Rose Parade

The Rose Parade, hosted by the Pasadena Tournament of Roses, is an annual parade to mark the start of the Rose Bowl Game, held along Colorado Boulevard in Pasadena, California, on New Year's Day. Produced by the non-profit Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association, the parade starts at 8:00 a.m. Pacific Time, includes flower-covered floats, marching bands, equestrian units; the parade is followed in the afternoon by the Rose Bowl, one of the major bowl games in college football. It has been uninterrupted, despite the Great Depression. First held on January 1, 1890, hundreds of thousands of spectators watch the Rose Parade in person, millions more watch it on television - both in the U. S. and in more than 100 international territories and countries worldwide. The Rose Bowl college football game was added in 1902 to help fund the cost of staging the parade. Since 2011, Honda sponsors the Rose Parade. Accordingly, the company has the parade's first float, which like all floats, follows the parade's theme.

The 2020 Rose Parade had featured 40 floats, 17 equestrian units with over 450 horses, 20 marching bands. The theme of this 131st Rose Parade is "Power of Hope" and the Co-Grand Marshals of the parade are Laurie Hernández, Rita Moreno from The Electric Company, Gina Torres. Members of Pasadena's Valley Hunt Club first staged the parade in 1890. Since the parade has been held in Pasadena every New Year's Day, except when January 1 falls on a Sunday. In that case, it is held on the subsequent Monday, January 2; this exception was instituted in 1893, as organizers did not wish to disturb horses hitched outside Sunday church services. Many of the members of the Valley Hunt Club were former residents of Midwest, they wished to showcase their new California home's mild winter weather. At a club meeting, Professor Charles F. Holder announced, "In New York, people are buried in the snow. Here our flowers are blooming and our oranges are about to bear. Let's hold a festival to tell the world about our paradise."

So the club organized horse-drawn carriages covered in flowers, followed by foot races, polo matches, a game of tug-of-war on the town lot that attracted a crowd of 2,000 to the event. Upon seeing the scores of flowers on display, the professor decided to suggest the name "Tournament of Roses." Over the next few founding years, the parade added marching motorized floats. By 1895, the event was too large for the Valley Hunt Club to handle, resulting in the formation of an ad-hoc non-profit organization - the Pasadena Tournament of Roses Association. By the 11th annual tournament, the town lot on which the activities were held was renamed Tournament Park, a large open area directly adjacent to Pasadena's world-famous institution of higher learning, Caltech. Activities soon included ostrich races, bronco busting demonstrations, an odd novelty race between a camel and an elephant. Soon reviewing stands were built along the parade route and newspapers in Eastern Seaboard cities started to take notice of the event.

The stately Italian Renaissance-style mansion of William Wrigley Jr. was offered to the city of Pasadena after Mrs. Wrigley's death in 1958, under the condition that their home would be the Rose Parade's permanent headquarters. Tournament House is the name given to the former home; the first associated football game was played on January 1, 1902. Titled the "Tournament East-West football game," it is considered to be the first Rose Bowl; the next game was not played until New Year's Day 1916. The game derives its modern name from Rose Bowl Stadium, built for the 1923 game. In 2002 and 2006, the "Granddaddy of'em all" was not held the same day as the parade. Not all fans are pleased with the change. Once the BCS title game was separated from the host bowl, it no longer affected the date of the Rose Bowl Game; the Tournament of Roses Parade has followed the same route following Colorado Boulevard for many decades. The day before the parade, the entire environs of the neighborhood streets south of the intersection of Orange Grove and Colorado Blvds. are sealed off and reserved for the marshaling of the dozens of floats, equestrian units, other elements.

This sealed-off section acts as the "Formation Area", the Formation Area Committee manages it. On parade morning the various elements are dispatched in front of Tournament House; the parade starts headed north on South Orange Grove Boulevard beginning at Green Street. At Colorado Boulevard it passes the main proceeds east on Colorado Boulevard; the parade turns north on Sierra Madre Boulevard. The floats must travel under the Sierra Madre Boulevard/I-210 freeway overpass, requiring over-height floats to reduce their height; the parade ends at Paloma Street near Pasadena High School. Floats continue into the Post-Parade viewing area. In total this route is 5.5 miles long. The 2009 parade featured 46 floats, including

Kingman Place Historic District

The Kingman Place Historic District is located in Des Moines, United States. The historic district contains a well-preserved collection of American Foursquare houses that were built starting in 1902 and continued until 1915, it has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 2000. It was part of The Bungalow and Square House--Des Moines Residential Growth and Development MPS; the historic district lies north of Kingman Boulevard and south of Cottage Grove Avenue, between 27th Street on the east and 31st Street on the west. It is composed of three full parts of two others in the Kingman and University plats; the plats are unique in Des Moines. Because it developed within a few years it is composed of similar foursquare house plans, it has few bungalows, which were being built in Des Moines at the same time. Cottage Grove Avenue was named in 1872 and the Cottage Grove Addition was platted that autumn, it was located between University Avenues and 21st and 23rd Streets. Nothing was developed until the University Land Company organized in 1881 and founded Drake University the same year.

Houses began to be built in the area in the 1880s. A hack line was established at the same time and streetcar lines were extended the following decade; the Kingman Addition was platted by the Vermont Land Company in 1889. Brick paving on Cottage Grove began in 1889 and the area was annexed to the city of Des Moines a year later; the paving of Cottage Grove was extended west to 34th Street in 1891 and sewer lines were added in 1894. No houses were added to the district until after 1900. Explosive growth started in University Place in 1904. One of Des Moines’ first suburban banks was built in the area the same year. Around 200 houses were built in the area between 1900 and 1910. There were three definitive house building spurts in the Kingman Place Historic District in 1905, 1910 and 1915; the hip roof subtype of the foursquare house plan was dominate in 1905 and receded by 1915, when front and side gabled roofs took over. The Kingman Place Historic District is composed of three subtypes of square house plans.

Of the 66 square house plans in the district, 34 are four squares, 22 follow the front gable plan and 10 are side gable houses. The rest of the houses in the district represent a number including the bungalow. Two of the houses are known as foursquare look-alikes that were built earlier from the others and feature Victorian architectural elements such as a wrap-around porch, their room counts were higher than eight, which are typical of the four squares

Arie Frederik Lasut

Arie Frederik Lasut is regarded as a national hero in Indonesia, because of his involvement in the struggle for independence and his efforts to advance Indonesia’s mining and geological infrastructure during the nation’s beginnings. Arie Lasut was born in Kapataran, a village in the regency of Minahasa in the province of North Sulawesi, he was the eldest son of eight children born to Ingkan Supit. His brother, Willy Lasut, went on to become governor of North Sulawesi. Lasut attended elementary school in Tondano. Having been ranked first in his class, Lasut was given the opportunity to continue his studies at a teacher's education school in Ambon, he finished his studies at HIK Ambon in 1933 and was one of the top students who were selected to attend HIK Bandung for the next level of teacher education. After only a year in Bandung, Lasut decided not to become a teacher and instead moved to Jakarta to attend a school equivalent to high school. After graduating from AMS in 1937, Arie started medical school.

This school is now the Department of Medicine at the University of Indonesia. His lack of sufficient funds forced him to drop out after just one year of studying. In 1938, Lasut started working at the Department of Economic Affairs. A year Lasut attended Bandung Technical School, present day Bandung Institute of Technology, his studies were discontinued again due to monetary reasons. He applied for and was given a scholarship to become a geological assistant at the Mining Service; the start of World War II was imminent with Japanese forces pushing toward Indonesia. While at the technical school in Bandung, Lasut was trained as a Corps Rerserve Officer by the Dutch to aid in the defense against the attacking Japanese forces, he fought against the Japanese at Ciater in West Java. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, Lasut worked at the Geological Service in Bandung as an assistant in the field of geology. Along with R. Sunu Sumosusastro, Lasut was among a few Indonesians who were given such positions in the service by the Japanese.

Indonesia declared its independence on August 1945 after the surrender of Japan to the Allies. The president of the newly formed Republic of Indonesia ordered that all governmental services be taken over from the Japanese. Lasut and a few other Indonesians were able to take control of the Geological Service peacefully in September 1945 and renamed it the Mining and Geological Service; as the Dutch returned to Indonesia to regain its control of Indonesia, the offices of the Mining and Geological Service had to be moved several times. From its original headquarters in Bandung, the offices moved Tasikmalaya and Yogyakarta. In addition to managing the mining and geological activities of the new nation during this unstable period, the service established schools for training new geologists; this was all done under the leadership of Lasut as head of the service. In addition to his work at the Mining and Geological Service, Lasut was active in an organization consisting of Indonesians from Sulawesi aimed at defending the independence of Indonesia.

Lasut was a member of the Central Indonesian National Committee, an early manifestation of the legislative branch of the Indonesian government. The Dutch had continually sought after Lasut, because of his knowledge of mining and geology in Indonesia. On the morning of May 7, 1949, Lasut was taken from his home by the Dutch to Pakem, 7 kilometers north of Yogyakarta and was shot to death. Several months his body was exhumed and buried at the Kintelan Christian cemetery in Yogyakarta beside his wife who had died in December 1947; the ceremony was attended by the acting president of Indonesia at Assaat. To honor his firm stance to preserve the republic, Arie Frederik Lasut was posthumously named a national hero by the government of Indonesia on May 20, 1969. Arie Lasut married Nieke Maramis on December 31, 1941, they had one child, Winny Lasut, who married Lukman Arifin and had three grandsons: Iskandar Zulkarnaen Arifin, Arie Arifin, Sandy Arifin. Winny died on 14 July 1976