Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004. Along with Philae, its lander module, Rosetta performed a detailed study of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. During its journey to the comet, the spacecraft performed flybys of Earth and the asteroids 21 Lutetia and 2867 Šteins, it was launched as the third cornerstone mission of the ESA's Horizon 2000 programme, after SOHO / Cluster and XMM-Newton. On 6 August 2014, the spacecraft reached the comet and performed a series of manoeuvres to orbit the comet at distances of 30 to 10 kilometres. On 12 November, its lander module Philae performed the first successful landing on a comet, though its battery power ran out two days later. Communications with Philae were restored in June and July 2015, but due to diminishing solar power, Rosetta's communications module with the lander was turned off on 27 July 2016. On 30 September 2016, the Rosetta spacecraft ended its mission by hard-landing on the comet in its Ma'at region.
The probe was named after the Rosetta Stone, a stele of Egyptian origin featuring a decree in three scripts. The lander was named after the Philae obelisk, which bears a bilingual Greek and Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription. Rosetta was launched on 2 March 2004 from the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana on an Ariane 5 rocket and reached Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 7 May 2014, it performed a series of manoeuvres to enter orbit between and 6 August 2014, when it became the first spacecraft to orbit a comet. It was one of ESA's Horizon 2000 cornerstone missions; the spacecraft consisted of the Rosetta orbiter, which featured 12 instruments, the Philae lander, with nine additional instruments. The Rosetta mission orbited Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko for 17 months and was designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet attempted; the spacecraft was controlled in Darmstadt, Germany. The planning for the operation of the scientific payload, together with the data retrieval, calibration and distribution, was performed from the European Space Astronomy Centre, in Villanueva de la Cañada, near Madrid, Spain.
It has been estimated that in the decade preceding 2014, some 2,000 people assisted in the mission in some capacity. In 2007, Rosetta made a Mars gravity assist on its way to Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko; the spacecraft performed two asteroid flybys. The craft completed its flyby of asteroid 2867 Šteins in September 2008 and of 21 Lutetia in July 2010. On 20 January 2014, Rosetta was taken out of a 31-month hibernation mode as it approached Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Rosetta's Philae lander made the first soft landing on a comet nucleus when it touched down on Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. On 5 September 2016, ESA announced that the lander was discovered by the narrow-angle camera aboard Rosetta as the orbiter made a low, 2.7 km pass over the comet. The lander sits on its side wedged into a dark crevice of the comet, explaining the lack of electrical power to establish proper communication with the orbiter. During the 1986 approach of Halley's Comet, international space probes were sent to explore the comet, most prominent among them being ESA's Giotto.
After the probes returned valuable scientific information, it became obvious that follow-ons were needed that would shed more light on cometary composition and answer new questions. Both ESA and NASA started cooperatively developing new probes; the NASA project was the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission. The ESA project was the follow-on Comet Nucleus Sample Return mission. Both missions were to share the Mariner Mark II spacecraft design. In 1992, after NASA cancelled CRAF due to budgetary limitations, ESA decided to develop a CRAF-style project on its own. By 1993 it was evident that the ambitious sample return mission was infeasible with the existing ESA budget, so the mission was redesigned and subsequently approved by the ESA, with the final flight plan resembling the cancelled CRAF mission: an asteroid flyby followed by a comet rendezvous with in-situ examination, including a lander. After the spacecraft launch, Gerhard Schwehm was named mission manager; the Rosetta mission included generational team management.
In particular, several younger scientists were brought on as principal science investigators, regular training sessions were conducted. The probe was named after the Rosetta Stone, a stele of Egyptian origin featuring a decree in three scripts; the lander was named after the Philae obelisk, which bears a bilingual Greek and Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription. A comparison of its hieroglyphs with those on the Rosetta Stone catalysed the deciphering of the Egyptian writing system, it was hoped that these spacecraft would result in better understanding of comets and the early Solar System. In a more direct analogy to its namesake, the Rosetta spacecraft carried a micro-etched pure nickel prototype of the Rosetta disc donated by the Long Now Foundation; the disc was inscribed with 6,500 pages of language translations. The Rosetta mission achieved many historic firsts. On its way to comet 67P, Rosetta passed through the main asteroid belt, made the first European close encounter with several of these primitive objects.
Rosetta was the first spacecraft to fly close to Jupiter's orbit using solar cells as its main power source. Rosetta was the first spacecraft to orbit a comet nucleus, was the first spacecraft to fly alongside a
The Taíno ritual seat is a Pre-Columbian wooden seat made in the form of a man on all fours. It was made by the Taino people and found in a cave near the city of Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic; the seat was made before Christopher Columbus landed in the Caribbean and is an important remnant of the Taino culture and civilisation that existed before the arrival of Europeans. The seat is made from the dense hardwood called Lignum vitae. In this case the Lignum vitae is from the Guaiacum officinale tree; this tree's flowers are the national flower of Jamaica. The small chair is made in the form of a man on all fours; the head is decorated with gold and the figure is carved with male genitals underneath. Duhos are carved seats found in the houses of Taino caciques or chiefs throughout the Caribbean region. Duhos “figured prominently in the maintenance of Taino political and ideological systems...... Literally seats of power and ritual.” Duhos made of wood and stone have both been found, though those made of wood tend not to last as well as the stone chairs and are, much rarer.
This seat is one of two Taíno seats called Duho in the British Museum that were found on the island of Hispaniola. The other is modelled anthropomorphically on a man, but in that case the resemblance to a man on his stomach is more proportional. There is another wooden duho in the collections of the British Museum, found on the island of Eleuthera in the Bahamas; some of the first people that Christopher Columbus met in the American continent were the Taino people. Their 7,000-year-old civilisation did not benefit from pre-colonial contact as many were enslaved or died of disease, it was noted by early explorers that some of their time the Taino people were using hallucinogenic drugs. The drug and the pipes that were used are called cohoba, it is that one of these chiefs used this seat to smoke these drugs. The British Museum's seat has a bowl above the figures head, which may have been used to hold cohoba during rituals involving the Zemi gods; this chair from the British Museum was chosen to be one of the History of the World in 100 Objects, a series of radio programmes that started in 2010 and that were created in a partnership between the BBC and the British Museum.
Zemi Figures from Vere, Jamaica The Taino People
"Your Tender Loving Care" is the title track from Buck Owens' 1967 album. The single was number one country hit spending one week at the top and a total of fourteen weeks on the chart; when "Your Tender Loving Care" reached No. 1, it established a new record for most No. 1 songs in as many single releases with 15. Owens' streak had started in June 1963 with "Act Naturally," and the next 13 singles he released all had their A-sides reach the No. 1 position on the Hot Country Singles chart. While several of Owens' other singles during that span had B-sides charted on their own but failed to reach No. 1, there was a Christmas single in the streak, Billboard chart statistician Joel Whitburn has disregarded all non-No. 1 duets, B-side releases that chart on their own and Christmas releases in determining No. 1 streaks, meaning that Owens had a 15-No. 1 streak. It was the first lengthy streak of No. 1 single releases. Owens' chart-topping streak was snapped in January 1968 when Owens' next single, "It Takes People Like You," peaked at No.
2, held out by "For Loving You" by Bill Anderson and Jan Howard, "Sing Me Back Home" by Merle Haggard. He went on to score another No. 1 with the next song, "How Long Will My Baby Be Gone," and have five more No. 1 hits in his career. Owens kept the record for lengthiest No. 1 hit streak until November 1971, when Capitol Records labelmate Sonny James scored his 16th straight No. 1 hit with "Here Comes Honey Again." In the years since, only Earl Thomas Conley and Alabama have had lengthier No. 1 streaks, with 16 and 21 straight No. 1 songs in a row, respectively