Rose window

Rose window is used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style that are divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery. The term rose window was not used before the 17th century and according to the Oxford English Dictionary, among other authorities, comes from the English flower name rose; the name "wheel window" is applied to a window divided by simple spokes radiating from a central boss or opening, while the term "rose window" is reserved for those windows, sometimes of a complex design, which can be seen to bear similarity to a multi-petalled rose. Rose windows are called "Catherine windows" after Saint Catherine of Alexandria, sentenced to be executed on a spiked breaking wheel. A circular window without tracery such as are found in many Italian churches, is referred to as an ocular window or oculus. Rose windows are characteristic of Gothic architecture and may be seen in all the major Gothic Cathedrals of Northern France.

Their origins are much earlier and rose windows may be seen in various forms throughout the Medieval period. Their popularity was revived, with other medieval features, during the Gothic revival of the 19th century so that they are seen in Christian churches all over the world. Oculi: These could be open or blind, could be filled with thin alabaster. During the late Gothic period large ocular windows were common in Italy, being used in preference to traceried windows and being filled with elaborate pictures in stained glass designed by the most accomplished Late Medieval and Early Renaissance designers including Duccio, Donatello and Ghiberti. Wheel Windows: These windows had a simple tracery of spokes radiating either from a central boss or from a central roundel. Popular during the Romanesque period and Gothic Italy, they are found across Europe but Germany and Italy, they occur in Romanesque Revival buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. Plate Tracery: Rose windows with pierced openings rather than tracery occur in the transition between Romanesque and Gothic in France and most notably at Chartres.

The most notable example in England is the north transept window, known as the "Dean's Eye" in Lincoln Cathedral. These windows are found in 19th-century Revival buildings. Early Gothic: Rose windows with tracery comprising overlapping arcs like flower petals and square shapes; this form occurs in Northern France, notably at Laon Cathedral and England. This style of window is popular in Gothic Revival architecture for the similarity that it has to a flower and is utilised with specific reference to Our Lady of the Rosary. Rayonnant Gothic: The rose windows are divided by mullions radiating from a central roundel, overlapping in a complex design, each light terminating in a pointed arch and interspersed with Quatrefoils and other such shapes. Many of the largest rose windows in France are of this type, notably those at Paris and in the transepts of St Denis. An example in England is that in the north transept of Westminster Abbey; this style occurs in Gothic churches and is widely imitated in Gothic Revival buildings.

Flamboyant Gothic: The style is marked by S-curves in the tracery causing each light to take on a flamelike or "flamboyant" shape. Many windows are composed of regularly shaped lights the richness of design dependent on the multiplicity of parts. Good examples are at Paris; some Late Gothic rose windows are of immense complexity of design using elements of the Gothic style in unexpected ways. A magnificent example is that of the façade of Amiens Cathedral. Although the design radiates from a central point, it may not be symmetrical about each axis; this may be seen in the Flamboyant Decorated Gothic window called the "Bishop’s Eye" at Lincoln Cathedral in which the design takes the form of two ears of wheat. Renaissance: The Renaissance made a break with the Gothic style, a return to the Classical. Plain untraceried oculi were sometimes employed, either in Classical pediments or around domes as at the Pazzi Chapel, Florence. Baroque: The Baroque style saw much greater use of ocular windows, which were not always circular, but oval or of a more complex shape.

They were untraceried or crossed by mullions of simple form but were surrounded by ornate carving. The purpose of such windows was the subtle illumination of interior spaces, without resorting to large windows offering external visibility, they form a dominant visual element to either the façade or the interior as do the great Gothic windows. However, there are some notable exceptions, in particular the glorious burst of light which pours through the oval alabaster window depicting the Holy Spirit in the Reredos behind the High Altar of St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome. Modern: Modern circular windows, which are most of a simple ocular type, have an eclectic range of influences which includes abstract art, ship's portholes and the unglazed circular openings of Oriental architecture; the origin of the rose. These large circular openings let in both light and air, the best known being that at the top of the dome of the Pantheon. Windows with stone tracery make their emergence in Antiquity. Geometrical patterns of roses are developed and common in Roman mosaic.

In Early Christian and Byzantine architecture, there are examples of the use of circular oculi. They occur either around the drum of a dome, as at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, or high in the end of a gable of low-pitched Classical pediment form, as at Sant'Agnese fuori le mura and Torcello Cathedral. A window of the 8th cen


Kurattikadu Pattambalam Devi Kshethram is a famous Devi Temple situated in Mannar, India. The main ritual of the temple is the Anpoli Vazhipadu, during the festival season; the main deity worshiped is Bhuvaneswari along with Bhadra and Krishna. Here the Goddess Bhuvaneswari is called as "Valiya Amma" which means Great Mother. 9°18′49″N 76°32′26″E Aattilchattam on Medam 13thWhen the ‘Parayeduppu’ reach Padanilam near Pampa river all the members of the governing body along with the devotees make a barricade so that Amma with ‘Jeevatha’ may not cross the river Pampa to reach her mother at Panayannaarkaavu. It is believed that Amma’s mother is in Panayannarkavu across the river and she want to go there to meet her mother, and it is believed. That is why the barricade is formed and Amma is pacified and brought back to Kurattikadu; this is a unique ritual. Changayil Ottam on Medam 15thAfter taking the'para', one measure full of Paddy as offering, from Changayil house, Devi visits a few more houses. All of a sudden the Amma runs back to Changayil.

It is said that years ago, an old lady of Changayil tharavad, said in her mind that if Amma comes back she will offer five more paras. So Amma goes back and receives five more paras and gives the blessings and accepts the ‘Dakshina’ only after that. Vithideel on Medam 24thIn olden days ‘Harijans’ were financially unable to offer ‘Paras’. So on the last day of Anpoli Mahotsavam these harijans offer a part of their harvest paddy in front of Amma at Meenathethil House in their colony; this traditional ritual is still followed though all harijans are now offering paras at their own houses. Anpoli PanthalAnpoli panthal is decorated with ‘Kulavazha’, ‘Kuruthola’, ‘Alila’, ‘Maavila’, ‘Pookula’, etc. and ‘Kalam’ is made by spreading all types of flowers in the shape of a triangle. There will be fifteen ‘nilavilakkus’ with five ‘thiris’ each; these are in the order 5-4-3-2-1. Amma dances to the tune of ‘Panchari Melam’ on the ‘kalam’ and receives the para and blesses everyone. Anpoli - During utsavam Anpoli para - During utsavam Thiruvathira Paatu on Thiruvathira - every month Vedikkettu - It is the most famous in this area Vrischika Chirappu Pooja Veppu Vidyarambham Navaham - During Navarathri Sapthaham - During Vrischikam Daily Annadanam - During Sapthaham and Navaham Pongala - During Makaram 101 Kalam - in Kumbham Goshala Krishna Prathista Varshikam - on Meenam 10 Laksharchana - on last Friday of Karkidakam Theeyattu - on Aswathi of each month Padayani - important vazhipadu for Bhadhra Thaali Vazhipadu - for removal of marriage obstacles Anpoli Areeppara is the most important event of our temple.

It is the annual temple festival of 18 days from Medam 10th to 27th. On these days our mother visited her people at their doorsteps to receive their offerings as Paras and to bless them in person. Early in the morning Her Highness is brought out from the sanctum sanctorum with royal gaiety and drums in the Holy Jeevatha embedded with the Moolabimbam and is royally placed on the peetha. To receive two Anpoli Paras every day. A customary rhythmic dance of the priest shouldering the Jeevatha is followed along with the special Poojas in the Seva Panthal; the Holy procession sets off. Every household and decorated await eagerly for the farbound sounds of Her procession reaching their door. Amma is welcomed with fireworks and vaikuravas and offerings of flowers, fruits, malar in the form of para are offered; the accompanying crowd is treated everywhere with fruits and pleasantries. The process goes on uninterrupted until late night and at about 12’o clock the procession returns to the temple and the daily ritualistic ‘poojas’ and ‘nivedyams’ are offered in the presence of a huge crowd.

After this, Amma is once again ritually brought out accompanied by royal drum beats and ‘vaikuravas’ to perform the Anpoli at the zero hours and in most cases in the early hours. ‘Anpoli panthal’, considered as a temporary temple is erected to the north of ‘Elanjithara’ and an ‘Anpoli Kalam’ decorated with divine ritual drawings and fragrant flowers is kept in purity and lighted with Nilavilakku is there in front of the Anpoli Panthal. The rhythmic ritual dance of the shouldering priest in tune to the royal drum beats, come out of the Mathilkettu after 3 rounds around the temple approaches the Anpoli kalam in ritual steps. Large crowds follow and vaikuravas and fire crackers resounds throughout the night. Amma mount in the'Jeevatha' on the shoulders of the priest ritually dancing on their steps awakened in this high concentration of dance, music and the fire crackers. All of a sudden enters the Anpoli Kalam in the dense forest of light and oil lamps, performs her own divine dance revelation.

The priest becomes unconscious and falls. Great fire works follows. Offerings there are distributed as prasadams to crowds of devotees thronging there and dakshinas are given. Amma is brought back to the SreeKovil; the process is to begin early morning next day. Sree Bhuvaneswari Higher Secondary School is managed by the temple. 9°18′48″N 76°32′32″E Temples of Kerala The official website of the temple The official website of the school

Our Struggles

Our Struggles is a 2018 Belgian-French comedy-drama film directed by Guillaume Senez. It was screened in the International Critics' Week section at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival, it received seven nominations at the 9th Magritte Awards and won five, including Best Film and Best Director for Guillaume Senez. Romain Duris as Olivier Laure Calamy as Claire Lætitia Dosch as Betty Lucie Debay as Laura Basile Grunberger as Elliot Lena Girard Voss as Rose Dominique Valadié as Joëlle Our Struggles on IMDb