Rosa Luxemburg was a Polish Marxist, economist, anti-war activist and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28. Successively, she was a member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, the Social Democratic Party of Germany, the Independent Social Democratic Party and the Communist Party of Germany. After the SPD supported German involvement in World War I in 1915, Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht co-founded the anti-war Spartacus League which became the KPD. During the November Revolution, she co-founded the newspaper Die Rote Fahne, the central organ of the Spartacist movement. Luxemburg considered the Spartacist uprising of January 1919 a blunder, but supported the attempted overthrow of the government and rejected any attempt at a negotiated solution. Friedrich Ebert's majority SPD government crushed the revolt and the Spartakusbund by sending in the Freikorps, government-sponsored paramilitary groups consisting of World War I veterans.
Freikorps troops summarily executed Luxemburg and Liebknecht during the rebellion. Luxemburg's body was thrown in the Landwehr Canal in Berlin. Due to her pointed criticism of both the Leninist and the more moderate social democratic schools of socialism, Luxemburg has had a somewhat ambivalent reception among scholars and theorists of the political left. Nonetheless and Liebknecht were extensively idolized as communist martyrs by the East German communist regime; the German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution notes that idolization of Luxemburg and Liebknecht is an important tradition of German far-left extremism. Luxemburg was born on 5 March 1871 in Zamość; the Luxemburg family were Polish Jews living in Russian-controlled Poland. She was the youngest child of timber trader Eliasz Luxemburg and Line Löwenstein. Luxemburg stated that her father imparted an interest in liberal ideas in her while her mother was religious and well-read with books kept at home; the family spoke Polish and German, Luxemburg learned Russian.
The family moved to Warsaw in 1873. After being bedridden with a hip ailment at the age of five, she was left with a permanent limp. In 1884, she enrolled at an all-girls' gymnasium in Warsaw, which she attended until 1887; the Zweite Frauengymnasium was a school that only accepted Polish applicants and acceptance of Jewish children was more exceptional. The children were only permitted to speak Russian. From 1886, Luxemburg belonged to the Polish left-wing Proletariat Party, she began political activities by organizing a general strike. In 1887, she passed her Matura examinations. After fleeing to Switzerland to escape detention in 1889, she attended the University of Zurich, where she studied philosophy, politics and mathematics, she specialized in Staatswissenschaft and stock exchange crises, the Middle Ages. Her doctoral dissertation "The Industrial Development of Poland" was presented in the spring of 1897 at the University of Zurich which awarded her a Doctor of Law degree, her dissertation was published by Duncker and Humblot in Leipzig in 1898.
She was an oddity in Zurich as she was one of the few women with a doctorate. She plunged into the politics of international Marxism, following in the footsteps of Georgi Plekhanov and Pavel Axelrod. In 1893, with Leo Jogiches and Julian Marchlewski, Luxemburg founded the newspaper Sprawa Robotnicza which opposed the nationalist policies of the Polish Socialist Party. Luxemburg believed that an independent Poland could arise and exist only through socialist revolutions in Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia, she maintained. Her position of denying a national right of self-determination under socialism provoked a philosophic disagreement with Vladimir Lenin, she and Leo Jogiches co-founded the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania party, after merging Congress Poland's and Lithuania's social democratic organizations. Despite living in Germany for most of her adult life, Luxemburg was the principal theoretician of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and led the party in a partnership with Jogiches, its principal organizer.
Luxemburg wanted to move to Germany to be at the centre of the party struggle, but she had no way of obtaining permission to remain there indefinitely. In April 1897 she married the son of an old friend, Gustav Lübeck, in order to gain a German citizenship, they never lived together and they formally divorced five years later. She returned to Paris moved permanently to Berlin to begin her fight for Eduard Bernstein's constitutional reform movement. Luxemburg hated the stifling conservatism of Berlin, she despised Prussian men and resented what she saw as the grip of urban capitalism on social democracy. In the Social Democratic Party of Germany's women's section, she met Clara Zetkin, of whom she made a lifelong friend. Between 1907 and his conscription in 1915, she was involved in a love affair with Clara's younger son, Kostja Zetkin, to which 600 surv
SGS/SCN are Australian regional television stations serving the Spencer Gulf of South Australia and the Broken Hill area of New South Wales, owned by Southern Cross Austereo. The station is based in Port Pirie, South Australia with satellite offices in Broken Hill, Port Augusta and Port Lincoln, studio and playout facilities based in Canberra. Prior to 2004, GTS/BKN were the only regional commercial stations servicing the Spencer Gulf and Broken Hill areas, they broadcast a selection of content,'cherry-picked' from the three metropolitan networks Seven and Ten. GTS/BKN remained among the few stations that continued to'cherry-pick' content following aggregation in the 1980s, though after 2000 it began to favour content from Seven due to its ownership by Seven affiliate Southern Cross Television. In 2003, Spencer Gulf Telecasters won the right to broadcast a second station in the same licence area, in January 2004, SGS/SCN were launched as a Ten-affiliated station, branded as 10. On 11 January 2011, SGS/SCN launched 10's SD multichannel Eleven, rebranded as 10 Peach in 2018.
SGS/SCN, as part of Ten, is the area's Network Ten partner network with the national programming from TEN Sydney and the local Ten News First broadcast from ADS Adelaide being aired. As GTS/BKN provides the main Southern Cross News bulletin for South Australia, SGS/SCN does not have a local news bulletin. Instead it rebroadcasts the Ten News First bulletins from Adelaide. Seven Regional Southern Cross Nine Official site
Alexander Louis Jakubiak is a footballer who plays for Scottish Premiership club St Mirren, on loan from Watford of the Premier League. Jakubiak made his sole appearance for Watford shortly before his graduation from the club's academy in the summer of 2014. Since he has had loan spells at Braintree Town, Oxford United, Dagenham & Redbridge, Fleetwood Town, Wycombe Wanderers, Bristol Rovers and Gillingham. Jakubiak played twice for the Scotland under-19 team in 2014. Having joined the club as an Under-15, Jakubiak signed a scholarship deal with Watford in May 2012. In his first year, Jakubiak's strike against Peterborough United's academy side won the January 2013 League Football Education Goal of the Month award. On 11 March 2014, towards the end of his scholarship, Jakubiak was loaned to Braintree Town, joining his Watford teammate Bernard Mensah at the Conference side, his loan spell ran until 13 April, but in that time he made 11 appearances, including two starts, scored one goal, on his debut against Wrexham.
Jakubiak was subsequently involved in Watford's final three games of the 2013–14 season. He was an unused substitute in games against Derby County and Charlton Athletic before making his debut from the start in Watford's defeat at home to Huddersfield Town on 3 May 2014. Six days after making his Watford debut, Jakubiak signed his first professional contract, a two-year deal with Watford having a further option for an additional year. Despite reporting a two-year deal in 2014, at the conclusion of the 2014–15 season Watford announced Jakubiak had signed a new one-year contract with the club. In June 2016 Watford reported they had taken up their option of a further year on Jakubiak's contract, but in August they announced that he had now signed a new four-year contract with the club. On 13 August 2014, Jakubiak moved on loan to League Two side Oxford United until 4 January 2015, he made his debut as a substitute in a 2–1 defeat to Mansfield Town on 16 August 2014. Jakubiak scored his first Oxford United goal, on his first start, in their game against Dagenham & Redbridge on 30 August 2014.
After three months at the club, he was recalled by Watford on 4 November. On 27 November 2014, he joined League Two side Redbridge on a one-month-long youth loan. Jakubiak scored on his debut the next day, on 28 November 2014, in a 2–0 win over Bury, his loan spell was extended on 31 January 2015. The day Jakubiak's loan spell expired, Jakubiak scored his second goal for Dagenham & Redbridge, in a 3–1 win over Cheltenham Town. After that, Jakubiak's loan spell with the club was extended further until the end of the season. Jakubiak scored his third goal of the season, in a 3–1 loss against Burton Albion on 21 February 2015 and two months on 18 April 2015, Jakubiak scored, in a 3–2 win over Newport County. Jakubiak scored four times for the club. On 31 August 2016, Jakubiak joined Fleetwood Town on loan until January of the 2016–17 season, he scored his first goal for the club in an EFL Trophy tie against Carlisle United on 9 November 2016. Although he joined for the duration of the season, he was recalled by Watford in January 2017 after an injury crisis at the club.
On 30 January 2017, Jakubiak joined Wycombe Wanderers on loan until the end of the 2016–17 season. In January 2018, he moved on loan to Scottish Championship club Falkirk. On 9 August 2018 Jakubiak moved on loan to League One side Bristol Rovers for the 2018–19 season, he opened his account for Bristol Rovers in an EFL Trophy tie against West Ham Under-21s on 18 September. He made 38 league appearances for the club, 26 off the bench, scoring twice. In July 2019 Jakubiak joined League One club Gillingham on a season-long loan deal. In January 2020, Jakubiak left Gillingham, joined Scottish Premiership side St Mirren on loan until the end of the season. Despite being born in Westminster, Jakubiak was monitored by Scotland national football team's John Collins, over his eligibility to play for Scotland or Poland, due to his Polish ancestry. On 22 August 2014, Jakubiak was called by the Scotland U19 squad. Jakubiak made his Scotland U19 debut, where he came on as a substitute for Harry Cardwell in the 56th minute, in a 2–2 draw against Czech Republic U19.
As of match played 1 February 2020 Alex Jakubiak at Soccerbase