Rosenborg Castle Gardens

Rosenborg Castle Gardens is the oldest and most visited park in central Copenhagen, Denmark. Established in the early 17th century as the private gardens of King Christian IV's Rosenborg Castle, the park contains several other historical buildings, including Rosenborg Barracks, home to the Royal Guards, as well as a high number of statues and monuments; the park plays host to temporary art exhibitions and other events such as concerts throughout the summer. The park traces its history back to 1606 when King Christian IV acquired land outside Copenhagen's East Rampart and established a pleasure garden in Renaissance style which delivered fruit and flowers for the royal household at Copenhagen Castle; the garden had a small pavilion, expanded into present day Rosenborg Castle, completed in 1624. In 1634, Charles Ogier, secretary to the French ambassador to Denmark, compared the gardens to the Tuileries Garden in Paris. A drawing by Otto Heider from 1649, the oldest dated garden plan from Denmark, provides knowledge about the layout of the original garden.

The garden contained statues, a fountain and various other features. Its plants included mulberries, apples and lavender. In the century, as fashions changed, the garden was redesigned. A garden plan from 1669 show a typical feature of the Baroque garden, it had an intricate system of paths which led to a central space with an octagonal summerhouse in its centre. From about 1710, after Frederiksberg Palace had been built, Rosenborg Castle, as well as its gardens, was abandoned by the royal family and the gardens were instead opened to the public- Johan Cornelius Krieger was appointed gardener of the Orangery in 1711 and after becoming head gardener in 1721 he redesigned the garden in the Baroque style; the 12-hectare park is bounded by the streets Gothersgade, Øster Voldgade, Sølvgade and Kronprinsessegade. Rosenborg Castle is located in the north-western section of the park and is surrounded by a moat on three sides; the two main entrance are the King's Gate at the corner of Gothersgade and Kronprinsessegade, the Queen's Gate at the corner of Øster Voldgade and Sølvgade.

There are four other entrances to the park. A dominant feature of the scenery are the two diagonal lime tree avenues which intersect near the centre of the park and are known as the Knight's Path and the Lady's Path, while the rest of the paths are laid out in a grid pattern; the tree-lined avenues were planted as part of Krieger's Baroque garden but the underlying network of paths can be seen in Heiders' plan from 1649. Special sections include the PerennialsGarden in front of the wall along Sølvgade and the Rose Garden. Rosenborg Barracks is located on the corner of Gothersgade and Øster Voldgade and was a pavilion and two long conservatory buildings built by Lambert van Haven for Christian V. In 1709 they were built together to form one large orangery complex and in 1743 it was redesigned into the Baroque style by Johan Cornelius Krieger. From 1885 to 1886 it was converted for use by the Royal Life Guard by Engineer Officer Ernst Peymann. In 1985 they moved to new premises at Høvelte between Allerød and Birkerød and since Rosenborg Barracks has only housed guards on duty at Copenhagen.

The Commandant's House is located just left of the main entrance to Rosenborg Castle and faces a lawn. It was built from 1760 to 1763 to designs by Jacob Fortling. Today the building plays host to special exhibitions; the building is today used as an exhibition space. Slotsforvalterboligen fronts Øster Voldgade, it was built in 1688 and extended with an extra story in 1777. The gateway affords access to the park; the Gartner's House is attached to Slotsforvalterboligen. It was built around the same time The Hercules Pavilion stands at the end of Kavalergangen and takes its name from a statue of Hercules positioned in a deep niche between two Tuscan columns, it is flanked by two smaller niches with statues of Eurydice. The three statues were made by the Italian sculptor Giovanni Baratta and acquired by Frederik IV during his visit to Italy. Along Kronprinsessegade and parts of Gothersgade, the park is enclosed by a wrought-iron grill incorporating 16 small pavilions, which opens to the street side.

After the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 there was an urgent need for new housing and Crown Prince Frederik put the southern strip of his garden at disposal for the construction of a new street, to connect Gothersgade to Sølvgade. It was named Kronprinsessegade in honour of Crown Princess Marie Sophie. New residential buildings soon sprung up along the south side of the street but in the same time the need arose for a barrier toward the garden and City Architect Peter Meyn was charged with the commission, he had just returned from Paris where he had been struck by the Pont-Neuf with its iron grill and many small shops and the street life which surrounded it. With this as an inspiration, he designed the new grill along the edge of the park with 14 small shop pavilions which were completed in 1806; the two last pavilions, opposite Landemærket, were not built until 1920. Before this time, the site was occupied by two buildings and Rosenborg Brøndanstalt; the pavilions are built to a Newclassical design and are six ells wide, six ells deep and six ells high.

Among the goods which were sold from the pavilions were stockings. They were available to architects and artists from the Roydal Arts Academy as a sort of grant. Today they are rented out by the Palaces and Properties Agency on two-years leases with possibility of extension. There is a required minimum opening time of 20 hours

Stan Persky

Stan Persky is a Canadian writer, media commentator and philosophy instructor. Persky was born in Illinois; as a teenager, he made contact with and received encouragement from Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg and other writers of the Beat Generation. Persky served in the United States Navy, settled in San Francisco, California in the early 1960s, becoming part of a group of writers that included Jack Spicer, Robert Duncan, Robin Blaser and George Stanley. In 1966, Persky moved to Vancouver and attended the University of British Columbia, receiving degrees in anthropology and sociology, he studied with anthropologist Michael Kew, political philosopher Bob Rowan, sociologist Roy Turner, studied as a graduate student with Rowan's teacher, political philosopher Joseph Tussman in the Experimental Program at the University of California, Berkeley. He became a Canadian citizen in 1972. During the 1960s and'70s, he was prominent as a student and civic activist, was an early staff member of the Georgia Straight, a free alternative newspaper, co-founder with Dennis Wheeler of the "Georgia Straight Writing Supplement", which became New Star Books.

After university, Persky worked at Vancouver Mental Patients Association and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation before becoming a college instructor in the sociology department at Northwest College in Terrace, British Columbia. He subsequently taught at Malaspina College in Nanaimo, British Columbia and Simon Fraser University in Burnaby. From 1983-2016, he was a professor at Capilano University in North Vancouver, first in political studies and in philosophy. Since 1990, Persky has resided part-time in Berlin, Germany, he is the author or editor of some 20 books and has worked as a media commentator for the CBC, a literary columnist for The Globe and Mail and The Vancouver Sun, has written for The Body Politic, This Magazine, New Directions, Saturday Night, Sodomite Invasion Review, Books in Canada and most The Tyee. He is a frequent contributor to Dooney's Cafe. Stan Persky is literary activist, his most recent publications are Reading the 21st Century: Books of the Decade, 2000–2009, Post-Communist Stories: About Cities, Politics and Letter from Berlin: Essays 2015-2016.

Hubert Evans Non-Fiction Prize – 1990 Hubert Evans Non-Fiction Prize – 2006 Lieutenant Governor's Award for Literary Excellence – 2010 Lives of the French Symbolist Poets Wrestling the Angel Son of Socred The House That Jack Built At the Lenin Shipyard: Poland and the Rise of the Solidarity Trade Union The Solidarity Sourcebook Flaunting It: A Decade of Gay Journalism from The Body Politic Bennett II America, the Last Domino: U. S. Foreign Policy in Central America Under Reagan The Supreme Court of Canada Decision on Abortion Fantasy Government: Bill Vander Zalm and the Future of Social Credit Buddy's: Meditations on Desire Mixed Media, Mixed Messages Then We Take Berlin: Stories from the Other Side of Europe. S. title: Boyopolis: Sex And Politics In Gay Eastern Europe ) Autobiography of a Tattoo Delgamuukw: The Supreme Court of Canada Decision on Aboriginal Title On Kiddie Porn: Sexual Representation, Free Speech and the Robin Sharpe Case The Short Version: An ABC Book Topic Sentence: A Writer's Education Robin Blaser Reading the 21st Century: Books of the Decade, 2000–2009 Post-Communist Stories: About Cities, Desires Letter from Berlin: Essays 2015-2016 Thomas Marquard and Brian Fawcett, Let's Keep Doing This: Writings in Honour of Stan Persky Works by or about Stan Persky in libraries Records of Stan Persky are held by Simon Fraser University's Special Collections and Rare Books


Bretten is a town in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on Bertha Benz Memorial Route. Bretten lies in the centre of a rectangle, formed by Heidelberg, Karlsruhe and Stuttgart as corners, it has a population of 28,000. The centre of Bretten consists of many old half-timbered houses around a lively marketplace. Towns and villages under the administration of Bretten include Bauerbach, Büchig, Diedelsheim, Dürrenbüchig, Gölshausen, Rinklingen and Sprantal. Bretten was first mentioned as "villa breteheim" in the "Lorsch codex" in 767. Since 1148 Bretten had the right to issue coins. In 1254 Bretten received city rights. In 1492 Bretten was granted to hold four fairs by Pfalzgraf Philipp. Philipp Melanchthon was born in Bretten in 1497; the residents of Bretten sallied against the Swabian besiegers around Ulrich of Württemberg in 1504. In 1803 Bretten became “Badische Amtsstadt”. After the industrial revolution, the local economy was dominated by cooker production for many years. In 1975 Bretten was given the status of a "Große Kreisstadt".

Bretten station is on the Kraichgau Railway. Every two hours there are direct train connections to Heidelberg. Many commuters live in Bretten and use S4 services of the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, which runs three times an hour to Karlsruhe and back. In Bretten there are 5 Stadtbahn stations and five more stations in the villages that belong to the district of Bretten; the motorways A5, A6 and A8 are reachable within 30 minutes. The largest event in Bretten is the annual Peter and Paul Festival, which attracts up to 80,000 visitors, it is held one long weekend in summer. The main attractions are the numerous performances in countless camps and in the medieval lanes in the old town of Bretten. On Sunday, a huge procession of dressed-up citizens and guest groups takes place. Visitors may be irritated or amused by the mixture of costumes which are related to different centuries. You can see medieval men-at-arms, shepherds and jugglers, as well as Biedermeier styled families and militias, but the festival has three different sources.

The oldest is the successful sally of citizens and men-at-arms on June 28, 1504 against Swabian besiegers. Bretten was the place for a traditional competition called the “shepherds’ jump”, celebrated by all local shepherds. During the 16th and the 18th century several shooting competitions took place, some of them on the Peter and Paul Day. In 1805 a citizen's militia was founded in Bretten. Since the Peter and Paul Festival has been celebrated regularly. After the Revolution in Baden the militias were not allowed to wear weapons anymore and the festival became a children’s festival. In 1923 the militia was refounded and the festival became bigger, with lots of guests and militias from other towns. After World War II the American administration allowed the festival to happen again in 1950, with a new militia and several societies that promoted the medieval aspects of the sally in 1504. Nowadays the organising society tends to advance the medieval aspects of the festival. Many citizens of Bretten are busy all the year round organising the Festival, preparing their costumes, studying old books, practising music, dancing, juggling or practising other performances.

Since the 1980s, the organising society has engaged professional artists. The festival provides a fairground that attracts kids and teenagers. For most citizens and guests the festival is the most important meeting point for former, existing or new friendships, or – as a pupil told the Bretten newspapers: “For me the Peter-and-Paul-Festival is a festival of love”. Serhat Akın, professional football striker Selçuk Alibaz, professional footballer Mile Kekin, frontman of the Croatian punk rock band Hladno pivo Schwickart the Younger of Sickingen, Amtmann of Bretten Samuel Eisenmenger and astronomer Philipp Melanchthon. Media/ newspaper: Brettener Woche/Kraichgauer Bote Official Web Site of Bretten Official Web Site of the organising society of the Peter-and-Paul-Festival Official Peter-and-Paul-Festival Web Site History of the city arms Bertha Benz Memorial Route