Kingdom of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when civil discontent led a constitutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, thereby ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions; however if relations with Berlin became friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste, corners of Austria-Hungary populated by Italians.
So in 1915, Italy accepted the British invitation to join the Allied Powers, as the western powers promised territorial compensation for participation, more generous than Vienna's offer in exchange for Italian neutrality. Victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. "Fascist Italy" is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government. The fascists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne, " Fascist government passed through several distinct phases"; the first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship". Came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper, from 1925 to 1929"; the third phase, with less activism, was 1929 to 1934.
The fourth phase, 1935–1940, was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: war against Ethiopia, launched from Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, which resulted in its annexation. The war itself was the fifth phase with its disasters and defeats, while the rump Salò Government under German control was the final stage. Italy was an important member of the Axis powers in World War II, battling on several fronts with initial success. However, after the German-Italian defeat in Africa and Soviet Union and the subsequent Allied landings in Sicily, King Victor Emmanuel III placed Mussolini under arrest, the Fascist Party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders was shut down; the new government signed an armistice on September 1943. German forces occupied northern Italy with Fascists' help, setting up the Italian Social Republic, a collaborationist puppet state still led by Mussolini and his Fascist loyalists; as conseguence, the country descended into civil war, with the Italian Co-belligerent Army and the resistance movement contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies.
Shortly after the war and the liberation of the country, civil discontent led to the constitutional referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the present-day Italian state; the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which covers present-day Italy and more. The development of the Kingdom's territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870; the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which were annexed in 1919 and remain Italian territories today. The Triple Entente promised to grant to Italy – if the state joined the Allies in World War I – several territories including former Austrian Littoral, western parts of former Duchy of Carniola, Northern Dalmazia and notably Zara and most of the Dalmatian islands, according to the secret London Pact of 1915. After the compromise was nullified under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson with the Treaty of Versailles, Italian claims on Northern Dalmazia were voided.
During World War II, the Kingdom gained additional territory: it gained Corsica and Savoia from France after its surrender in 1940, territory in Slovenia and Dalmazia from Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1941 and Monaco in 1942. After World War II, the borders of present-day Italy were founded and the Kingdom abandoned its land claims; the Italian Empire gained territory until the end of World War II through colonies, military occupations and puppet states. These included Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia, British Somaliland, Tunisia, Kosovo, Montenegro and a 46-hectare concession from China in Tianjin; the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch; the legislative branch was a bicameral Parliament comprising an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdom's constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the former governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, by this time it was impossible for a king to appoint a government of his ow
Italian Minister of Education
Below is a list of Italian Ministers of Public Education since the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946. The list shows the ministers that served under the same office but with other names, in fact this Ministry has changed name many times; the Minister of Public Education leads the Ministry of Education and Research. Parties 1946–1994: Christian Democracy Liberal Party Democratic Socialist Party Republican Party Since 1994: Christian Democratic Centre Democratic Party of the Left/Democrats of the Left Forza Italia/The People of Freedom Civic Choice The Daisy/Democratic Party Independent
Antonio Bassolino, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI is an Italian politician. He has been President of the Campania region from 2000 to 2010 and Mayor of Naples from 1993 to 2000. Bassolino was born in Campania. At 17 he entered the Italian Communist Youth Federation, in 1970 became a member of the regional council for the Italian Communist Party, the following year, secretary of the party section in Avellino, he held the latter position until 1975, when he became regional secretary for the PCI. In 1987, he was elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies in the college of Catanzaro, becoming president of the Parliament media committee in 1990. In the process leading to the split-up of the PCI into the Democratic Party of the Left and the Party of the Communist Refoundation, Bassolino represented the moderate wing that sought mediation, he joined the PDS. In 1992, he was reelected to the Chamber, and, in 1993, he was sent to Naples to reform the local section of PDS —, involved in the Tangentopoli bribe scandal.
It was there that he gained fame as a "hardman," a reputation which surfaced during the subsequent election for mayor, which he won by defeating the right-wing candidate, Alessandra Mussolini. Bassolino's years as mayor of Naples are viewed as a period of civil and social renaissance for the city. In 1997 he was reelected, this time with the 72.9% of the votes. In October 1998, Premier Massimo D'Alema nominated him Minister of Welfare. In 2000, he ran for the presidency of Campania, he was elected with 54.3% of the votes, and, in the elections of April 2005, with 61.6%. Among his accomplishments as governor of Campania are the construction of a regional metropolitan rail service and the new TAV station for high-speed trains in his native Afragola. Bassolino received the "Gold Star" Prize for his commitment to developing tourism and cultural ventures in Naples during his years as mayor, his essays include Mezzogiorno alla prova and La repubblica delle città. However, it has been argued. Moreover and more Bassolino has a considerable share of responsibility in the environmental disaster in the Campania region due to the deficiencies of the rubbish collection and treatment systems.
In fact Bassolino is one of the 29 people remanded for trial and accused of involvement in ongoing aggravated fraud against the State and fraud regarding public works. The collapse of the services which were supposed to collect and treat the rubbish led to accumulation or garbage in the streets of the major urban centres to the point that schools and other public places had to be closed for some days and tourism declined in 2008; as a result of this an increasing number of citizens and associations have been vocally calling for Bassolino's resignation. He was elected to the Senate in the XV legislature. Personal website President of Region Campania
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi was an Italian politician and banker. He was the 49th Prime Minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and was the tenth President of the Italian Republic from 1999 to 2006. Ciampi was born in Livorno, he received a B. A. in ancient Greek literature and classical philology in 1941 from the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, one of the country's most prestigious universities, defending a thesis entitled Favorino d'Arelate e la consolazione Περὶ φυγῆς under the direction of the Hellenist Augusto Mancini. He was called to military duty in Albania as a lieutenant. On 8 September 1943, on the date of the armistice with the Allies, he refused to remain in the Fascist Italian Social Republic, took refuge in Abruzzo, in Scanno, he subsequently managed to reach Bari, where he joined the Partito d'Azione. In 1946 he married Franca Pilla; that same year, he obtained a B. A. began working at the Banca d'Italia. He joined the CGIL, which he left in 1980. In 1960, he was called to work in the central administration of the Bank of Italy, where he became Secretary General in 1973, Vice Director General in 1976, Director General in 1978.
In October 1979, he was nominated Governor of the Bank of Italy and President of the national Bureau de Change, positions he filled until 1993. Ciampi was the first non-parliamentarian prime minister of Italy in more than 100 years. From April 1993 to May 1994 he oversaw a technical government; as treasury minister from 1996 to May 1999 in the governments of Romano Prodi and Massimo D'Alema, he was credited with adopting the euro currency. He chose the Italian design for the 1-euro coin, whereas all others were left to a television vote among some candidates the ministry had prepared. Ciampi chose the Vitruvian man of Leonardo da Vinci, on the symbolic grounds that it represented man as a measure of all things, in particular of the coin: in this perspective, money was at the service of man, instead of its opposite; the design fitted well on the bimetallic material of the coin. Ciampi was elected with a broad majority, was the second president to be elected at the first ballot in a joint session of the Chamber of Deputies, the Italian Senate and representatives of the Regions.
He refrained from intervening directly into the political debate while serving as President. However, he addressed general issues, without mentioning their connection to the current political debate, in order to state his opinion without being too intrusive, his interventions have stressed the need for all parties to respect the constitution and observe the proprieties of political debate. He was held in high regard by all political forces represented in the parliament; the possibility of persuading Ciampi to stand for a second term as President – the so-called Ciampi-bis – was discussed, despite his advancing age, but it was dismissed by Ciampi himself on 3 May 2006, just a few days before his mandate expired. Ciampi resigned as President before the swearing-in ceremony of Giorgio Napolitano; as President, Ciampi was not considered to be close to the positions of the Vatican and the Catholic Church, in a sort of alternance after the devout Oscar Luigi Scalfaro. He praised patriotism, not always a common feeling in Italy because of its abuse by the fascist regime.
He died in Rome on 16 September 2016 at the age of 95. As President of the Italian Republic between 18 May 1999 and 15 May 2006, Ciampi held the roles of: Head of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Chief of the Military Order of Italy Head of the Order of Merit for Labour Head of the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity Head of the Order of Vittorio Veneto Bailiff Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Collar of the Order of Pius IX 1982: Great Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic 1985: Commander of the Legion of Honour 1986: Great Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany 1991: Honorary degree, University of Pavia 1993: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun 1995: Freeman of the City of Naples 1999: Collar of the Order of the White Rose 2000: Gold Medal of the Jean Monnet Foundation for Europe 2000: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath 2000: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle 2001: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav 2001: Grand Cross of the Grand Order of King Tomislav 2001: Honorary doctorate from the University of Leipzig Faculty of Economics 2002: Grand Star of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria 2002: - Grand Cross of the Order of the White Double Cross 2002: Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry 2002: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Hungarian Republic 2002: Collar Pro Merito Melitensi of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta 2003: Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania 2003: - Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm 2004: Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana 2004: Commander Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of Three Stars Honorary Member of the Xirka Ġieħ ir-Repubblika 2005: Charlemagne Prize 2005: - Grand Cross of the Or
Giuliano Amato is an Italian politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Italy, first from 1992 to 1993 and again from 2000 to 2001. He was Vice President of the Convention on the Future of Europe that drafted the European Constitution and headed the Amato Group, he is nicknamed dottor Sottile. From 2006 to 2008, he was the Minister of the Interior in Romano Prodi's government. On 12 September 2013, President Giorgio Napolitano appointed him to the Constitutional Court of Italy, where he has served since then. Born in Turin into a Sicilian family, Amato grew up in Tuscany, he received a first degree in law from the University of Pisa in 1960, while attending the prestigious Collegio Medico-Giuridico of the Scuola Normale Superiore, which today is Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, a master's degree in comparative law from Columbia Law School in 1963. After teaching at the Universities of Modena and Florence, he worked as professor of Italian and Comparative Constitutional Law at the University of Rome La Sapienza from 1975 to 1997.
Amato began his political career in 1958. He was a Member of Parliament from 1983 to 1993, he was Undersecretary of State to the Prime Minister's office from 1983 to 1987, Deputy Prime Minister from 1987 to 1988, Minister for the Treasury from 1987 to 1989. From June 1992 to April 1993, Amato served as Prime Minister. During those ten months, a series of corruption scandals rocked Italy and swept away an entire class of political leaders. Amato himself was never implicated, notwithstanding how close he was to Bettino Craxi, a central figure in the corruption system; as Prime Minister, Amato responded to two devaluations of the lira in the wake of currency speculation that led Italy to be expelled from the European Monetary System by cutting the budget deficit drastically, thus taking the first steps in the road that would bring Italy to adopt the Euro. At a point, his government was harshly contested because of a decree that moved the competence for corruption investigations into the hands of the police, being controlled directly by the government, would have not been independent.
Fearing that the new system would have blocked investigations on political corruption, Italians took to the streets in massive, spontaneous rallies. President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro refused deeming it blatantly unconstitutional. While his justice minister Giovanni Conso took the blame, it has been disputed whether Amato was a victim of circumstances or whether he wanted to save the corruption-ridden system. At the end of his period as Prime Minister, Amato gave a speech to the Parliament in which he solemnly promised that at end of his term he would retire from politics, stressing that his was a true commitment and that he would not break this promise as some politicians used to do. However, this promise was short-lived. Amato was President of the Italian antitrust authority from November 1994 to December 1997, Minister for Institutional Reforms in Massimo D'Alema's first government from October 1998 to May 1999, once again, Treasury Minister in D'Alema's second government from December 1999 to April 2000.
Amato was nearly nominated for the Presidency of the Republic and was a close contender to replace Michel Camdessus as head of the International Monetary Fund. Amato served as Prime Minister again from April 2000 to May 2001, he promoted economic competitiveness as well as social protection. In addition to economic reforms, he pushed ahead with political and institutional reforms, trying to deal with a weak executive and fragmented legislature. In December 2001, European Union leaders at the European Council in Laeken appointed Amato and former Belgian Prime Minister Jean-Luc Dehaene to be Vice Presidents of the Convention on the Future of Europe to assist former French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in the drafting of the new European Constitution, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2002. Amato was a Member of the Senate representing the constituency of Grosseto in Tuscany from 2001 to 2006. In 2006, he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the Olive Tree list, he was named Minister of the Interior in Romano Prodi's centre-left government.
Since 2010, he leads advanced seminar classes at the Master in International Public Affairs of the LUISS School of Government. Amato is married to a professor of Family Law at the University of Rome, they have two children and Lorenzo, five grandchildren, Marco, Simone and Irene. Giuliano Amato serves as an Honorary Co-Chair for the World Justice Project; the World Justice Project works to lead a global, multidisciplinary effort to strengthen the Rule of Law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity. In 2012 Giuliano Amato was appointed as President of the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies; as alumnus of Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, he guarded close contact with the university heading Sant'Anna Alumni Association. He was appointed as President of the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies on 21 February 2012 by the Academic Senate of Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies and by a Decree of the Minister Francesco Profumo of the Ministry of Educatio
Carlo Cadorna was an Italian politician and the elder brother of General Raffaele Cadorna. He graduated in law in 1830 at the University of Turin. In 1840, he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in the constituency of Pallanza, he was the Minister of Education during the government headed by Vincenzo Gioberti. He was rapporteur of the law of secularisation of 29 May 1855 and spoke to a principle of separation of church and state, that the Church would be responsible only spiritual power on "thoughts, beliefs", while the assets of the Church must be under the jurisdiction of the state. In 1857 Cadorna was elected President of the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1858 became a senator and appointed Minister of Education in the government led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour. In 1864 he was the prefect of Turin, in 1868 Minister of the Interior of the Legislature I of Italy, he was the ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1869 to 1875. Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus Order of the Crown of Italy http://notes9.senato.it/Web/senregno.
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r