The Roskilde Festival is a Danish music festival held annually south of Roskilde. It is one of the largest in Northern Europe, it was created in 1971 by two high school students, Mogens Sandfær and Jesper Switzer Møller, promoter Carl Fischer. In 1972, the festival was taken over by the Roskilde Foundation, which has since run the festival as a non-profit organization for development and support of music and humanism. In 2014, the Roskilde Foundation provided festival participants with the opportunity to nominate and vote upon which organizations should receive funds raised by the festival; the Roskilde Festival was Denmark's first music-oriented festival created for hippies, today covers more of the mainstream youth from Scandinavia and the rest of Europe. The Roskilde Festival 2013 had more than 180 performing bands and was attended by some 130,000 festivalgoers, along with more than 21,000 volunteers, 5,000 media people and 3,000 artists – totalling 160,000 people who participated in the festival.
Until the mid-1990s, the festival attracted Scandinavians, but in recent years it has become more and more international. The first Roskilde Festival was held on 28 and 29 August 1971 named the Sound Festival, it was inspired by festivals and youth gatherings like Isle of Wight and Woodstock. It was characterized by poor management but great enthusiasm; the festival's inaugural year saw 20 bands ranging from folk, jazz and pop genres all playing on a single stage, which lasted for two days with some 10,000 visitors per day. In 1978, festival organizers acquired the Canopy Scene, an orange musical stage used by The Rolling Stones on a European tour. Since its beginning, the Canopy Scene and its characteristic arches have become a well-known symbol and logo representing the festival. In the 1990s, electronic music was introduced to the festival. In 1991, Club Roskilde was held, an electronic music dance club held in the evenings. In 1995, electronic music artists received their own stage. In the following years more room for electronic music was created by the establishment of the chill-out zone and the Roskilde Lounge.
Since artists like Fatboy Slim, The Prodigy, Basement Jaxx and Chemical Brothers appeared on the main stage. By the 1990s, the number of tickets offered for sale was restricted and even reduced. Due to increasing popularity of the festival, the number of visitors had increased to up to 125,000. In addition, 90,000 tickets for about 25,000 volunteers, 5,000 media people and 3,000 artists were added. In order to preserve the quality of the festival, the festival organizers decided to limit the number of participants; the distance from the rearmost part of the camping area to the stages of the festival management seemed to have become unreasonable. The festival had become so popular that the festival management decided in 1994 to expand the festival area to the west; the festival site was now on divided by the railway line into two parts. In 1996 the festival had its own station. In 1997, another tent called; the bands presented at Roskilde Festival are traditionally a balanced mix of large, well-known artists, cutting-edge artists from all contemporary genres, popular crowd-pleasing acts plus local Scandinavian headliners and up-and-coming names.
The stages were until 2003 named after their colour, but as the names had not matched the actual color of the tents for a period, it was decided to rename all stages except the Orange Stage, the central and main stage. The Orange Stage is open in front of a huge field, whereas the other tents cover the whole audience, the largest of, the Arena stage, the largest tent in Europe with an official capacity of 17,000 people; the 2007 edition saw two new tents, replacing Ballroom which presented World music, Metropol which presented Electronica. In 2010 two stages and Lounge, did not return, due to a slight shift in focus towards fewer, but bigger bands. In 2014 the Odeon stage was cancelled along with the surrounding sustainable-style food outlets, the area was replaced with pre-booked tents for festival guests that prefer not to bring their own; the music covers such styles as rock, Hip Hop, urban, electronica and 3rd world contemporary music. It has become a tradition to let a Danish act open the Orange Stage on the first day of the festival.
There are surprising performances by classical acts, film-music, opera etc. Apart from music there is always ` lone acts' wandering around the festival site. Terrain and tents are always decorated in various ways; the current tents are: The festival campsite covers nearly 80 hectares and access to it is included in the ticket price. It opens on Sunday morning prior to the festival itself. Apart from the small and separate Camping South it is divided into two areas and West, each comprising a service center with establishments ranging from food stalls to a cinema; the campsite is further divided into'agoras' that provide toilets, cell phone charging and luggage storage. They host events according to each agora's theme: dance, swim etc. Over the most recent years, the opening of the campsite has turned into an event of its own. Thousands of people arrive during Saturday, to wait in the queue until 16:00 that afternoon when the gates to the campsite ope
A wheelchair ramp is an inclined plane installed in addition to or instead of stairs. Ramps permit wheelchair users, as well as people pushing strollers, carts, or other wheeled objects, to more access a building. A wheelchair ramp can be semi-permanent or portable. Permanent ramps are designed to be otherwise attached in place. Semi-permanent ramps rest on top of the ground or concrete pad and are used for the short term. Permanent and semi-permanent ramps are of aluminum, concrete or wood. Portable ramps are aluminum and fold for ease of transport. Portable ramps are intended for home and building use but can be used with vans to load an unoccupied mobility device or to load an occupied mobility device when both the device and the passenger are easy to handle. Ramps must be designed in order to be useful. In many places, laws dictate maximum slope. In general, reduced incline rises are easier for wheelchair users to traverse and are safer in icy climates. However, they require traveling a greater distance to go up.
Hence, in some cases it is preferable to include an elevator or other type of wheelchair lift. In many countries, wheelchair ramps and other features to facilitate universal access are required by building code when constructing new facilities which are open to the public. Internationally, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities mandates nations take action to "enable persons with disabilities to live independently and participate in all aspects of life." Among other requirements, it compels countries to institute "minimum standards and guidelines..." for accessibility. In the US, the Americans with Disabilities Act requires a slope of no more than 1:12 for wheelchairs and scooters for business and public use, which works out to 1 foot of ramp for each one inch of rise. For example, a 20-inch rise requires a minimum of 20 feet in length of ramp. Additionally, ADA limits the longest single span of ramp, prior to a rest or turn platform, to 30 feet. Ramps can be as long as needed.
Residential Applications are not required to meet ADA standards. The UK's guidelines as recommended by the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and Equality Act 2010 are a maximum of 1:12 for ramps "Ramps should be as shallow as possible; the maximum permissible gradient is 1:12, with the occasional exception in the case of short, steeper ramps when refitting existing buildings."Ramps can have a maximum going of 10 m, beyond which there has to be a landing before continuing as a ramp. The maximum permissible gradient for non domestic dwellings, 1:12, applies to ramps with a going no greater than 2 m; this equates to a maximum Rise of 133 mm. The gradient of the longest permissible ramp going of 10 m must not be steeper than 1:20; this equates to a maximum Rise of 500 mm. In between these two limits of ramp goings the allowable steepest gradient varies in a graduated way; this is shown in the Building Regulations 2004 Part M on a graph from which the reader is required to interpolate the allowable gradient.
Alternatively, there is a simple calculation method which gives a accurate result. The formulae for these are <reference ODPM>: TO CALCULATE THE GOING FOR A KNOWN RISE Going = / Note. The calculated Going is the minimum allowable for the given Rise. TO CALCULATE THE RISE FROM A KNOWN GOING Rise = / Note; the calculated Rise is the maximum allowable for the given Going. In Hong Kong, wheelchair ramp may not exceed a 1:12 slope for wheelchairs except in some situations under the Barrier Free Access terms. In South Africa 1:12 max unless difference in level is less than 400mm in which case 1:10 max.. In Australia, the National Construction Code requires a wheelchair ramp to have a maximum incline of 1 in 8; this means. The wheelchair ramp must have a minimum width of 1 metre. Wheelchair accessible vehicles may include a ramp to facilitate entry and exit; these may be portable designs. Most major automotive companies offer rebates for portable ramps and mobility access equipment for new vehicles. Adapted automobile Bridge plate Sidewalk curb wheelchair ramp Wheelchair lift
The Language Report was an account of the state and use of the English language published by the Oxford University Press in 2003. It was compiled by lexicographer Susie Dent, best known for her regular appearances on the television word game Countdown, was an annual publication until 2007; the first Language Report, described by the OUP as "a frontline account of what we’re saying and how we’re saying it", among other things, changes in the use of English since 1903, how new words come about, the language of the Internet and of text messaging, language relating to particular areas of activity, urban slang, American and “World” English, as well as nicknames and personal names “which have transcended their owners”. There was a list containing a word that typified each year between 1903 and 2003, a practice which continued with "a word a year" in future editions. Succeeding reports, which drew on the work of Oxford’s language monitoring programme, concentrated on developments over the previous period of twelve months.
A discernible feature was the increasing prominence given to Dent herself. In 2003 she was identified as the author on the inside title page and, with a small photograph, on the inside of the dust-jacket, but not on the outside; the 2007 edition had the name in larger letters than the sub-title. The second to fourth editions had whimsical sub-titles: larpers and shroomers; the fifth edition in 2007, English on the move 2000-2007, was a retrospective of the early years of the 21st century. The first and last words identified in each edition as representing the preceding century were: "hip" and "chav". A different approach was adopted in 2007 with ten words identified for each decade from 1900-99. Several words, such as "bling", "chav" and "sex up" were chosen to represent 2000-07. "Footprint" was referred to - in passing - as the choice for 2007. There was no Language Report in 2008, but Dent produced a volume entitled Words of the Year, published as a paperback by the OUP. A regular feature from 2004 was a section entitled “Bubbling Under” which recorded "words of the moment” that had not yet found their way into dictionaries but which “have shown clear signs of semi-permanence and of wide usage".
Examples were "crackberry", "fugly" and "gene editing", "chugger", "Google bombing" and "happy slapping", "WAGs", "dark tourism" and "blook", "burkini" and "gingerism". The Language Report was one of the more successful attempts to disseminate trends in English in a scholarly, but accessible and readable form. An earlier publication, though more traditional in format, had been the Oxford Dictionary of New Words, compiled by Sara Tulloch in 1992, while Bill Bryson's Mother Tongue: The English Language and Made in America provided, from the viewpoint of an anglophile Mid-Westerner, entertaining accounts of the development of English on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. In 2006 the BBC television series Balderdash and Piffle, presented by Victoria Coren, highlighted how words found their way into the Oxford English Dictionary and the type of evidence that supported such entries. Referring to this process and to its illustration by Balderdash and Piffle, Dent noted that, since 2000, quarterly updates of Oxford's "revision work" had appeared on-line.
The Language Report first appeared at a time when there was concern in some quarters about a perceived decline in the use of written English due, in part, to the growth of e-mail and text messaging. Others, such as the broadcaster John Humphrys and the lawyer and ethicist Sir Ian Kennedy, were concerned about what Humphrys called “sloppy, cliché-ridden language” and Kennedy saw as the undermining of the "symbolic importance of language"; the novelist Kingsley Amis, an admirer of Fowler's Modern English Usage, was apt, as he himself put it, to "spot some fresh linguistic barbarism and am off again". However, who noted that "there has never been a finite golden age in our language's history, nor a monolithic, unified English", did not tend to take sides. Dent anticipated in 2006 that "discussions of good versus bad English, predictions as to which will conquer, will continue as they always have done"