultancy firm which he had founded with his friends Anton Ivanov and Ilya Yeliseyev, to supplement his academic salary. In 1990, Anatoly Sobchak returned from Moscow to become Chairman of the Leningrad City Council. Sobchak hired Medvedev who had headed his election campaign. One of Sobchak's former students, Vladimir Putin, came on board as an adviser; the next summer Sobchak was elected Mayor of the city, Medvedev became a consultant to City Hall's Committee for Foreign Affairs. It was headed by Putin. In November 1993 Medvedev became the legal affairs director of Ilim Pulp Enterprise, a St. Petersburg-based timber company. Medvedev aided the company in developing a strategy. Medvedev received 20% of the company's stock. In the next seven years Ilim Pulp Enterprise became Russia's largest lumber company with an annual revenue of around $500 million.
Medvedev sold his shares in ILP in 1999. He took his first
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Southern Bug, Dniester and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine; the Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, a volume of 547,000 km3. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, features a wide shelf to the northwest; the longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km. Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Constanța, Istanbul, Novorossiysk, Ordu, Rize, Sevastopol, Sukhumi, Varna and Zonguldak; the Black Sea has a positive water balance. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow.
This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean; the Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate the Caucasus and Western Asia; the Black Sea is connected, to the North, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established, it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example.
The Black Sea water level is high. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara. In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Current names of the sea are equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: Abkhazian: Амшын Еиқәа, IPA: Adyghe: Хы шӏуцӏэ, IPA: Bulgarian: Черно море, IPA: Crimean Tatar: Къара денъиз, Qara deñiz IPA: Georgian: შავი ზღვა, translit.: shavi zghva, IPA: Laz and Mingrelian: უჩა ზუღა, IPA:, or ზუღა, IPA:, "Sea" Romanian: Marea Neagră, pronounced Russian: Чёрное мо́рe, IPA: Turkish: Karadeniz, IPA: Ukrainian: Чорне море, IPA: Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century, but there are indications that they may be older. In Greece, the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning, is still used: Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos.
The principal Greek name "Póntos Áxeinos" is accepted to be a rendering of Iranian word *axšaina-, compare Avestan axšaēna-, Old Persian axšaina-, Middle Persian axšēn/xašēn, New Persian xašīn, as well as Ossetic œxsīn. The ancient Greeks, most those living to the north of the Black Sea, subsequently adopted the name and altered it to á-xenos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar; the name was considered to be "ominous" and was changed into the euphemistic name "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the used designation for the sea in Greek. In contexts related to mythology, the older form Póntos Áxeinos remained favored, it has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions. Black or dark in this context, referred to a system in which colors represent the cardinal points of the known world.
Black or dark represented the north. The symbolism based on cardinal points was used in multiple occasions and is therefore attested. For example, the "Red Sea", a body of water reported since the time of Herodotus in fact designated the Indian Ocean, together with bodies of water now known as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. According to the same explanation and reasoning, it is therefore considered to be impossible
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly