Colstrip is a city in Rosebud County, United States. The population was 2,214 at the 2010 census. Established in 1924 and incorporated as a city in 1998, Colstrip is the largest city in Rosebud County with 24% of the total population. Colstrip's primary industries are electricity production. For the Sports Illustrated Magazine's 50th anniversary, it named Colstrip the top sports town in Montana; the entire community celebrates Colstrip Days annually on the weekend prior to the 4th of July. Colstrip was established by the Northern Pacific Railway in 1924 as a company town to provide coal for their steam locomotives; the mining at Rosebud Mine two miles south of the town is open pit strip mining, where draglines remove soil above the layer of bituminous coal from the Fort Union Formation. During World War II, the Colstrip mine was identified as strategically important because it supplied coal for the Northern Pacific Railway steam locomotives hauling military equipment for the war effort; the mine was guarded from sabotage, the employees were not allowed to quit their jobs.
In 1958 the railroad switched to using diesel locomotives and the Colstrip mine was shut down. In 1959 Montana Power Company purchased the rights to the mine and the town, resumed mining operations in the 1970s with plans to build coal-fired electrical plants; the power plants were built in the 1980s by a collection of contractors including Bechtel. During this construction period Colstrip was a boomtown, with a large increase in population. Plants 1 & 2 were operational in 1975 and 1976, plants 3 & 4 were operational in 1984 and 1986. In 1974 construction of Colstrip's 150-acre Castle Rock Lake was completed; the Colstrip plants produce electricity from coal using steam. The water for the steam is pumped in an underground pipe 30 miles from the Yellowstone River and stored in the lake; the lake is stocked with the home for a wide variety of wildlife. In 1990 the Colstrip Energy Limited Project started commercial operations. Located six miles north of Colstrip, this experimental electricity production facility is owned by Rosebud Energy Corp. a partnership that at one point included Enron.
The plant uses high sulfur waste coal from the Rosebud Coal Mine's topmost one foot layer of coal. In 1998 plants 1-4 were sold to a group led by Puget Sound Energy; the Rosebud Coal Mine was sold to Westmoreland Mining LLC. In this same year the City of Colstrip was incorporated; as of June 2015, PPL spun off its power generation assets including the Colstrip plants to become Talen Energy. In 2016, Puget Sound Energy reached an agreement with the Sierra Club and the Montana Environmental Information Center to shut down units 1 and 2 of the coal-fired generating plant by the year 2022; the agreement says nothing about the status of Units 4 at the generating station. However, the existing electrical transmission capacity that transmits power from Colstrip to the Pacific Northwest may be used to transmit wind energy. Colstrip is the proposed junction point of the BNSF Railway's trackage through the city with the proposed Tongue River Railroad south to new coal mines near the Wyoming border; the highest level of education offered in Colstrip is the Colstrip High School.
The nearest college is Chief Dull Knife College in Lame Deer. Colstrip is about 20 miles north of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. Many Cheyenne students from the reservation attend school at the high school, making up about one third of the students. Colstrip offers a wide variety of sports activities. Boating and fishing is available on Castle Rock Lake, an artificial reservoir used by the Colstrip power plants. Fishing enthusiasts can find bluegill, bass and pike. A 3.2 mile walking/biking trail runs around the lake, a picnic area and beach is available to swimmers. A year-round recreational facility is available free to residents at Rye Park through Colstrip Parks and Recreation District. CPRD CARPA, offers sports programs for children and adults alike including soccer, baseball and health classes. CPRD facilities include a weight room and heart room, two different gymnasiums. CPRD maintains the bike paths around the city. Colstrip is located at 45°52′50.03″N 106°37′47.65″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.47 square miles, all of it land.
The historical population of Colstrip has varied since it was established in 1924. Prior to incorporation in 1998 it was a census-designated place; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,214 people, 863 households, 622 families residing in the city. The population density was 495.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 986 housing units at an average density of 220.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.7% White, 0.2% African American, 9.0% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, 5.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.3% of the population. There were 863 households of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.8% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.9% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.06.
The median age in the city was 38.1 years. 28.2% of residents were under the age of 18.
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Norwegians are a North Germanic ethnic group native to Norway. They speak the Norwegian language. Norwegian people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in the United States, Australia, Chile, Brazil, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, South Africa. Towards the end of the 3rd millennium BC, Proto-Indo-European speaking Battle-Axe peoples migrated to Norway bringing domesticated horses, agriculture and wheel technology to the region. During the Viking age, Harald Fairhair unified the Norse petty kingdoms after being victorious at the Battle of Hafrsfjord in the 880s. Two centuries of Viking expansion tapered off following the decline of Norse paganism with the adoption of Christianity in the 11th century. During The Black Death 60% of the population died and in 1397 Norway entered a union with Denmark. In 1814, following Denmark-Norway's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, Norway entered a union with Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence.
Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, the country was unofficially allied with the Entente powers. In World War II Norway proclaimed its neutrality, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany. In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes but in referendums held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include integration of a fast growing immigrant population, maintaining the country's generous social safety net with an aging population, preserving economic competitiveness; as with many of the people from European countries, Norwegians are spread throughout the world. There are more than 100,000 Norwegian citizens living abroad permanently in the U. S. U. K. and other Scandinavian countries. Norwegian or Norse Vikings travelled north and west and founded vibrant communities in the Faroe Islands, Orkney, Ireland and northern England.
They conducted extensive raids in Ireland and founded the cities of Cork and Limerick. In 947, a new wave of Norwegian Vikings appeared in England. In the 8th century and onwards, Norwegian- and Danish Vikings settled in Normandy, most famously those led by Rollo, thus began the tradition of the Normans, who expanded to England and other Mediterranean islands. Apart from Britain and Ireland, Norwegian Vikings established settlements in uninhabited regions; the first known permanent Norwegian settler in Iceland was Ingólfur Arnarson. In the year 874 he settled in Reykjavík. After his expulsion from Iceland Erik the Red discovered Greenland, a name he chose in hope of attracting Icelandic settlers. Viking settlements were established in the sheltered fjords of the western coast. Erik's relative Leif Eriksson discovered North America. During the 17th and 18th centuries, many Norwegians emigrated to the Netherlands Amsterdam; the Netherlands was the second most popular destination for Norwegian emigrants after Denmark.
Loosely estimated, some 10% of the population may have emigrated, in a period when the entire Norwegian population consisted of some 800,000 people. The Norwegians left with the Dutch trade ships that when in Norway traded for timber, hides and stockfish. Young women took employment as maids in Amsterdam. Young men took employment as sailors. Large parts of the Dutch merchant fleet and navy came to consist of Danes, they took Dutch names, so no trace of Norwegian names can be found in the Dutch population of today. One well-known illustration is that of Admiral Kruys, he was hired in Amsterdam by Peter I to develop the Russian navy, but was from Stavanger, Norway. The emigration to the Netherlands was so devastating to the homelands that the Danish-Norwegian king issued penalties of death for emigration, but had to issue amnesties for those willing to return, announced by posters in the streets of Amsterdam. Dutchmen who search their genealogical roots turn to Norway. Many Norwegians who emigrated to the Netherlands, were employed in the Dutch merchant fleet, emigrated further to the many Dutch colonies such as New Amsterdam.
Many Norwegians emigrated to the U. S. between the 1850s and the 1920s. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Norwegian Americans. According to the 2000 U. S. Census, three million Americans consider Norwegian to be their sole or primary ancestry, it is estimated. Travelling to and through Canada and Canadian ports were of choice for Norwegian settlers immigrating to the United States. In 1850, the year after Great Britain repealed its restrictive Navigation Acts in Canada and more emigrating Norwegians sailed the shorter route to the Ville de Québec in Canada, to make their way to US cities like Chicago and Green Bay by steamer. For example, in the 1850s, 28,640 arrived at Quebec, Canada, en route to the US, 8,351 at New York directly. Norwegian Americans represent 2-3% of the non-Hispanic Euro-American population in the U. S, they live in both the Upper Midwest and Pacific Northwest. As early as 1814, a party of Norwegians was brought to Canada to build a winter road from York Factory on Hudson Bay to the infant Red River settlement at the site of present-day W
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Forsyth is a city in and the county seat of Rosebud County, United States. The population was 1,777 at the 2010 census. Forsyth was established in 1876 as the first settlement on the Yellowstone River, in 1882 residents named the town after General James William Forsyth who commanded Fort Maginnis, Montana during the Indian Wars and the 7th Cavalry at the Wounded Knee Massacre; the town has long been a transportation nexus, starting with steamboats on the river and progressing to the Northern Pacific Railway and Interstate 94. Forsyth was established as a settlement on the Yellowstone in 1876 as a steamboat landing supporting United States Army operations in the Indian Wars.in 1882, Thomas Alexander traded land to the Northern Pacific Railway to start the town, developed four buildings on main street. On April 21, 1894, several hundred men of Coxey's Army, inspired by Jacob Coxey and led by William Hogan, commandeered a Northern Pacific Railway train in Butte, Montana headed for Washington, DC.
After stopping in Bozeman, they fought Federal Marshals in Billings with one man killed and several wounded. They were apprehended in Forsyth on April 25, by five companies of the 22nd Infantry Regiment and Troop L, 8th Cavalry from Fort Keogh, Cheyenne soldiers known as "Casey's scouts." The incident marked one of the few instances in American history where U. S. Native American troops were used against white civilians. Although some escapes occurred, 331 of the Coxeyites were taken to Helena as prisoners. In the 1980s Forsyth served as the home of the United States Air Force 1st Combat Evaluation Group Detachment 18, evaluating radar observability for B-52s on training runs. Forsyth is located along the south bank of the Yellowstone River; the city is served by Interstate 94 and US routes 12 and 10. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.99 square miles, all land. The data below represent the time period from 1975 until July 2018; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,777 people, 807 households, 472 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,794.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 921 housing units at an average density of 930.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.0% White, 0.5% African American, 1.6% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population. There were 807 households of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.8% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.5% were non-families. 36.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.78. The median age in the city was 46.4 years. 22.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.1% male and 49.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,944 people, 826 households, 525 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,759.0 people per square mile. There were 976 housing units at an average density of 883.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.42% White, 0.21% African American, 2.26% Native American, 0.82% Asian, 0.31% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.23% of the population. There were 826 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 27.0% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 98.2 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,533, the median income for a family was $44,100. Males had a median income of $36,827 versus $19,038 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,994. About 9.4% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. KIKC AM 1250 - Classic country KIKC-FM FM 101.3 - Country music KATL AM 770 - Adult Contemporary KMTA AM 1050 - Oldies KYUS-FM FM 92.3 - Adult Hits Captain William Clark led part of the Lewis and Clark Expedition through this area on the Yellowstone River in 1806 General George Armstrong Custer led troops through this area to the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876 John Melcher, former U. S. senator, worked as a veterinarian in Forsyth and served as mayor in 1955. Carol Thurston, actress The Forsyth High School offers a variety classes and is developing capabilities under a technology plan to prepare its students for higher education.
The plan has been updated since 1997, features plans for maintaining internet capability, laboratory instrument capabilities. The Forsyth Dogies play in the 3B conference with the Baker Spartans, Colstrip Colts, Lame Deer Morningstars, Lodge Grass Indians, St. Labre Braves; the school colors are white. Official Forsyth Web Site (sponsored by
Montana's at-large congressional district
Montana is represented in the United States House of Representatives by one at-large congressional district, among the 435 in the United States Congress. The district is the largest U. S. congressional district by population, with just over 1 million constituents. It is the second-largest by land area, after Alaska's at-large congressional district. Since June 21, 2017, the district has been represented by Republican Greg Gianforte. Gianforte won a special election earlier in 2017 to replace Ryan Zinke, who had resigned to become U. S. Secretary of the Interior. President George W. Bush won Montana in the 2004 Presidential election with 59.1% of the vote, beating John Kerry by 20 percentage points, which indicates that the district leans Republican. However, four years John McCain won the state by only 2.5% over Barack Obama, there is a significant Democratic presence in the state: as of 2019 the Governor's office and one U. S. Senate seat are controlled by the Democrats, which suggested at the time that the district could be competitive in future elections.
In 2016, Donald Trump won by over 20%, while Ryan Zinke won Montana's single congressional seat by over 16%. The seat was left vacant. In a special election held on May 25, 2017, Republican Greg Gianforte won with a margin of 6%. From statehood in 1889, until the creation of geographic districts in 1919, Montana was represented in the United States House of Representatives by members elected at-large, that is, requiring voting by all the state population. From 1913 to 1919, there were two seats, still elected at-large. After that time, two representatives were elected from two geographic districts of equal population, from the east and the west of the state. In the reapportionment following the 1990 census, Montana lost one of its two seats, its remaining member was again elected at-large. Election results from presidential races are shown below; the two at-large seats were moved to district representation in 1919, remained until 1993, when Montana lost a seat due to redistricting from the 1990 US Census, re-establishing the single seat at-large district.
The following are official results from the general elections. 2004 Election results for Montana At Large Congressional district Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for