The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele discovered in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued in Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V Epiphanes. The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic and Demotic scripts while the bottom is in Ancient Greek; the decree has only minor differences among the three versions, so the Rosetta Stone became key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs, thereby opening a window into ancient Egyptian history. The stone was carved during the Hellenistic period and is believed to have been displayed within a temple at nearby Sais, it was moved in late antiquity or during the Mameluk period, was used as building material in the construction of Fort Julien near the town of Rashid in the Nile Delta. It was discovered there in July 1799 by French soldier Pierre-François Bouchard during the Napoleonic campaign in Egypt, it was the first Ancient Egyptian bilingual text recovered in modern times, it aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher this untranslated hieroglyphic script.
Lithographic copies and plaster casts began circulating among European scholars. The British defeated the French and took the stone to London under the Capitulation of Alexandria in 1801, it has been on public display at the British Museum continuously since 1802 and is the most visited object there. Study of the decree was under way when the first full translation of the Greek text appeared in 1803. Jean-François Champollion announced the transliteration of the Egyptian scripts in Paris in 1822. Major advances in the decoding were recognition that the stone offered three versions of the same text. Three other fragmentary copies of the same decree were discovered and several similar Egyptian bilingual or trilingual inscriptions are now known, including three earlier Ptolemaic decrees: the Decree of Alexandria in 243 BC, the Decree of Canopus in 238 BC, the Memphis decree of Ptolemy IV, c. 218 BC. The Rosetta Stone is no longer unique, but it was the essential key to the modern understanding of ancient Egyptian literature and civilisation.
The term Rosetta Stone is now used to refer to the essential clue to a new field of knowledge. The Rosetta Stone is listed as "a stone of black granodiorite, bearing three inscriptions... found at Rosetta" in a contemporary catalogue of the artefacts discovered by the French expedition and surrendered to British troops in 1801. At some period after its arrival in London, the inscriptions were coloured in white chalk to make them more legible, the remaining surface was covered with a layer of carnauba wax designed to protect it from visitors' fingers; this gave a dark colour to the stone. These additions were removed when the stone was cleaned in 1999, revealing the original dark grey tint of the rock, the sparkle of its crystalline structure, a pink vein running across the top left corner. Comparisons with the Klemm collection of Egyptian rock samples showed a close resemblance to rock from a small granodiorite quarry at Gebel Tingar on the west bank of the Nile, west of Elephantine in the region of Aswan.
The Rosetta Stone is 1,123 millimetres high at its highest point, 757 mm wide, 284 mm thick. It weighs 760 kilograms, it bears three inscriptions: the top register in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the second in the Egyptian demotic script, the third in Ancient Greek. The front surface is polished and the inscriptions incised on it; the Rosetta Stone is a fragment of a larger stele. No additional fragments were found in searches of the Rosetta site. Owing to its damaged state, none of the three texts is complete; the top register, composed of Egyptian hieroglyphs, suffered the most damage. Only the last 14 lines of the hieroglyphic text can be seen. Below it, the middle register of demotic text has survived best; the bottom register of Greek text contains 54 lines. The stele was erected after the coronation of King Ptolemy V and was inscribed with a decree that established the divine cult of the new ruler; the decree was issued by a congress of priests. The date is given as "4 Xandikos" in the Macedonian calendar and "18 Mekhir" in the Egyptian calendar, which corresponds to 27 March 196 BC.
The year is stated as the ninth year of Ptolemy V's reign, confirmed by naming four priests who officiated in that year: Aetos son of Aetos was priest of the divine cults of Alexander the Great and the five Ptolemies down to Ptolemy V himself.
Ilya Iosifovich Moiseev is a Russian chemist. An expert in both kinetics and the coordination chemistry of transition metals, he made significant advances in metal-complex catalysis. Moiseev studied organic chemistry at Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies. After graduating in 1952, his first jobs were as an engineer, a junior researcher in physical chemistry a senior researcher in organic chemistry. Since 1963 he has worked at the N. S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, as head of the laboratory of metal-complex catalysis and coordination chemistry. Since 2003, he has been a professor at the Gubkin Russian State University of Gas, he has served as chairman of the Scientific Council for Gas Chemistry, RAS, vice-president of the Russian Chemical Society. By developing new principles for the design of catalytic systems he created efficient catalysts that enabled compounds of commercial importance to be synthesized from cheap hydrocarbons.
His concerns for efficiency and choice of raw materials were informed by environmental as well as economic considerations. His innovations became the basis of industrial methods for the production of acetaldehyde from ethylene, the synthesis of formic acid from carbon monoxide and water, the hydrogenation of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide, the synthesis of isoprene, he discovered Palladium catalysts that have selective effects under mild conditions, synthesized new classes of inorganic compounds. His most famous discovery was the Pd-catalyzed acetoxlyation of ethylene to vinyl acetate in 1960, which has become known as Moiseev's reaction; the reaction proceeds only in the presence of sodium acetate. CH2=CH2 + 2 CH3OONa + PdCl2 ⟶ CH2=CHOOCH3 + 2 NaCl + Pd + 2 CH3OOH In 2002 he received the State Prize of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology. In 2011 he was awarded the Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology, he received the orders of the Red Banner of Labor and Friendship.
The Royal Society of Chemistry awarded Moiseev the Centenary Prize for 2006/7. In 2012, he was awarded the Demidov Prize for his contribution to the chemistry of organoelement compounds and carbene chemistry, the RAS Chugaev Prize for his work on coordination compounds in industrially important redox reactions. In 2013 he received the RAS Mendeleev Medal for outstanding work in the field of catalysis and energy-saving technologies, he became a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1990, an academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1992. He was a full member of the Academy of Sciences and Literature in Paris, the European Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Academia Europaea. Moiseev, I. I.. K.. "About the mechanism of the reaction between palladium and alkenes in hydroxyl containing solvents". Reports of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 133: 377–380. Moiseev, I. I.. "Green chemistry in the bulk chemicals industry". Kinetics and Catalysis. Pleiades Publishing Ltd. 52: 337–347.
Doi:10.1134/s0023158411030141. ISSN 0023-1584
The Order of La Pléiade is an honorary order of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. It recognizes people who distinguished themselves in the service of its ideals of cooperation and friendship, promoting the role of the French language in their own countries or in the world, it was created in 1976 on initiative of the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie. In this reverse chronological list, each item intentionally referred to the following one: Order of La Pléiade. There are five classes: Grand Cross Grand Officer Commander Officer Knight The badge of the Order of La Pléiade is a seven-pointed star, blue enameled at both sides; the obverse silver central disc features a silver-colored compass rose, surrounded by a blue enamel and silver edged ring with the text "la Pléiade, ordre de la Francophonie", itself surrounded by seven small silver stars. The reverse silver central disc features the Adolphe Bridge in Luxembourg, where the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie was founded, symbolizes unity.
The ribbon is sky blue with small yellow stripes near each border