A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is ceremonial and titular; the term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used in universities in Europe, and is common in Latin American countries. It is used in Brunei, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, is responsible for chairing the University Court; the head of a university in Germany is called a president, rector magnificus or rectrix magnifica, as in some Belgian universities. In Dutch universities, the rector magnificus is the most publicly prominent member of the board, responsible for the scientific agenda of the university.
In the Netherlands, the rector is, not the chair of the university board. The chair has, in the most influence over the management of the University. In some countries, including Germany, the position of head teacher in secondary schools is designated as rector. In the Netherlands, the terms "rector" and "conrector" are used for high school directors; this is the case in some Maltese secondary schools. In the Scandinavian countries, the head of a university or a gymnasium is called a rektor. In Sweden and Norway, this term is used for the heads of primary schools. In Finland, the head of a primary school or secondary schools is called a rector provided the school is of sufficient size in terms of faculty and students, otherwise the title is headmaster; the head of some Finnish universities is called chancellor. In the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal's and Spain's university heads or presidents have the title; those universities whose foundation has been approved by the Pope, as e.g. the rector of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university, is referred to as Magnífico Reitor.
The others are referred to as Excelentíssimo Senhor Reitor. In Spain, all Rectors must be addressed as Señor Rector Magnífico according to the law, but the Rector of the University of Salamanca, the oldest on the Iberian Peninsula, is styled according to academic protocol as Excelentísimo y Ilustrísimo Señor Profesor Doctor Don, Rector Magnífico de la Universidad de Salamanca. In a few "Crown lands" of the Austrian Empire, one seat in the Landtag was reserved for the rector of the capital's university, notably: Graz in Steiermark, Innsbruck in Tirol, Wien in Nieder-Österreich. Today Austrian universities are headed by a Rectorate consisting of one Rector and 3-5 additional Vizerectors; the Rector is the CEO of the university. The heads of Czech universities are called the rektor; the rector acts in the name of the university and decides the university's affairs unless prohibited by law. The rector is nominated by the University Academic Senate and appointed by the President of the Czech Republic.
The nomination must be agreed by a simple majority of all senators, while a dismissal must be agreed by at least three fifths of all senators. The vote to elect or repeal a rector is secret; the term of office is four years and a person may hold it for at most two consecutive terms. The rector appoints vice-rectors. Rectors' salaries are determined directly by the Minister of Education. Among the most important rectors of Czech universities were reformer Jan Hus, physician Jan Jesenius and representative of Enlightenment Josef Vratislav Monse. Jiřina Popelová became the first female Rector in 1950; the rectors are addressed "Your Magnificence Rector". In Danish, rektor is the title used in referring to the heads of universities, schools of commerce and construction, etc. Rektor may be used for the head of any educational institution above the primary school level, where the head is referred to as a'skoleinspektør'. In universities, the second-ranked official of governance is known as prorektor. Most English universities are formally headed by "chancellors".
In a few colleges, the equivalent person is called a "president", "provost", or "warden". At two Oxford colleges, Lincoln College and Exeter College, the head is called "rector". At Oxford and Cambridge, the university's overall head is called "chancellor", but this is chiefly a ceremonial position while the academic head of each university is the "vice-chancellor". At St Chad's College, one of the two so-called "recognised colleges" of the University of Durham, there is a "rector" as titular head while the academic head is the "principal"; the University of London has a chancellor (a
Politiken is a leading Danish daily broadsheet newspaper, published by JP/Politikens Hus in Copenhagen, Denmark. It played a role in the formation of the Danish Social Liberal Party. Since 1970 it maintains a liberal stance, it now runs politiken.dk. The paper's design has won several international awards, a number of its journalists have won the Cavling Prize. Dagbladet Politiken was founded on 1 October 1884 in Copenhagen by Viggo Hørup, Edvard Brandes and Hermann Bing. Hørup and Brandes formed the newspaper after being fired as editors from the Morgenbladet over political differences. Hørup led the paper as editor-in-chief for fifteen years from its start in 1884. In 1904, the tabloid Ekstra Bladet was founded as a supplement to Politiken and was spun off as an independent newspaper on 1 January 1905; the paper established its present location in central Copenhagen at The City Hall Square in 1912. In 1987 Politiken started its business supplement; the paper was published by Politikens Hus until 1 January 2003 when the company merged with Jyllands-Posten A/S to form JP/Politikens Hus.
Thus, Jyllands-Posten became its sister paper. Politiken is published in broadsheet format; the newspaper publishes an international edition named Politiken Weekly which compiles the most important stories of the week for Danes living abroad. On 28 April 1940, three weeks after the German invasion of Denmark, Politiken ran an editorial in which Winston Churchill was called "a dangerous man"; the editorial was written by foreign affairs editor Einard Schou after a conversation in the editor-in-chief's office with chairman of the board and soon-to-be-again Danish foreign minister Erik Scavenius. The aim is thought to have been to please the German occupation force, though no other Danish newspaper took such steps at the time, it was enough to keep within the newly introduced censorship. The article led to 15,000 readers, about 10% of subscribers, cancelling their subscriptions in protest. During the early 1900s Politiken had a cultural radical political stance; the paper was connected to the Danish Social Liberal Party, but the newspaper declared its political independence in 1970.
The paper has a far-leaning social and centre-left stance. In February 2010 the editor in chief at the time Tøger Seidenfaden apologized to anyone, offended by the newspaper's decision to reprint the cartoon drawing by Kurt Westergaard depicting Muhammed with a bomb in his turban, published in Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten. Seidenfaden explained that "Politiken has never intended to reprint the cartoon drawing as a statement of editorial opinion or values but as part of the newspaper's news coverage". Politiken started with a daily circulation of 2,000 copies, its circulation was 23,142 copies in 1901. In 1910 its circulation rose to 41,400 copies, it became one of Denmark's leading newspapers in terms of both circulated copies and number of readers. Its circulation was 165,615 copies in 1950. During the last six months of 1957 the paper had a circulation of 148,169 copies on weekdays, it fell to 142,847 copies in 1960. The circulation of the paper was 134,728 in 1970, 138,921 copies in 1980 and 152,435 copies in 1990.
During the second half of 1997 its circulation was 146,000 copies on weekdays. Politiken had a circulation of 143,000 copies on weekdays and 185,000 copies on Sundays in the first quarter of 2000, making it the third best selling newspaper in the country, it was 142,780 copies in 2000. In 2002 it was the third best-selling newspaper in the country with a circulation of 142,000 copies; the circulation of the paper was 137,000 copies in 2003, making it again the third best selling newspaper in the country. In 2004 the paper had a circulation of 134,000 copies; the circulation of Politiken was 110,230 copies in 2007. The number of copies sold per day in the first half of 2012 were 97,820 on weekdays and Saturdays, 120,411 on Sundays; the same year the number of readers were 375,000 on weekdays and Saturdays, 479,000 readers on Sundays. The paper had a circulation of 88,597 copies in 2013, its online newspaper, politiken.dk, received around 800,000 monthly users in 2011 and was the tenth most viewed page among the members of the Association of Danish Interactive Media.
Internationally, Politiken has received recognition for its design through the form of several awards. In 2012 Politiken was declared'World's Best' along with four other newspapers in a competition carried out by the Society for News Design. In 2014 the paper was chosen as one of Scandinavia’s best-designed newspapers in the Best of Scandinavian News Design competition; the paper's design and brand was given as the reason, when in 2010, the European Newspapers Congress awarded Politiken with the European Newspaper Award in the national newspaper category. Politiken has been known for its photography. Jan Grarup, winner of several World Press Photo Awards and numerous other prizes, was a staff photographer from 2003 until 2009. Anselm Hüwe is one of the contemporary awarded photographers. Cavlingprisen is a Danish honorary award for journalism, it was named after a former editor-in-chief at Politiken Henrik Cavling. Cavling award winners at Politiken: 1945 Henrik V. Ringsted 1946 Kristian Find 1962 Jørgen Hartmann-Petersen 1966 Herbert Pundik 1967 Sune Skallerup Sørensen 1968 Erik Nørgaard 1974 Anne Wolden-Ræthinge 1976 Inger Østergaard 1982 J. B.
Holmgaard 1992 Svend Bjering Schmidt 2006 Miriam Dalsgaard and Olav Hergel Politiken has had a number of editors in chief since its inception. In some periods there were more than one edit
Copenhagen Business School
Copenhagen Business School abbreviated and referred to as CBS, is a public university situated in Copenhagen, Denmark and is considered one of the most prestigious business schools in Western Europe and the world. CBS was established in 1917 by the Danish Society for the Advancement of Business Education and Research, however, it was not until 1920 that accounting became the first full study programme at CBS. Today CBS has more than 20,000 students, 2,000 employees and offers a wide range of undergraduate and graduate programmes within business with an interdisciplinary and international focus. CBS is accredited by EQUIS, AMBA, as well as AACSB, thus making it one of the few schools worldwide to hold the "triple-crown" accreditation, along with Aarhus BSS, the only two in Denmark; the CBS campus is located in Frederiksberg, close to the center of Copenhagen, centers on the school's main campus of Solbjerg Plads, completed in 2000. Since the Danish Universities Act of 2003, CBS has had a Board of Directors with an external majority.
The Board of Directors appoints the President of CBS, Per Holten-Andersen. Most of the programs are taught in English, more than half of the faculty is recruited from abroad, making CBS an international academic environment; the university’s alumni include Søren Skou, CEO of A. P Moller-Maersk, Lise Kingo, Executive Director of the United Nations Global Compact, Fritz Henrik Schur Junior, Chairman of DONG Energy, David Heinemeier Hansson, creator of Ruby on Rails, Claus Meyer, culinary entrepreneur and founder of the New Nordic Cuisine philosophy, Hannibal Muammar Gaddafi, son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, Lars Dalgaard, founder of SuccessFactors, as well as several other entrepreneurs and Danish politicians. CBS was established in 1917 by the Danish Society for the Advancement of Business Education, a private educational institution. In 1965 the business school became integrated into the Danish educational system as an institution of higher education. Today, it is regulated by the Danish Universities Act of 2003.
CBS offers a range of university degrees in business economics and modern languages for international business communication in Denmark. The selection of full-time programmes complies with the three levels: 3-year bachelor's degree 2-year master's degree 3-year PhDCBS offers part-time programmes: Executive Master Programmes Graduate Diploma Programmes and short courses CBS offers 19 bachelor programmes, eight taught in English and eleven taught in Danish, in business administration and international business communication; the BSc in International Business covers three main areas of study, Business Economics/Management, Methodology. The BSc IB is the only programme in Denmark that offers students the opportunity to join the GLOBE program or the EngAGE program; the BSc in International Business and Politics is an interdisciplinary bachelor programme which offers students a joint concentration in management and economics, political science and international relations. English Organizational Communication, abbreviated as EOK, is a bachelor programme offering students an understanding of how English is and can be used in an international company.
The students will gain an understanding of. Intercultural Market Communication known as IMK, is a bachelor programme that will teach students how to communicate from market to market, when cultural aspects are involved. CBS offers thirty-nine master's programmes in Social Science, Business Administration and Business Administration, International Business Communication, Business Administration and Information Systems and Business and Culture; the largest master's programme is MSc in Economics and Business Administration with 14 concentrations and more than 4,000 students. There are seven master programmes in Social Science. Five of them are taught in English; the master in Management of Creative Business Processes known as CBP, is a master program in social science that teaches students to navigate between the realms of management and arts. With a focus on creative industries, students will learn to manage creative business processes as well as acquire project management skills; this is a two-year program divided in 4 semesters.
The first semester includes 3 courses: Creative Industries and Strategies, Marketing and Creative Processes and Intellectual Property Law. The second semester includes 3 courses: Managing Creative and Innovative Organisations and Managerial Accounting and Creative Business Project; the third semester gives you the opportunity to choose between Electives, Exchange or Internship and the fourth semester concerns the Master Thesis. The other two master programmes are taught in Danish and include: Political Communication and Management Human Resource Management There are eight master programmes in Business Administration. Four of them are taught in English and include: Business Administration and Innovation in Health Care Business Administration and Philosophy Business Administration and Bio-entrepreneurship Business Administration and E-businessThe other four master programmes are taught in Danish and include: Business Administration and Commercial Law Business Administration and Organisational Communication Business Administration and Management Science Business Administration and Psychology There are sixteen master programmes in Economics and Business Administration.
Twelve of them are taug
Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches; these social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, communication studies, history, human geography, linguistics, political science, public health, sociology. The term is sometimes used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are eclectic, using multiple methodologies.
The term "social research" has acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods. The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution; the social sciences developed from the sciences, or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers; the growth of the social sciences is reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.
Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route, taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; the fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. In this route and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.
Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure; the development of social science subfields became quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, neuropsychology and the history and sociology of science. Quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics.
Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; the social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim and Weber, or more to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, health and trade, art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and rec
Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2003, making it the first global university ranking with multifarious indicators. Since 2009, ARWU has been published and copyrighted annually by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, an independent organization focusing on higher education. In 2011, a board of international advisory consisting of scholars and policy researchers was established to provide suggestions; the publication includes global league tables for institutions and a whole and for a selection of individual subjects, alongside independent regional Greater China Ranking and Macedonian HEIs Ranking. ARWU is regarded as one of the three most influential and observed university rankings, alongside QS World University Rankings and Times Higher Education World University Rankings, it is praised for the objectivity and transparency of its methodology, but draws some criticism as it does not adequately adjust for the size of the institution, thus larger institutions would tend to rank above smaller ones.
ARWU is praised by several institutions for its methodology and influence. A survey on higher education published by The Economist in 2005 commented ARWU as "the most used annual ranking of the world's research universities." In 2010, The Chronicle of Higher Education called ARWU "the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities". EU Research Headlines reported the ARWU's work on 31 December 2003: "The universities were evaluated using several indicators of research performance." Chancellor of University of Oxford, Chris Patten and former Vice-Chancellor of Australian National University, Ian Chubb, said: "the methodology looks solid... it looks like a pretty good stab at a fair comparison." And "The SJTU rankings were reported and around the world... offer an important comparative view of research performance and reputation." Respectively. Philip G. Altbach named ARWU's'consistency, clarity of purpose, transparency' as significant strengths. While ARWU has originated in China, the ranking have been praised for being unbiased towards Asian institutions.
The ranking is condemned for "relying too much on award factors" thus undermining the importance of quality of instruction and humanities. A 2007 paper published in the journal Scientometrics found that the results from the Shanghai rankings could not be reproduced from raw data using the method described by Liu and Cheng. A 2013 paper in the same journal showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced. In a report from April 2009, J-C. Billaut, D. Bouyssou and Ph. Vincke analyse how the ARWU works, using their insights as specialists of Multiple Criteria Decision Making, their main conclusions are. The ARWU researchers themselves, N. C Liu and Y Cheng, think that the quality of universities cannot be measured by mere numbers and any ranking must be controversial, they suggest that university and college rankings should be used with caution and their methodologies must be understood before reporting or using the results. ARWU has been criticised by the European Commission as well as some EU member states for "favour Anglo-Saxon higher education institutions".
For instance, ARWU is criticised in France, where it triggers an annual controversy, focusing on its ill-adapted character to the French academic system and the unreasonable weight given to research performed decades ago. It is criticised in France for its use as a motivation for fusing universities into larger ones. Indeed, a further criticism has been that the metrics used are not independent of university size, e.g. number of publications or award winners will mechanically add as universities are grouped, independently of research quality. As it may take much time for rising universities to produce Nobel laureates and Fields Medalists with numbers comparable to those of older institutions, the Institute created alternative rankings excluding such award factors so as to provide another way of comparisons of academic performance; the weighting of all the other factors remains unchanged, thus the grand total of 70%. There are two categories in ARWU's disciplinary rankings, broad subject fields and specific subjects.
The methodology is similar to that adopted in the overall table, including award factors, paper citation, the number of cited scholars. Considering the development of specific areas, two independent regional league tables with different methodologies were launched. Academic Ranking of World Universities Website Jambor, Paul Z.'The Changing Dynamics of PhDs and the Future of Higher Educational Development in Asia and the Rest of the World' Department of Education – The United States of America: Educational Resources Information Center, September 26, 2009 Csizmazia Roland A. Jambor, Paul Z. "Korean Higher Education on the Rise: Time to Learn From the Success – Comparative Research at the Tertiary Education Level", Human Resource Management Academic Research Society: International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development,Volume 3, Issue 2
University of Southern Denmark
The University of Southern Denmark is a university in Denmark that has campuses located in Southern Denmark and on Zealand. The university offers a number of joint programmes in co-operation with the University of Flensburg and the University of Kiel. Contacts with regional industries and the international scientific community are strong. With its 29,674 enrolled students, the university is both the third-largest and, given its roots in Odense University, the third-oldest Danish university. Since the introduction of the ranking systems in 2012, the University of Southern Denmark has been ranked as one of the top 50 young universities in the world by both the Times Higher Education World University Rankings of the Top 100 Universities Under 50 and the QS World University Rankings of the Top 50 Universities Under 50; the University of Southern Denmark was established in 1998 when Odense University, the Southern Denmark School of Business and Engineering and the South Jutland University Centre were merged.
The University Library of Southern Denmark was merged with the university in 1998. As the original Odense University was established in 1966, the University of Southern Denmark celebrated their 50-year anniversary on September 15, 2016. In 2006, the Odense University College of Engineering was merged into the university and renamed as the Faculty of Engineering. After being located in different parts of Odense for several years, a brand new Faculty of Engineering building physically connected to the main Odense Campus was established and opened in 2015. In 2007, the Business School Centre in Slagelse and the National Institute of Public Health were merged into the University of Southern Denmark. Princess Marie took over the role of the patron of the University in 2009; the university is governed by a board consisting of 9 members: 5 members recruited outside the university form the majority of the board, 1 member is appointed by the scientific staff, 1 member is appointed by the administrative staff, 2 members are appointed by the students.
The rector is appointed by the university board. The rector in turn appoints deans appoint heads of departments. There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, deans, or department heads. Hence the university has no faculty governance; as a national institution the University of Southern Denmark comprises five faculties – Humanities, Engineering, Social Sciences and Health Sciences totaling 32 departments, 11 research centers and a university library. University Library of Southern Denmark is a part of the university. Research activities and student education make up the core activities of the university; the University of Southern Denmark has widespread cooperation with business and industry in the region and considerable activities within continuing education. The university offers a number of degrees taught in English; the faculty of all six campuses comprises 1,200 researchers in Odense, Esbjerg, Sønderborg and Copenhagen. The University of Southern Denmark offers programmes in five different faculties - Humanities, Engineering, Social Sciences, Health Sciences.
It incorporates 35 institutes, 30 research centres, a well-equipped university library. The university offers a wide range of traditional disciplines as well as a broad selection of business and engineering studies. In recent years the number of options available has been expanded. Examples include the introduction of a successful Journalism programme in Odense, Information Science in Kolding, a Mechatronics Engineering programme in Sønderborg; the educational environments on the Jutland campuses have been strengthened through the creation of new programmes such as a bachelor's degree in Sociology and Cultural Analysis, a bachelor's degree in Business Administration with Sports Management, a bachelor's in Public Health Science in Esbjerg and English Language Studies in Kolding, a variety of engineering programmes and European Studies in Sønderborg. Moreover, the University of Southern Denmark is the only university in Scandinavia that offers a degree programme in chiropractic studies; the university focuses on areas such as communication, information technology, biotechnology.
Other areas of research are pursued through a number of national research centres at the university. Examples include The Hans Christian Andersen Center, the Centre for Sound Communication, the Danish Biotechnology Instrument Centre. Odense in particular focuses on research within the field of geriatrics. Co-operation with the business community has resulted in three substantial donations from some of the giants in Danish industry: Odense is the home of the Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller Institute for Production Technology, where robot technology is one of the many research areas; the Mads Clausen Institute in Sønderborg is engaged in the design and development of software for integration in the intelligent products of the future. Thanks to funding from Kompan and Lego, a research environment for the investigation of child behaviour and development has been established; the university is hosting the Danish Institute for Advanced Study, which brings outstanding researchers together in an interdisciplinary centre for fundamental research and intellectual inquiry.
The Danish IAS exists to encourage and support curiosity-driven research in the sciences and humanities, th