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Ross J. Anderson

Ross John Anderson, FRS, FREng is a researcher and industry consultant in security engineering. He is Professor of Security Engineering at the Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Cambridge where he is part of the University's security group. Anderson was educated at the High School of Glasgow. In 1978, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in mathematics and natural science from Trinity College and subsequently received a qualification in computer engineering. Anderson worked in the avionics and banking industry before moving back to the University of Cambridge in 1992, to work on his doctorate under the supervision of Roger Needham and start his career as an academic researcher, he received his PhD in 1995, became a lecturer in the same year. Anderson's research interests are in security, cryptology and technology policy. In cryptography, he designed with Eli Biham the BEAR, LION and Tiger cryptographic primitives, co-wrote with Biham and Lars Knudsen the block cipher Serpent, one of the finalists in the Advanced Encryption Standard competition.

He has discovered weaknesses in the FISH cipher and designed the stream cipher Pike. In 1998, Anderson founded the Foundation for Information Policy Research, a think tank and lobbying group on information-technology policy. Anderson is a founder of the UK-Crypto mailing list and the economics of security research domain, he is well-known among Cambridge academics as an outspoken defender of academic freedoms, intellectual property and other matters of university politics. He is engaged in the ″Campaign for Cambridge Freedoms″ and has been an elected member of Cambridge University Council since 2002. In January 2004, the student newspaper Varsity declared Anderson to be Cambridge University's "most powerful person". In 2002, he became an outspoken critic of trusted computing proposals, in particular Microsoft's Palladium operating system vision. Anderson's TCPA FAQ has been characterised by IBM TC researcher David R. Safford as "full of technical errors" and of "presenting speculation as fact."For years Anderson has been arguing that by their nature large databases will never be free of abuse by breaches of security.

He has said. This is sometimes known as Anderson's Rule. Anderson is the author of Security Engineering, published by Wiley in 2001, he was the editor of Computer and Communications Security Reviews. After the vast Global surveillance disclosure leaked by Edward Snowden beginning in June 2013 Anderson suggested one way to begin stamping out the British state's unaccountable involvement in this NSA spying scandal is to end the domestic secret services. Anderson: “Were I a legislator, I would abolish MI5." Anderson notes the only way this kind of systemic data collection has been made possible was through the business models of private industry. The value of information-driven web companies such as Facebook and Google is built around their ability to gather vast tracts of data, it was something. Anderson is a critic of smart meters, writing that there are various privacy and energy security concerns. Anderson was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2009, his nomination reads: Anderson was elected a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 2009

Mehreen Raheel

Mehreen Raheel is a Pakistani model, managing director of her family company R vision and host who appears in Pakistani films and serials. She is best known for portraying the main leads in Meri Zaat Zarra-e-Benishan, Mastana Mahi and Zindagi Gulzar Hai, she made her film debut in 2011 Jawad Ahmad's Virsa. In 2013, she appeared in Tamanna directed by a British director Steven Dean Moore. Raheel is the daughter of actress and social activist Seemi Raheel, her brother Daniyal Raheel is a model-turned-actor as well. She studied at Lahore Grammar School and Lahore College of Arts and Sciences she went to London for a diploma in Dancing and Script writing. Raheel started her career as a Model, she has appeared in commercials for ICI, Head and Shoulders, Lipton, Ufone, PTCL, Sooper Biscuit. Raheel started her acting career with Ajnabee Rastay, she appeared in Gardish, 3 Bata 3, Kothi No. 156, Meri Zaat Zarra-e-Benishan, Mujhey Hai Hukum-e-Azan, Kabhi Aye Naa Judai, Mastana Mahi and Adha Din Aur Puri Raat.

She was nominated for Best Actress at the Lux Style Awards for her role in Kabhi Aye Na Judaai. From 2013 onwards Raheel played the role of Madiha in Drama Ashk and in another blockbuster serial Zindagi Gulzar Hai, she played Asmaara, which aired on Hum TV. Raheel made her film debut in Jawad Ahmad's Virsa opposite Indian actor Arya Babbar, her second film Tamanna directed by a British director Steven Dean Moore opposite Salman Shahid. She is seen in Hum TV serial Halki Si Khalish. Raheel travelled to India as an Ambassador for the Standard Chartered Fundraising Marathon, she has worked in Thailand in raising money to fund education. She takes part in humanitarian activities in Pakistan. Mehreen Raheel on IMDb

Air National Guard Air Force Reserve Command Test Center

The Air National Guard Air Force Reserve Command Test Center is a unit of the Air National Guard, stationed at Tucson Air National Guard Base, Arizona. It is a tenant unit hosted by Arizona Air National Guard. AATC conducts operational test on behalf of each United States Air Force Major Command and possesses 7 F-16C Fighting Falcon Block 25/32 aircraft to support the primary mission of F-16 Operational Flight Program testing. AATC operates a temporary A-10A Thunderbolt II OT detachment at Davis-Monthan AFB, with the support of the 917th Wing, Barksdale AFB, Louisiana and the host 355th Wing at Davis-Monthan; the unit is tasked and accomplishes testing on a wide variety of other Air Reserve Command aircraft, including F-16 Block 40/42, B-52, F-15A/B, HH-60, HC-130 and electronic combat systems for those aircraft. AATC has conducted testing in support of Air Mobility Command on C-130, C-5, KC-10 and KC-135 aircraft. AATC is uniquely postured to take advantage of modernization efforts that are funded by the National Guard and Reserve Equipment Account, unprogrammed funding suited to near-term improvements.

AATC efforts exploiting NGREA resources complement long-range AF programs and have enabled transformational modernization efforts such as Night Vision Devices for fighter aircraft, Situational Awareness Data Link, a low-cost datalink complementing AF network enabled operations, Litening Targeting Pods, which increased the number of precision strike aircraft in the AF inventory and revolutionized how the AF delivers joint fires and conducts non-traditional intelligence and reconnaissance. This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website Air National Guard Air Force Reserve Command Test Center Fact Sheet

Paulo Jorge (footballer, born 1981)

Paulo Jorge Vieira Alves, known as Paulo Jorge, is a retired Portuguese footballer who played as a right midfielder. He amassed Primeira Liga seasons of 103 games and six goals during six seasons, representing in the competition Boavista, Marítimo, Gil Vicente and Belenenses, he played professionally in Spain and Saudi Arabia. Paulo Jorge was born in Porto District. After six seasons in the second division with F. C. Maia, he joined Boavista F. C. for 2005–06. After a solid Primeira Liga spell at the latter, where he scored seven goals across all competitions, clubs like Valencia CF and PSV Eindhoven showed interest in acquiring Paulo Jorge's services but, after turning down an offer from champions FC Porto, he signed for S. L. Benfica in July 2006. In his first game with the Lisbon team, he netted their only goal against AEK Athens F. C. in a pre-season 1–3 defeat, after which he started in UEFA Champions League matches against FK Austria Wien and F. C. Copenhagen, the latter in the group stage. However, after having appeared sparingly during the league campaign, Paulo Jorge was loaned to Spanish side Málaga CF, which achieved La Liga promotion in 2008.

He shared teams with Hélder Rosário during his stint. In mid-July 2008, Paulo Jorge was sold and joined fellow league club C. S. Marítimo in Madeira, he scored his first official goal on 4 January 2009 during a 4–1 home win against F. C. Paços de Ferreira, spent most of the season as a right back. Paulo Jorge at ForaDeJogo Paulo Jorge at BDFutbol Paulo Jorge at Soccerway

Compressed audio optical disc

A compressed audio optical disc, MP3 CD, or MP3 CD-ROM or MP3 DVD is an optical disc that contains digital audio in the MP3 file format. Discs are written in the "Yellow Book" standard data format, as opposed to the Red Book standard audio format. Compressed audio files are supported by many modern CD players as well as DVD players. Disc players are capable of playing compressed formats, such as MP3, the most used format, as well as Ogg Vorbis, the proprietary Windows Media Audio and ATRAC; because of audio data compression, optical discs do not have to spin all of the time saving battery power. The audio is buffered in random-access memory, which provides protection against skipping; the number of files that a disc can hold depends on how the audio files are encoded and the length of the audio. A standard audio CD can hold about 18 audio programs, a 650-MB data CD containing mid-quality audio files can hold 9.5 hours of audio or about 138 audio tracks. ID3 tags stored in compressed audio files can be displayed by some players, some players can search for audio files within directories on a compressed audio optical disc.

There is no official standard for how audio files on a compressed audio optical CD are stored on discs. As such, the format expected by different players varies; this sometimes leads to incompatibilities and difficulty in playing discs because of filename length limits, sub-directory limits, number of files limits, special character bugs. Sometimes, pressed CDs containing MP3s can be used, since some CD-ROM video games can act as an "MP3 CD" for some users; some older classic CD-ROM games tend to use WAV files since WAV files were the biggest audio format throughout the 90s, in which WAV files on optical discs are compatible with CD players which have Yellow Book CD-ROM support. This technology is most used in audiobooks new on CD since 2000 or so. Since unabridged audiobooks can run into many hours length. CEA/APA has published the following standards on audiobooks. CEA-2003-C - Digital Audiobook File Format and Player Requirements CEA-2004, Audiobook Media and Player Compatibility. Longer runtime as per file compression 6 red book audio discs for the price of one Yellow Book, depending on file compression rates Longer battery life from fewer disc spins Discs marketed without "music" endorsement aren't rejected since Yellow Book mode is being used instead of Red Book audio mode.

Most disadvantages with compressed audio optical discs are present with CDs, DVDs in general. Compared to solid-state flash memory which can be rewritten a finite amount of about 100,000 times and hard drives which can be rewritten a near-infinite number of times, optical discs with compressed audio on them are either non-rewritable, or can only be rewritten about 1000 times, which includes having to erase the entire volume before re-writing. In some cases 1000 write/erase cycles on RW optical discs vs. 100,000+ write/erase cycles on flash memory can be somewhat of a moot point with applications that have less demand for usage. Another issue re-writable optical discs suffer from, is that the re-writable discs have less compatibility with older disc players, though most CD and DVD players that support MP3s and other compressed audio will support RW discs easily; the dependency of moving parts for the associated equipment guarantees less runtime than solid-state Portable media players for battery life reasons, as well as the overall service life.

When being looped, an optical disc player can fail in less than one month when spinning uninterrupted, solid-state portable media players can run for as long as 6 months uninterrupted without failure. Yellow Book optical disc ROMs with compressed audio may free up as many as 5 Red Book audio CDs, but they still demand lots of shelf space, compared to external hard drives and solid-state flash memory. Unlike mechanical disks with permanent housing such as hard drives, solid-state devices like flash memory which has inexpensive but tough housing, optical discs have a reflective surface that can get damaged at low thresholds of surface damage, in which if damage is just accidental, it could mean rendering it unusable; the repeated handling of discs between jewel case and disc drive exposes the disc to dust, makes the disc liable to be damaged permanently. Note that some CD and DVD discs have defective aluminum layers that can flake, damage the disc naturally. If an archival-grade disc is used, such as gold CD or M-DISC, the disc can last far longer than hard drives or flash memory.

Repeated insertion and removal of optical discs can occur when somebody has to deal with multi-gigabyte collections which can span across as many as 10 CD-Rs or more when lots more gigabytes were to be used. Sometimes when somebody is looking for a specific MP3 or similar. Recordable Blu-ray Discs can somewhat solve this problem, but they too suffer from most other disadvantages; the high cost of stand-alone Blu-ray burners, as well as the higher cost of equipment with BD-ROM drives can negate buying sold-state flash memory instead, of which the re-writability of flash memory negates Blu-ray's apparent advantages. Red Book: Compact Disc Digit

Center for Human-Compatible Artificial Intelligence

The Center for Human-Compatible Artificial Intelligence is a research center at University of California, Berkeley focusing on advanced artificial intelligence safety methods. CHAI was founded in 2016 by a group of academics led by UC Berkeley computer science professor and AI author Stuart J. Russell. Russell is known for co-authoring the used AI textbook Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. CHAI's faculty membership includes Bart Selman and Joseph Halpern from Cornell University, Pieter Abbeel from UC Berkeley, Michael Wellman from the University of Michigan. In 2016, the Open Philanthropy Project recommended a grant of $5,555,550 over five years to support CHAI. CHAI received an additional grant of $200,000 from OpenPhil in 2019. CHAI's approach to AI safety research focuses on value alignment strategies inverse reinforcement learning, in which the AI infers human values from observing human behavior, it has worked on modeling human-machine interaction in scenarios where intelligent machines have an "off-switch" that they are capable of overriding.

Existential risk from artificial general intelligence Future of Humanity Institute Future of Life Institute Human Compatible Machine Intelligence Research Institute Official website Publications