Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
51st Street (Manhattan)
51st Street is a 1.9-mile long one-way street traveling east to west across Midtown Manhattan. The route begins at Beekman Place, on a hill overlooking FDR Drive. 51st continues for a few feet east of the intersection but the street sign refers to it as Peter Detmold Park which has a pedestrian walk way over the FDR to the East River. Yemen Mission to the United Nations 351 East 51st Street - An apartment complex on one of several sites where Nathan Hale is believed to have been hanged, after the Battle of Long Island Laos Mission to the United Nations Tonga Mission to the United Nations Equatorial Guinea Mission to the United Nations POD Hotel Greenacre Park Sutton Place Synagogue 17th Precinct of NYPD Engine Company No 8, Ladder 2, 8th Battalion of FDNY Double Tree Hotel Great Britain Consulate General Electric Building St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, New York 345 Park Avenue 350 Park Avenue 320 Park Avenue The New York Palace Hotel St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York Venezuela Consulate Olympic Tower Rockefeller Center Radio City Music Hall 1290 Avenue of the Americas Time-Life Building SportsNet New York Studios 1285 Avenue of the Americas 787 Seventh Avenue Millennium Plaza In the middle of block between Sixth and Seventh Avenues is a pedestrian corridor named by the city "Sixth and a Half Avenue", which runs from 51st to 57th Streets.
Sheraton Manhattan Novotel Manhattan Paramount Plaza Mark Hellinger Theatre Times Square Church George Gershwin Theatre St. Paul's House - Church founded by J. J. D. Hall, noted for its "Sin Will Find You Out" neon sign in the shape of a cross, featured on Saturday Night Live Closed Midtown Branch of Saint Vincent's Catholic Medical Center Hustler Club The route concludes at the West Side Highway. Opposite the intersection is the New York Passenger Ship Terminal and the Hudson River The 51st Street station is located on the intersection on 51st Street and Lexington Avenue and is served by the 4, 6, <6> Notes Emporis West 51st profile 51st Street: A New York Songline - virtual walking tour
John Henry O'Hara was an American writer who earned his early literary reputation for short stories and became a best-selling novelist before the age of 30 with Appointment in Samarra and BUtterfield 8. His work stands out among that of contemporaries for its unvarnished realism. While O'Hara's legacy as a writer is debated, his champions rank him among the under-appreciated and unjustly neglected major American writers of the 20th century. Few college students educated after O'Hara's death in 1970 have discovered him, chiefly because he refused to allow his work to be reprinted in anthologies used to teach literature at the college level. "O’Hara may not have been the best story writer of the twentieth century, but he is the most addictive," wrote Lorin Stein, editor-in-chief of the Paris Review, in a 2013 appreciation of O'Hara's work. Stein added, "You can binge on his collections the way some people binge on Mad Men, for some of the same reasons. On the topics of class and alcohol—that is, the topics that mattered to him—his novels amount to a secret history of American life."
Five of O'Hara's stories were adapted into popular films in the 1950s and 1960s, during his lifetime, O'Hara's literary reputation was damaged by the detractors he accumulated due to his out-sized and bruised ego, alcoholic crankiness, long-held resentments and politically conservative columns he wrote in the 1960s, all of which overshadowed his gift for story-telling. John Updike, a fan of O'Hara's writing, said that the prolific author "out-produced our capacity for appreciation. O'Hara was born in Pennsylvania to an affluent Irish-American family. Though his family lived among the gentry of eastern Pennsylvania during his childhood, O'Hara's Irish-Catholic background gave him the perspective of an outsider on the inside of polite WASP society, a theme he returned to in his writing again and again, he attended the secondary school Niagara Prep in Lewiston, New York, where he was named Class Poet for Class of 1924. His father died about that time, leaving him unable to afford the college of his dreams.
By all accounts, this fall in social status from a privileged life of a well-heeled doctor's family to overnight insolvency afflicted O'Hara with status anxiety for the rest of his life, honing the cutting social class awareness that characterizes his work. O'Hara worked as a reporter for various newspapers. Moving to New York City, he began to write short stories for magazines. During the early part of his career, he was a film critic, a radio commentator and a press agent. In 1934, O'Hara published Appointment in Samarra. Endorsing the novel, Ernest Hemingway wrote: "If you want to read a book by a man who knows what he is writing about and has written it marvelously well, read Appointment in Samarra." O'Hara followed Samarra with Butterfield 8, his roman à clef based upon the tragic, short life of flapper Starr Faithfull, whose mysterious death in 1931 became a tabloid sensation. Over four decades, O'Hara published novels, plays and more than 400 short stories, the majority of them in The New Yorker.
During World War II, he was a correspondent in the Pacific theater. After the war, he wrote screenplays and more novels, including Ten North Frederick, for which he won the 1956 National Book Award and From the Terrace, which he considered his "greatest achievement as a novelist." Late in life, with his reputation established, he became a newspaper columnist. In his last decade, O'Hara created "a body of work of magnificent dimensions," wrote George V. Higgins, noting, "Between 1960 and 1968, he published six novels, seven collections of short fiction, some 137 terse and extended stories that all by themselves would supply credentials for a towering reputation in the world of perfect justice that he never did quite find."Many of his stories are set in Gibbsville, Pennsylvania, a fictionalized version of his home town of Pottsville, a small city in the anthracite region of the northeastern United States. O'Hara received the highest critical acclaim for his short stories, he contributed more of them to The New Yorker than any other writer.
He published seven volumes of stories in the final decade of his career while complaining that they took his time away from writing novels. O'Hara once wrote, "I had an inexhaustible urge to express an unlimited supply of short story ideas. No writing has come more to me." In Library of America's collection of 60 of O'Hara's best stories, editor Charles McGrath praises them for their "sketchlike lightness and brevity... in which nothing necessarily'happens' in the old-fashioned sense, but in which some crucial loss or discovery is revealed just by implication... a sense of speed and economy is just what makes the best of these stories so thrilling." Brendan Gill, who worked with O'Hara at The New Yorker, ranks him "among the greatest short-story writers in English, or in any other language" and credits him with helping "to invent what the world came to call The New Yorker short story." In the foreword to a collection published four years before his death, O'Hara declared, "No one writes them any better than I do."
Two more volumes of his stories were published soon after his death. Despite his popular success as a best-selling author, most of O'Hara's longer work is not held in as high regard by the literary establishment. Critic Benjamin Schwarz and writer Christina Schwarz claimed: "So w
4 Intimate Nights with Beyoncé
4 Intimate Nights with Beyoncé was the second concert residency by American recording artist Beyoncé. Held during four non-consecutive nights in August 2011 at the Roseland Ballroom in New York City, the concerts were part of Beyoncé's campaign in support of her fourth studio album 4. All the songs on the standard version of the album, excluding "Start Over", were performed by her to a standing room-only audience of 3,200. Beyoncé sang some of her previous hits from her three prior studio albums as well as songs she recorded with former girl group Destiny's Child in the 1990s and early 2000s. Wearing a linky gold sparkling mini-dress, she was backed by four female dancers and a 20-piece female band including a horn and orchestra section. Tickets to the four concerts sold out in one minute; the first show, on August 14, 2011, received critical acclaim. A DVD of the show titled Live at Roseland: Elements of 4, which features performances from the concert, never before seen personal footage from Beyoncé, including her times with Destiny's Child and partying with family, Beyoncé's rehearsal of "1+1" backstage at American Idol, other live performances and a sneak peek at her wedding dress, was released on November 21, 2011.
On August 5, 2011, Beyoncé's official website announced that she would be performing at New York City's Roseland Ballroom for four nights in the third week of August. The set on each night would be the entire collection of her fourth studio album, 4. Tickets for all four shows were available on August 10 on Ticketmaster; the first date went on sale to the general public at 1 p.m. EST, followed by the second show at 2 p.m. EST, third at 3 p.m. EST, the final concert at 4 p.m. EST. Citi card-members were able to order tickets early with a pre-sale beginning at noon EST on August 10, 2011 through the Citi Private Pass Program; when tickets went on sale to the general public on August 10, 2011 for the first show of 4 Intimate Nights with Beyoncé on August 14, 2011, the date sold out in 22 seconds. Within the minute following the first sold out date, Columbia Records reported via Twitter that all four shows had sold out, stating "It's official @Beyonce's 4th & final show at Roseland Ballroom is SOLD OUT!
Thats a total of 4 sold out shows next week!". In a radio interview with Philadelphia's Power 99FM, Beyoncé's husband Jay-Z spoke in depth about the upcoming intimate shows and compared her to Michael Jackson stating, "I know that's blasphemy to compare the two because Mike was such an innovator, but I think she's like the second coming. You know, the hard dedication that she puts into her shows, it just makes. She's like a machine." On August 19, 2011, the first part of a concert's behind the scenes video was released. In the behind the scenes special, lead guitarist Bibi stated "She's listening to her inner voice right now and doing what she wants to do. I think. I think she's being more authentic and doing what she wants to do instead of doing what people expect, good." Kim, the show's musical director described the idea of the intimate concert, "This project is the most mature project for Beyoncé, because to be able to be in an intimate setting like this like the Roseland, a historic place, it's an amazing thing.
I think the challenge of it is to be able to present your whole album as its own concept, as its own piece and it's a great way to educate the people about what this album means to her. In the second part of the behind the scenes special, Beyoncé is shown calling the shots and rehearsing with her band, leading up to the sold-out shows and clips of fans waiting in line show appreciation and dedication for Beyoncé; the third part to the behind the scenes look was revealed on September 10, 2011. The behind the scenes third part showed the orchestra and back up dancers preparing for the performance as the instrumental to "I Was Here" plays in the background. Before Beyoncé takes to the stage, a clip of her praying with everyone involved in the concert is shown. On her way to the stage, Beyoncé describes in depth what she hopes to achieve during these 4 Intimate Nights stating, "I just want to give them everything I have. I'm so excited about performing the album, it's just such a beautiful vibe inside people are just ready to dance and enjoy the music.
—It's all good." The third part to the behind the scenes look ends with Beyoncé taking to the stage addressing the crowd with "Hello Roseland!" The fourth, final, behind the scenes look into the intimate show was released through Citibank's Facebook page on September 14, 2011. The final part of the behind the scenes look was the commercial for the concerts' DVD release. During the show, Beyoncé performed in a gold lamé mini-dress courtesy of her mother and shoes by Stuart Weitzman, she wore the slinky gold sparkling mini-dress throughout the entire show. Beyoncé was assisted on stage by four female dancers clad in shimmering black leotards. Marcus Barnes of Daily Mail described Beyoncé's fashion choice as "fab". Georgette Cline of AOL's The Boombox stated that the metallic dress showed off her curves during the concert. While on stage, Beyoncé was backed by orchestra; the band consisted of a drummer and guitarist and for the first time in Beyoncé's touring history, a horn section and an orchestra.
The band additionally included, among others, two saxophonists, a guitar player, a seven-piece string section, a pianist and a conductor. Jon Caramanica o
D. G. Yuengling & Son is the oldest operating brewing company in America, established in 1829, it is one of the largest breweries by volume in the country. Based on volume sold in 2016, Yuengling was the top craft beer company in the U. S. Based on sales in 2011, Yuengling was tied with the Boston Beer Company, maker of Samuel Adams brands, as the largest American-owned brewery, its headquarters are in Pennsylvania. Yuengling produces about 2.8 million barrels annually, operating two Pennsylvania facilities and a brewery in Tampa, Florida. Yuengling is an Anglicized version of Jüngling, its founder's surname and the German term for "youngling" or "young person” or “youngster”; the family-owned brewery has traditionally changed ownership through the purchase of the company by the offspring of the previous owner. Due to the popularity of Yuengling Traditional Lager in Pennsylvania and the Delaware Valley, in some bars it can be ordered by asking for a lager. German brewer David Gottlieb Jüngling immigrated to the United States in 1828 from Aldingen, a suburb of Stuttgart, in the Kingdom of Württemberg.
He anglicized his surname from Jüngling to Yuengling and began the "Eagle Brewery" on Centre Street in Pottsville in 1829. His eldest son David Jr. left the Eagle Brewery to establish the James River Steam Brewery along the James River in Richmond, Virginia. The first brewery burned down in an 1831 fire and the company relocated to W. Mahantongo Street at 5th Street, its current location; the Eagle Brewery changed its name to "D. G. Yuengling and Son" in 1873 after Frederick Yuengling joined his father David in running the company. Although the company's name changed, the bald eagle remained the company's emblem. During the late 19th century, breweries were opened in Saratoga Springs, New York City, Trail, British Columbia, although they were merged with the Pottsville plant. Frank D. Yuengling began heading the company in 1899. During the Prohibition era, Yuengling survived by producing "near beers" called "Yuengling Special", "Yuengling Por-Tor", "Yuengling Juvo"; the company ran a dairy which produced ice cream and opened dance halls in Philadelphia and New York City.
In 1933 when the nation's breweries and disgruntled beer lovers won the fight against Prohibition, Yuengling introduced its symbolic Winner Beer, celebrating Prohibition's repeal, the brewery shipped a truck load of its popular brew to the White House to show their appreciation to President Roosevelt. Richard L. Yuengling Sr. and F. Dohrman Yuengling succeeded Frank Yuengling after their father's death in 1963. Yuengling experienced an increase of sales after a renewed interest in history owing to the United States Bicentennial in 1976. Yuengling bought the rights to use the Mount Carbon name and label when Mount Carbon Brewery went out of business in 1977. Yuengling brewed beer at Mount Carbon but abandoned it; the dairy remained in business until 1985. Richard L. Yuengling Jr. took over as the 5th-generation company president in 1985, the same year its Pennsylvanian brewery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the oldest in the United States. It was so listed in the Pennsylvania Inventory of Historic Places at some unspecified date..
Yuengling has been a registered trademark for a variety of merchandise, including beer, since 1995. The Pottsville brewery was featured on an episode of The History Channel's American Eats. In 1987, the brewery reintroduced a lager they had not made in decades to take advantage of a spike in popularity of heavier-style beers. Since this time, Yuengling Lager has become its flagship brand, accounting for 80% of production and much of its rapid growth. In 1990, the brewery sold 138,000 barrels. At the time, Yuengling was the largest brewer of porter in the United States. In the early 1990s, demand throughout Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware outstripped the existing brewery's abilities. In 1999, they increased their manufacturing capacity by purchasing a Stroh Brewery Company plant in Tampa, hiring the former Stroh employees, began working with a trade union for the first time. In 2000, the company built a third brewery in Pennsylvania, in Port Carbon in Schuylkill County near Pottsville. With production at the Port Carbon and original Pottsville plants, the company has been able to expand throughout the East Coast.
Yuengling employees filed for union decertification in 2006. As a result, Yuengling did not renew a contract with Teamsters Local 830 of Philadelphia in March 2006. In response, the trade union began boycotting Yuengling products; as of 2017, Yuengling is a moderately priced beer popular northward through New York, westward until Illinois and Kentucky, southward through Georgia, where it has a large following. The Tampa brewery supplies the Florida Gulf Coast, the Florida Keys, Central Florida, North Florida, the Florida Panhandle as well as Alabama and Tennessee; the brewery hops from Washington as ingredients in its products. Yuengling beer returned to Massachusetts on March 3, 2014, after having circulated among some bars and restaurants beginning in February. Yuengling began distribution in the state of Georgia on October 27, 2008. Yuengling expanded distribution into West Virginia in May 2009, Ohio in October 2011, Rhode Island in June 2014, Connecticut in September 2014, Louisiana in August 2016, Indiana in March 2017.
On December 7, 2017, Yuengling announced it would expand to Arkansas in January 2018, after teasing it would expand to either that state, K
Ice skating is the self-propulsion of a person across a sheet of ice, using metal-bladed ice skates to glide on the ice surface. This activity can be carried out for various reasons, including recreation, sport and travel. Ice skating may be performed on specially prepared ice surfaces, both indoors and outdoors, as well as on occurring bodies of frozen water, such as ponds and rivers. Research suggests that the earliest ice skating happened in southern Finland more than 4,000 years ago; this was done to save energy during winter journeys. Skates were sharpened, flattened bone strapped to the bottom of the foot. Skaters did not skate on the ice, but rather glided on top of it. True skating emerged. Skates now cut into the ice instead of gliding on top of it. Adding edges to ice skates was invented by the Dutch in the 13th or 14th century; these ice skates were made with sharpened edges on the bottom to aid movement. The fundamental construction of modern ice skates has stayed the same since although differing in the details in the method of binding and the shape and construction of the steel blades.
In the Netherlands, ice skating was considered proper for all classes of people, as shown in many pictures by the Old Masters. Ice skating was practiced in China during the Song dynasty, became popular among the ruling family of the Qing dynasty. Ice skating was brought to Britain from the Netherlands, where James II was exiled in the 17th century; when he returned to England, this'new' sport was introduced to the British aristocracy, was soon enjoyed by people from all walks of life. The first organised skating club was the Edinburgh Skating Club, formed in the 1740s. An early contemporary reference to the club appeared in the second edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica: The metropolis of Scotland has produced more instances of elegant skaters than any country whatever: and the institution of a skating club about 40 years ago has contributed not a little to the improvement of this elegant amusement. From this description and others, it is apparent that the form of skating practiced by club members was indeed an early form of figure skating rather than speed skating.
For admission to the club, candidates had to pass a skating test where they performed a complete circle on either foot, jumped over first one hat two and three, placed over each other on the ice. On the Continent, participation in ice skating was limited to members of the upper classes. Emperor Rudolf II of the Holy Roman Empire enjoyed ice skating so much, he had a large ice carnival constructed in his court in order to popularise the sport. King Louis XVI of France brought ice skating to Paris during his reign. Madame de Pompadour, Napoleon I, Napoleon III and the House of Stuart were, among others and upper class fans of ice skating; the next skating club to be established was in London and was not founded until 1830. By the mid-19th century, ice skating was a popular pastime among the British upper and middle classes—Queen Victoria became acquainted with her future husband, Prince Albert, through a series of ice skating trips—and early attempts at the construction of artificial ice rinks were made during the "rink mania" of 1841–44.
As the technology for the maintenance of natural ice did not exist, these early rinks used a substitute consisting of a mixture of hog's lard and various salts. An item in the 8 May 1844 issue of Littell's'Living Age' headed the'Glaciarium' reported that "This establishment, removed to Grafton street East' Tottenham Court Road, was opened on Monday afternoon; the area of artificial ice is convenient for such as may be desirous of engaging in the graceful and manly pastime of skating". Skating became popular as a recreation, a means of transport and spectator sport in The Fens in England for people from all walks of life. Racing was the preserve of most of them agricultural labourers, it is not known when the first skating matches were held, but by the early nineteenth century racing was well established and the results of matches were reported in the press. Skating as a sport developed on the lakes of Scotland and the canals of the Netherlands. In the 13th and 14th centuries wood was substituted for bone in skate blades, in 1572 the first iron skates were manufactured.
When the waters froze, skating matches were held in villages all over the Fens. In these local matches men would compete for prizes of clothing or food; the winners of local matches were invited to take part in the grand or championship matches, in which skaters from across the Fens would compete for cash prizes in front of crowds of thousands. The championship matches; the competitors, 16 or sometimes 32, were paired off in heats and the winner of each heat went through to the next round. A course of 660 yards was measured out on the ice, a barrel with a flag on it placed at either end. For a one-and-a-half mile race the skaters completed two rounds of the course, with three barrel turns. In the Fens skates were called fen runners, or Whittlesey runners; the footstock was made of beechwood. A screw at the back was screwed into the heel of the boot, three small spikes at the front kept the skate steady. There were holes in the footstock for leather straps to fasten it to the foot; the metal blades were higher at the back than the front.
In the 1890s, fen skaters started to race in Norwegian style skates. On Saturday 1 February 1879, a number of professio
Louis Daniel Armstrong, nicknamed Satchmo and Pops, was an American trumpeter, composer and occasional actor, one of the most influential figures in jazz. His career spanned five decades, from the 1920s to the 1960s, different eras in the history of jazz. In 2017, he was inducted into the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame. Armstrong was raised in New Orleans. Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance. Around 1922, he followed Joe "King" Oliver, to Chicago to play in the Creole Jazz Band. In the Windy City, he networked with other popular jazz musicians, reconnecting with his friend, Bix Beiderbecke, made new contacts, which included Hoagy Carmichael and Lil Hardin, he earned a reputation at "cutting contests", relocated to New York in order to join Fletcher Henderson's band. With his recognizable rich, gravelly voice, Armstrong was an influential singer, demonstrating great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes.
He was very skilled at scat singing. Armstrong is renowned for his charismatic stage presence and voice as much as for his trumpet playing. Armstrong's influence extends well beyond jazz, by the end of his career in the 1960s, he was regarded as a profound influence on popular music in general. Armstrong was one of the first popular African-American entertainers to "cross over", that is, whose skin color became secondary to his music in an America, racially divided at the time, he publicly politicized his race to the dismay of fellow African Americans, but took a well-publicized stand for desegregation in the Little Rock crisis. His artistry and personality allowed him access to the upper echelons of American society highly restricted for black men. Armstrong stated that he was born on July 4, 1900. Although he died in 1971, it was not until the mid-1980s that his true birth date, August 4, 1901, was discovered by Tad Jones by researching baptismal records. At least three other biographies treat the July 4th birth date as a myth.
Armstrong was born in New Orleans on August 4, 1901 to William Armstrong. Albert was from Boutte and gave birth at home when she was about sixteen. William Armstrong abandoned the family shortly after. About two years he had a daughter, Beatrice "Mama Lucy" Armstrong, raised by Albert. Louis Armstrong was raised by his grandmother until the age of five when he was returned to his mother, he spent his youth in poverty in a rough neighborhood known as The Battlefield. At six he attended the Fisk School for Boys, a school that accepted black children in the racially segregated system of New Orleans, he did odd jobs for a family of Lithuanian Jews. While selling coal in Storyville, he heard spasm bands, groups that played music out of household objects, he heard the early sounds of jazz from bands that played in brothels and dance halls such as Pete Lala's, where King Oliver performed. The Karnoffskys treated him like family. Knowing he lived without a father, they nurtured him. In his memoir Louis Armstrong + the Jewish Family in New Orleans, La. the Year of 1907, he described his discovery that this family was subject to discrimination by "other white folks" who felt that they were better than Jews: "I was only seven years old but I could see the ungodly treatment that the white folks were handing the poor Jewish family whom I worked for."
He wore a Star of David pendant for the rest of his life and wrote about what he learned from them: "how to live—real life and determination." His first musical performance may have been at the side of the Karnoffsky's junk wagon. To distinguish them from other hawkers, he tried playing a tin horn to attract customers. Morris Karnoffsky gave Armstrong an advance toward the purchase of a cornet from a pawn shop; when Armstrong was eleven, he dropped out of school. His mother moved into a one-room house on Perdido Street with him and her common-law husband, Tom Lee, next door to her brother Ike and his two sons. Armstrong joined a quartet of boys, he got into trouble. Cornetist Bunk Johnson said. In his years Armstrong credited King Oliver, he said about his youth, "Every time I close my eyes blowing that trumpet of mine—I look right in the heart of good old New Orleans... It has given me something to live for." Borrowing his stepfather's gun without permission, he fired a blank into the air and was arrested on December 31, 1912.
He spent the night at New Orleans Juvenile Court was sentenced the next day to detention at the Colored Waif's Home. Life at the home was spartan. Mattresses were absent. Meals were little more than bread and molasses. Captain Joseph Jones used corporal punishment. Armstrong developed his cornet skills by playing in the band. Peter Davis, who appeared at the home at the request of Captain Jones, became Armstrong's first teacher and chose him as bandleader. With this band, the thirteen year-old. On June 14, 1914, Armstrong was released into the custody of his father and his new stepmother, Gertrude, he lived in this household with two stepbrothers for several months. After Gertrude gave birth to a daughter, Armstrong's father never welcomed him, so he returned to his mother, Mary Albert. In her small home, he had to share a bed with his sister, his mother still lived in The Battlefield