A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over thousands of cultivars, they form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, northwestern Africa. Species and hybrids are all grown for their beauty and are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses; the name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon, itself borrowed from Old Persian wrd-, related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr.
The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres long, with 5–9 leaflets and basal stipules. Most roses are deciduous but a few are evergreen or nearly so; the flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals; these may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries. Roses are insect-pollinated in nature; the aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so petalled that they do not provide access for pollination; the hips of most species are red. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species the dog rose and rugosa rose, are rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant.
The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds finches eat the seeds; the sharp growths along a rose stem, though called "thorns", are technically prickles, outgrowths of the epidermis, unlike true thorns, which are modified stems. Rose prickles are sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it; some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight prickles an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots. Despite the presence of prickles, roses are browsed by deer. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles; the genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera: Hulthemia containing two species from southwest Asia, Rosa persica and Rosa berberifolia, which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules. Hesperrhodos contains Rosa stellata, from North America.
Platyrhodon with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii. Rosa containing all the other roses; this subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections. Banksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China. Bracteatae – three species, two from China and one from India. Caninae – pink and white flowered species from Asia and North Africa. Carolinae – white and bright pink flowered species all from North America. Chinensis – white, yellow and mixed-color roses from China and Burma. Gallicanae – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe. Gymnocarpae – one species in western North America, others in east Asia. Laevigatae – a single white flowered species from China. Pimpinellifoliae – white, bright yellow and striped roses from Asia and Europe. Rosa – white, lilac and red roses from everywhere but North Africa. Synstylae – white and crimson flowered roses from all areas. Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors, they have been used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops.
Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization. The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids. A few species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage, ornamental thorns or for their showy fruit. Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, P
Kevin Luiters is a South African rugby union player for the Eastern Province Elephants in the Currie Cup. His regular position is scrum-half. Luiters played for Border at the 2005 Under-13 Craven Week before joining Bloemfontein-based side the Free State Cheetahs, he represented them in two youth tournaments – at Under-16 level at the 2008 Grant Khomo Week and at Under-18 level at the 2010 Craven Week. He played for the Free State U19 team in the 2010 Under-19 Provincial Championship competition and for the Free State U21 team in the 2012 Under-21 Provincial Championship and 2013 Under-21 Provincial Championship competitions, he played some Varsity Cup rugby, representing the UFS Shimlas in the 2012, 2013 and 2014 competitions, scoring three tries in sixteen appearances. He made his first class debut when he appeared as a substitute in the Free State Cheetahs' 2011 Vodacom Cup match against the Falcons and came on as a substitute against the Golden Lions in the same competition. Two more appearances followed in the 2012 Vodacom Cup competition, including his first senior start in their match against the Eastern Province Kings.
After making four more appearances for the Free State XV in the 2013 Vodacom Cup competition, he made his Currie Cup debut in the 2013 Currie Cup Premier Division match against the Sharks and scored his first senior try a week when he dotted down in the 82nd minute. On 3 April 2014, Luiters announced that he will join the Eastern Province Kings for the 2014 Currie Cup Premier Division season, he signed a contract with the Kings until the end of 2017. In June 2014, he was selected in the starting line-up for the Eastern Province Kings side to face Wales during a tour match during a 2014 incoming tour, he made his debut for the Kings. He appeared as a replacement in the Eastern Province Kings' opening match of the season against Western Province and had an immediate impact, scoring a try five minutes after coming on. However, it proved to be a mere consolation, he made a total of eight appearances during the 2014 Currie Cup Premier Division, but finished on the losing side in each of those appearances as the Kings finished bottom of the log.
Luiters is the nephew of Allister Coetzee, former player and former coach of Western Province and the Stormers. Kevin Luiters at ESPNscrum Kevin Luiters at ItsRugby.co.uk Kevin Luiters at European Professional Club Rugby Kevin Luiters at Romanian Rugby SuperLiga
Patrice Désilets is a Canadian game designer best known for creating the Assassin's Creed series. He served as creative director for three of the most critically acclaimed titles within the franchise to date: Assassin's Creed, Assassin's Creed II, Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood, he is known for being the director of Ubisoft's Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time. In 2014, he founded the Montreal-based indie studio Panache Digital Games where he worked on the game, Ancestors: The Humankind Odyssey. Born in 1974 at Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, Désilets is the son of Jacques Désilets and director of CEGEP, Luce de Bellefeuille, Director General of the Secretariat for International Adoption. In 1996, Désilets earned his bachelor's degree in film studies and literature at University of Montreal, to which time prior, he was enrolled at the Collège Édouard-Montpetit. Coming from a background in film, he has used his creative vision to shape games in which he has taken a creative lead including 2007's Assassin's Creed and its 2009 sequel Assassin's Creed II.
Désilets other credits include Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six 3: Raven Shield, Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood, Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, Disney's Donald Duck: Goin' Quackers and Hype: The Time Quest. Désilets left Ubisoft in June 2010, confirmed by the company on June 13, 2010, looking for more creative independence. After one year away from the gaming industry, Patrice Désilets returned by joining THQ as Creative Director at their new Montreal based studio in June 2011. For two years at THQ Montreal, Désilets was working on a new project titled 1666 Amsterdam, leading a team of close to fifty people. THQ declared bankruptcy under Chapter 11 in the United States in December 2012 and, in January 2013, THQ Montreal was sold off to Ubisoft in an auction. Désilets was subsequently let go by Ubisoft on May 7, 2013 when the two parties could not agree on the contract terms; when asked about it, Désilets said, "Contrary to any statements made earlier today, this morning I was terminated by Ubisoft.
I was notified of this termination in person, handed a termination notice and was unceremoniously escorted out of the building by two guards without being able to say goodbye to my team or collect my personal belongings. This was not my decision. Ubisoft's actions are baseless and without merit. I intend to fight Ubisoft vigorously for my rights, for my team and for my game."Following this, Patrice Désilets and Ubisoft came to an agreement in April 2016 in which Désilets won back all creative rights to 1666 Amsterdam. On December 14, 2014, Patrice Désilets with his team launched a new game development studio in Montreal, Panache Digital Games where they are working on their first project titled Ancestors: The Humankind Odyssey. 1666: Amsterdam Ancestors: The Humankind Odyssey Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood Assassin's Creed II Assassin's Creed Assassin's Creed Prince of Persia: Special Edition Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time Donald Duck: Goin' Quackers Hype: The Time Quest