A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Amistad National Recreation Area
Amistad National Recreation Area is a park unit managed by National Park Service that includes the area around the Amistad Reservoir at the confluence of the Rio Grande, the Devils River, the Pecos River near Del Rio in Val Verde County, Texas. The reservoir was created by the Amistad Dam, completed in 1969, located on the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border across from the city of Ciudad Acuña in the Mexican state of Coahuila. Amistad, Spanish for "friendship," refers broadly to the close relationship and shared history between Ciudad Acuña and Del Rio; the lake given its location is the backdrop for year-round, water-based recreation opportunities, including boating, swimming, scuba diving and water-skiing. Houseboats and other boating equipment can be rented from the park unit's concessionaires. Amistad National Recreation Area in addition provides opportunities for picnicking, hiking and hunting; the area is rich in archeology and rock art, contains a wide variety of plant and animal life.
In the fall, monarch butterflies by the thousands pass through the area during their 3,000 mile migration from southern Canada to central Mexico. Unlike most national parks, there are opportunities for hunting as provided for under state and federal law at Amistad given its status as a recreation area. Bow-hunting for white-tailed deer, turkey, mouflon sheep, aoudad sheep, blackbuck antelope and feral hog is permitted during certain times of the year in prescribed hunt areas. Though rifles and handguns are not permitted, shotguns may be used to hunt dove, quail and rabbit in accordance with relevant regulations. Elite scuba divers have begun to explore the system of deep underwater caves beneath the surface of the reservoir; the dive requires exotic gas mixes, pre-placement of gas cylinders, extensive decompression times at depth. These caves are considered hazardous and should not be attempted by anyone without extensive training and preparation; the National Park Service managed the site as the Amistad Recreation Area under a cooperative agreement with the International Boundary and Water Commission effective November 11, 1965.
Amistad was reauthorized as a national recreation area and NPS park unit on November 28, 1990. Official NPS site: Amistad National Recreation Area
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area is a recreation and conservation unit of the National Park Service that encompasses the area around Lake Powell and lower Cataract Canyon in Utah and Arizona, covering 1,254,429 acres of desert. The recreation area borders Capitol Reef National Park and Canyonlands National Park on the north, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument on the west, Vermilion Cliffs National Monument and the northeasternmost reaches of Grand Canyon National Park on the southwest, the Navajo Nation on the southeast; the Glen Canyon NRA was established in 1972 "to provide for public use and enjoyment and to preserve the area's scientific and scenic features." The stated purpose of Glen Canyon NRA is for recreation as well as preservation. As such, the area has been developed for access to Lake Powell via 5 marinas, 4 camping grounds, two small airports, houseboat rental concessions; the southwestern end of Glen Canyon NRA in Arizona can be accessed via U. S. Route 89 and State Route 98.
State Route 95 and State Route 276 lead to the northeastern end of the recreation area in Utah. The current Lake Powell lies above Glen Canyon, flooded by the Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1966. Lake Powell has nearly 2,000 miles of fish-holding shoreline and provides opportunity to fish for largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and striped bass that swim in the midst of the recreation area. Several local marinas provide houseboats, jet skis, fishing gear, related equipment to visitors; the geology of the area is dominated by the Glen Canyon Group, consisting of the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, Wingate Sandstone. The entire stratigraphic section included rocks dating from the Cretaceous to Pennsylvanian. With over one million visitors per year, it is inevitable that some will deface the rock faces of the canyon; the Glen Canyon NRA has implemented a voluntourism program wherein volunteers sign up for a five-day houseboat trip to remove graffiti from the canyon walls. Glen Canyon Glen Canyon Dam Glen Canyon Institute Rainbow Bridge National Monument Official National Park Service site Official National Park Service Concessionaire Site Lake Powell Resorts & Marinas, managed by ARAMARK, is an authorized concessioner of the National Park Service, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.
Glen Canyon Natural History Association Page Lake Powell Chamber of Commerce Lake Powell National Golf Course scenic 18-hole golf course Lake Powell Yacht Club to serve the interest of boat owners and water recreational enthusiasts
Chickasaw National Recreation Area
Chickasaw National Recreation Area is a National Recreation Area situated in the foothills of the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma near Sulphur in Murray County. It includes Arbuckle Recreation District; the area was established as Sulphur Springs Reservation on July 1, 1902. Of the park's 9,888.83 acres, water covers 2,409 acres. The park contains many fine examples of 1930's Civilian Conservation Corps architecture. CCC workers created pavilions, park buildings, enclosures for the park's many natural springs; the Chickasaw National Recreation Area preserves forested hills of south-central Oklahoma near Sulphur. Named to honor the Chickasaw Indian Nation, who were relocated to the area from the Southeastern United States during the 1830s, the park's springs and lakes provide opportunities for swimming, fishing, picnicking and hiking, among other activities; as part of the Chickasaw tribe's arrangement with the U. S. government, the park does not charge an admission fee. When the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes were forced to move from their former lands in the southeastern United States, they found an area within the new Chickasaw nation that contained a number of natural fresh and mineral springs that they believed had healing powers.
Fearing that developers would turn the springs into a private resort, as had happened earlier at Hot Springs, the Chickasaw sold a 640-acre parcel to the U. S. Government, which named it the Sulphur Springs Reservation in 1902. In 1902, Orville H. Platt, a U. S. Senator from the state of Connecticut, introduced legislation to establish the 640-acre Sulphur Springs Reservation, protecting 32 freshwater and mineral springs, in Murray County, Oklahoma; the reservation opened to the public April 29, 1904. On June 29, 1906, Congress re-designated the reservation as Platt National Park, named for the senator, a year after his death, it had the distinctions of being the seventh and smallest national park created in the United States as well as the only national park in Oklahoma, until its redesignation as a National Recreation Area in 1976. Since Gateway Arch National Park has taken its place as the smallest national park at just 91 acres. Visitors soon thronged to the new national park. Both the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway and the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway had built spur lines to Sulphur, which became the main entrance to the park.
According to the National Park Service, in 1914, Platt had more visitors than either Yellowstone or Yosemite. In the 1930s, crews of the New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps developed the park's infrastructure, applying then-popular ideas of landscape design to create a tranquil and scenic oasis; the environment built during this time has remained well-preserved, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2011. Platt National Park was abolished by Congress and made part of the much larger Chickasaw National Recreation Area in 1976, which included Lake of the Arbuckles. In 1983, the city of Sulphur traded the 67-acre Veterans Lake to the recreation area in exchange for a strip of land above the State Highway Seven bridge. In 2011, the United States Mint issued a quarter featuring the Chickasaw's Lincoln Bridge, a limestone bridge built in 1909 to commemorate the 100th birthday of Abraham Lincoln, as part of its America the Beautiful Quarters series. Travertine district, embracing the old Platt National Park, is like a large city park, three miles long and less than one mile wide.
A narrow road circles the district, passing by parking areas and picnic grounds, the Travertine Nature Center, swimming holes, a bison pasture. Travertine Creek, joined by Rock Creek, flows through the district, rising in Antelope Springs and Buffalo Springs at the eastern end of the park; the springs produce 5 million gallons per day of cool, crystal clear-water and form Travertine Creek, joined by Rock Creek about 2 miles from its source. A number of other fresh water and mineral springs contribute to Travertine and Rock Creek as they flow through Travertine District, dropping in small waterfalls over several ledges. Several miles of walking and biking trails wind through the forested creek bottomland. Popular and crowded in summer, the Travertine district has been described as an oasis in the Oklahoma prairie. Most of the National Recreational Area is taken up by the 2,350 acre Lake of the Arbuckles and the prairie and woodland along its shores; the scenic lake is a principal water supply reservoir for the city of Ardmore, some 30 mi to the southwest.
Lake of the Arbuckles was built by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1966 by impounding Rock Creek. Water quality and clarity are excellent; the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation has rated the lake as the best for bass fishing in the state. The lake features 36 miles of shoreline. Fishing is permitted year-round for crappie, largemouth bass, white bass and bluegill. Facilities include three campgrounds for tents and RVs, picnic areas, public restrooms, boat docks and ramps, several miles of multi-use trails. Hunting is allowed, hunted species are quail, squirrel, dove, ducks and deer. However, due to heavy hunting pressure and small area size, game is declining and trapping is prohibited. Hunting regulations and certain special rules, are designed to regu
Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area
The Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area is a 70,000 acres protected area designated a National Recreation Area administered by the U. S. Department of the Interior's National Park Service, it is located along the middle section of the Delaware River in New Jersey and Pennsylvania stretching from the Delaware Water Gap northward in New Jersey to the state line near Port Jervis, New York, in Pennsylvania to the outskirts of Milford. A 40-mile section of the Delaware River within the National Recreation Area, has been granted protected status as the Middle Delaware National Scenic River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System and is administered by the National Park Service; this section of the river is the core of the historical Minisink region. The recreation area includes parts of Sussex and Warren counties in New Jersey, Monroe and Pike counties in Pennsylvania; the Appalachian Trail runs along much of the eastern boundary of the park and is maintained and updated by the New York - New Jersey Trail Conference.
The park offers historical and cultural sites including the Minisink Archaeological Site, Millbrook Village, the arts center in Peter's Valley and rural scenery an hour's drive from New York City. The park has significant Native American archaeological sites. In addition, a number of structures remain from early Dutch settlement during the colonial period. Outdoor recreational activities include canoeing, camping, cycling, cross-country skiing, horseback riding, picnicking. Fishing and hunting are permitted in season with valid state licenses; the Delaware River is prone to floods—some resulting from seasonal snow melt or rain run-off from heavy rainstorms. However, record flooding occurred in August 1955 in the aftermath of two separate hurricanes that passed over the area within the span of one week. On 19 August 1955, the river gauge at Riegelsville, Pennsylvania recorded that the Delaware River reached a crest of 38.85 feet above flood stage. A project to dam the river near Tocks Island was in the works before the 1955 floods.
But several deaths and severe damages resulting from these floods brought the issue of flood control to the national level. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers proposed the construction of the dam, which would have created a 37-mile long lake between Pennsylvania and New Jersey, with depths of up to 140 feet; the area around the lake would be established as the Tocks Island National Recreation Area under the oversight of the National Park Service, to offer recreation activities such as hunting, hiking and boating. In addition to flood control and recreation, the dam would be used to generate hydroelectric power and provide a clean water supply to New York City and Philadelphia. Starting in 1960, the present-day area of the Recreation Area was acquired for the Army Corps of Engineers through eminent domain. 15,000 people were displaced by the condemnation of personal property along the Delaware River and the surrounding area. An estimated 3,000 to 5,000 dwellings and outbuildings were demolished in preparation for the dam project and subsequent flooding of the valley.
This included many irreplaceable historical sites and structures connected with the valley's Native American and colonial heritage. The dam project was embroiled in controversy and engendered strong opposition by environmental groups and embittered displaced residents; because of considerable opposition from environmental activists, the unavailability of government funding for the dam, a geological assessment revealing the dam would be located near active fault lines, the federal government decided to abandon the dam project in 1978. The lands acquired were transferred to the National Park Service, the holdings were reorganized to create the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. National Park Service: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area The Friends Of The Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area
Sedro-Woolley is a city in Skagit County, United States. The population was 10,540 at the 2010 census, it is included in the Mount Vernon -- Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area. Incorporated on December 19, 1898, Sedro-Woolley was formed from neighboring rival towns known as Bug and Woolley in Skagit County, northwestern Washington, 25 miles inland from the Puget Sound, 40 miles south of the border with Canada and 65 miles north of Seattle. Four British bachelors, led by David Batey, homesteaded the area in 1878, the time logjam obstructions were cleared downriver at the site of Mount Vernon. In 1884–85, Batey built a store and home for the arrival of the Mortimer Cook family from Santa Barbara, California where Cook had been mayor for two terms. Cook intended to name his new Pacific Northwest town Bug due to the number of mosquitos present, but his wife protested along with a handful of other local wives. Cook was the namesake for the town Cook's Ferry on the Thompson River in British Columbia.
With "Bug" being so unpopular, Cook derived a town name from Spanish. Sedro, on the northern banks of the Skagit River, proved susceptible to floods. In 1899, Northern Pacific Railway developer Nelson Bennett began laying track from the town of Fairhaven, 25 miles northwest on Bellingham Bay, real estate developer Norman R. Kelley platted a new town of Sedro on high ground a mile northwest of Cook's site; the Fairhaven and Southern Railroad arrived in Sedro on Christmas Eve 1899, in time for Bennett to receive a performance bonus from the towns at both ends, a month after Washington became the 42nd state in the Union. Within months, two more railroads crossed the F&S road bed a half mile north of new Sedro, forming a triangle where 11 trains arrived daily. Railroad developer Philip A. Woolley moved his family from Elgin, Illinois, to Sedro in December 1899 and bought land around the triangle, he built the Skagit River Lumber & Shingle Mill next to where the railroads crossed and he started his namesake company town there, based on sales of railroad ties to the three rail companies, including the Seattle and Northern Railway and the Northern Pacific Railroad.
Meanwhile, a fourth town rose nearby when the F&S laid rails on a "wye" that led northeast from Sedro about four and a half miles to coal mines. Bennett bought the mines, along with Montana mining financier Charles X. Larrabee, they soon sold their interests to James J. Hill, owner of the Great Northern; the resulting ore soon turned out to be more suitable for coking coal and a town began there named Cokedale. Cokedale faded in importance when the mine declined and the other towns all merged on December 19, 1898, as Sedro-Woolley. On May 15, 1922, a large circus elephant known as Tusko escaped from the Al G. Barnes Circus, making one of its stops in Sedro-Woolley, at that time; the elephant stomped his way through the little logging town and right into local history, demolishing fences, knocking over laundry lines and trees, telephone poles, a Model T along the way. After logging and coal-mining declined, the major employers and industries became the nearby Northern State Hospital and Skagit Steel & Iron Works, which rose from the back room of a local hardware store to become a major supplier of implements and parts for logging and railroad customers and which manufactured machines and parts for the war effort in World War II and artillery shells, starting in 1953.
By 1990, that company was gone and the hospital was closed but new industry, including robotics and aerospace, is developing north of town and on the campus of the old hospital. The City of Sedro-Woolley is a non-charter code city that operates under a Mayor-Council form of government with seven councilmembers. Six councilmembers are elected by wards and one is elected at-large; each councilmember serves a four-year term. The mayor is elected at-large every four years and is responsible for the executive functions of the city; the mayor appoints a city supervisor, subject to confirmation by the city council, responsible for the day-to-day operations of the city. The police chief, fire chief, finance director, IT director, planning director, public works director, offender work program director report to the city supervisor; the municipal judge is appointed by the mayor, subject to confirmation of the city council, operates independently of the other branches of government. The city librarian reports to the library board.
Sedro-Woolley is a full-service city with its own police department, fire department, wastewater treatment plan, solid waste operation, storm water division, street department, parks department and administration. The city maintains a large number of public parks and open spaces such as Hammer Heritage Square in downtown Sedro-Woolley. Riverfront Park situated on the north bank of the Skagit River is the signature park, it consists of nearly 60 acres and includes picnic shelters, baseball fields, RV park, an off-leash dog park. Every year on the 4th of July the city celebrates with a festive carnival, hosts the Loggerodeo parade. Public schools are operated by the Sedro-Woolley School District. Sedro Woolley school district elementary schools includes Evergreen elementary, Samish elementary, Mary - Purcelle elementary, Central elementary, Clear lake elementary, Big lake elementary, Lyman elementary. Sedro-Woolley is the home of Loggerodeo, a celebration staged annually since the mid-1930s close to the Fourth of July.
The annual event is well known in Western Washington and one
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund