George Arnott Walker-Arnott
George Arnott Walker-Arnott of Arlary FRSE was a Scottish botanist. George Arnott Walker-Arnott was born in Edinburgh in 1799 the son of David Walker Arnott of Arlary, he attended Milnathort Parish School the High School of Edinburgh. He studied law in Edinburgh. Walker-Arnott became a botanist, holding the position of Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow from 1845 to 1868, he studied the botany of North America with Sir William Hooker and collaborated with Robert Wight in studies of Indian botany. He was a member of the Societe de Histoire Naturelle in Paris and the Moscow Imperial Society of Natural History. Walker-Arnott married Mary Hay Barclay in 1831, he is buried in Lighthill Cemetery. Hooker, Sir William Jackson; the Botany of Captain Beechey's voyage. Henry George Bohn
Aphanes is a genus of around 20 species in the rose family, native to Europe and Australia. A 2003 study indicated that Aphanes may belong to the genus Alchemilla called lady's-mantle, they are slender, annual prostrate herbs, much-branched with lobed leaves, pilose and on short petioles. The tiny green to yellow flowers without petals grow in clusters in the denticulate leaflike stipules. Species include: Aphanes andicola Rothm. Aphanes arvensis L. – field parsley-piert, western lady's-mantle, parsley breakstone Aphanes australiana – Australian piert Aphanes cotopaxiensis Romoleroux & Frost-Olsen Aphanes cuneifolia Rydb. Aphanes looseri Rothm. Aphanes microcarpa Rothm. – slender parsley-piert Aphanes occidentalis Rydb. – dew cup, lady's mantle "Aphanes L." Atlas of Living Australia
Comarum is a genus of plants included with the genus Potentilla. It contains one or two species: Comarum palustre – marsh cinquefoil, swamp cinquefoil Comarum salesowianum Fragaria × Comarum hybrids Media related to Comarum at Wikimedia Commons
Dasiphora is a genus of three species of shrubs in the rose family Rosaceae, native to Asia, with one species D. fruticosa, ranging across the entire cool temperate Northern Hemisphere. In the past, the genus was included in Potentilla as Potentilla sect. Rhopalostylae, but genetic evidence has shown it to be distinct; the leaves are divided into five leaflets arranged pinnately. Dasiphora davurica Dasiphora fruticosa Dasiphora parvifolia The Flora of China includes Potentilla bifurca and P. imbricata in this group, but these species do not have published combinations in Dasiphora
Fragaria is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae known as strawberries for their edible fruits. There are more than 20 described many hybrids and cultivars; the most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the garden strawberry, a hybrid known as Fragaria × ananassa. Strawberries have a taste that varies by cultivar, ranges from quite sweet to rather tart. Strawberries are an important commercial fruit crop grown in all temperate regions of the world. Strawberries are not true berries; the fleshy and edible part of the fruit is a receptacle, the parts that are sometimes mistakenly called "seeds" are achenes. Although it is thought that strawberries get their name from straw being used as a mulch in cultivating the plants, the etymology of the word is derived from "strewn berry" in reference to the fruit being "strewn" about the base of the plants. There are more than 20 different Fragaria species worldwide. Numbers of other species have been proposed. Key to the classification of strawberry species is recognizing that they vary in the number of chromosomes.
There are seven basic types of chromosomes. However, they exhibit different polyploidy; some species are diploid. Others are tetraploid, octoploid, or decaploid; as a rough rule, strawberry species with more chromosomes tend to be more robust and produce larger plants with larger berries. Fragaria bucharica Losinsk. Fragaria daltoniana J. Gay Fragaria gracilis Losinsk. Fragaria iinumae Makino Fragaria mandshurica Staudt Fragaria nilgerrensis Schlecht. Ex J. Gay Fragaria nipponica Makino Fragaria nubicola Lindl. Ex Lacaita Fragaria pentaphylla Losinsk. Fragaria vesca L. - woodland strawberry Fragaria viridis Duchesne Fragaria yezoensis H. Hara Fragaria x bifera Duchesne - F. vesca × viridis Fragaria moupinensis Cardot Fragaria orientalis Losinsk. Fragaria × bringhurstii Staudt Fragaria moschata Duchesne - Musk strawberry Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier - Pineapple strawberry, Garden strawberry Fragaria chiloensis Mill. - Beach strawberry Fragaria chiloensis subsp. Chiloensis forma chiloensis. Chiloensis forma patagonica Fragaria chiloensis subsp.
Lucida Staudt Fragaria chiloensis subsp. Pacifica Staudt Fragaria chiloensis subsp. Sandwicensis Staudt - ʻŌhelo papa Fragaria iturupensis Staudt - Iturup strawberry Fragaria virginiana Mill. - Virginia strawberry Fragaria cascadensis K. E. Hummer Fragaria × Comarum hybrids Fragaria × vescana'Lipstick', red-flowered runnering ornamental, sparse small globular fruits. Fragaria vesca and certain other diploid species can produce fertile offspring. Fragaria moschata can hybridize with diploid species such as Fragaria viridis and Fragaria nubicola but producing a lower proportion of viable seeds. Fragaria moschata can hybridize with Fragaria × ananassa. A number of species of butterflies and moths feed on strawberry plants: see list of Lepidoptera that feed on strawberry plants. Accessory fruit Mock strawberry and barren strawberry, which both bear resemblance to Fragaria, are related species in other genera. Strawberry tree is a name for several trees; the breeding of strawberries Strawberry portal Hogan, Flora A Gardener’s Encyclopedia, Timber Press, 2003.
ISBN 0-88192-538-1. Species records in the database from the U. S. National Plant Germplasm System website
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants. His classification was based on an extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu. Jussieu was born in Lyon, he went to Paris to study medicine, graduating in 1770. He was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826, his son Adrien-Henri became a botanist. In his study of flowering plants, Genera plantarum, Jussieu adopted a methodology based on the use of multiple characters to define groups, an idea derived from naturalist Michel Adanson; this was a significant improvement over the "artificial" system of Linnaeus, whose most popular work classified plants into classes and orders based on the number of stamens and pistils. Jussieu did keep Linnaeus' binomial nomenclature, resulting in a work, far-reaching in its impact. Morton's 1981 History of botanical science counts 76 of Jussieu's families conserved in the ICBN, versus just 11 for Linnaeus, for instance.
Writing of the natural system, Sydney Howard Vines remarked "The glory of this crowning achievement belongs to Jussieu: he was the capable man who appeared at the psychological moment, it is the men that so appear who have made, will continue to make, all the great generalisations of science." In 1788, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He was a member of Les Neuf Sœurs; the system of suprageneric nomenclature in botany is dated to 4 Aug 1789 with the publication of the Genera Plantarum. De Jussieu system
Dryas is a genus of perennial cushion-forming evergreen dwarf shrubs in the family Rosaceae, native to the arctic and alpine regions of Europe and North America. The genus is named after the tree nymphs of ancient Greek mythology; the classification of Dryas within the Rosaceae has been unclear. The genus was placed in the subfamily Rosoideae, but is now placed in subfamily Dryadoideae; the species are superficially similar to Geum and Fragaria. However, Dryas are distinct in having flowers with eight petals, instead of the five petals found in most other genera in the Rosaceae; the flowers are erect and white with a yellow centre or pendulous and all-yellow, held conspicuously above the small plants. This makes them popular in rockeries and alpine gardens; the hybrid Dryas × suendermannii, with cream coloured flowers, has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. Dryas tolerates a wide variety of unshaded habitats, including alpine situations with sand or gravel substrate, similar substrates in flat tundra lowlands, fen habitats upon organic substrate where some shading from adjacent sedges or shrubs may occur.
The Younger Dryas and Older Dryas stadials are geological periods of cold temperature that are named after Dryas octopetala, which flourished during that time and is used as a fossil indicator of those periods. Dryas comprises three species, but the genus is in need of taxonomic revision: Dryas drummondii Richardson ex Hook. – Drummond's avens var. drummondii Richardson ex Hook. – Yellow avens var. tomentosa L. O. Williams – Tomentose avens Dryas integrifolia Vahl – Entire-leaved avens subsp. Chamissonis Scoggan – White avens subsp. Crenulata J. Kozhevn – Crenulate avens subsp. Integrifolia Vahl – Entire-leaved avens subsp. Sylvatica Hultén – Forest avens Dryas octopetala L. – Mountain avens subsp. Alaskensis Hultén – Alaskan avens subsp. Hookeriana Hultén – Hooker's avens subsp. Octopetala L. – Eight-petal avens var. angustifolia C. L. Hitchc. – Narrow-leaved avens var. argentea Blytt – Silvery avens var. kamtschatica Hultén – Kamtschatca avens var. octopetala L. – Eight-petal avens subsp. Punctata Hultén – Pointed avens Two hybrids have been described: Dryas × suendermannii Kellerer ex Sundermann— Dryas × wyssiana Beauverd— Some Dryas plants have root nodules that host the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Frankia.
Dryas drummondii forms root nodules and fixes nitrogen with Frankia. Dryas integrifolia does not fix nitrogen with Frankia. Dryas octopetala does not fix nitrogen with Frankia. Dryas × suendermannii does not form root nodules or fix nitrogen with Frankia