Government of Queensland
The Government of Queensland referred to as the Queensland Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Queensland. The Government of Queensland, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1859 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Queensland has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Queensland ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Key state government offices are located at 1 William Street in the Brisbane central business district; the Government of Queensland operates under the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. The Governor of Queensland, as the representative of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, holds nominal power, although in practice only performs ceremonial duties.
The Parliament of Queensland holds legislative power, while executive power lies with the Premier and Cabinet, judicial power is exercised by a system of courts and tribunals. The Parliament of Queensland is the state's legislature, it consists of Her Majesty The Queen, a single chamber. Queensland is the only Australian state with a unicameral parliament after a second chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly has 93 members. Elections for the Legislative Assembly are held every four years; the Cabinet of Queensland is the government's chief policy-making organ, consists of the Premier and all ministers. The Queensland Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility; each portfolio is led by a government minister, a member of the Parliament. As of April 2016 there were nineteen lead agencies, called government departments, that consist of: Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services Department of Education and Training Department of Energy and Water Supply Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland Health Department of Housing and Public Works Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning Department of Justice and Attorney-General Department of National Parks and Racing Department of Natural Resources and Mines Queensland Police Service and Queensland Fire and Emergency Services Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation Department of State Development Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland Treasury Department of Tourism, Major Events, Small Business and the Commonwealth GamesA range of other agencies support the functions of these departments.
The judiciary of Queensland consists of the Magistrates Court, the District Court, the Supreme Court, as well as a number of smaller courts and tribunals. The Chief Justice of Queensland is the state's most senior judicial officer; the Magistrates Court is the lowest tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland. The court's criminal jurisdiction covers summary offences, indictable offences which may be heard summarily, but all criminal proceedings in Queensland begin in the Magistrates Court if they are not within this jurisdiction. For charges beyond its jurisdiction, the court conducts committal hearings in which the presiding magistrate decides, based on the strength of the evidence, whether to refer the matter to a higher court or dismiss it; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is less than or equal to $150,000. Appeals against decisions by the Magistrates Court are heard by the District Court; the District Court is the middle tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland.
The court has jurisdiction to hear all appeals from decisions made in the Magistrates Court. Its criminal jurisdiction covers serious indictable offences; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is more than $150,000 but less than or equal to $750,000. Appeals against decisions by the District Court are heard by the Court of Appeal, a division of the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court is the highest tier of the judicial hierarchy Queensland. The court has two divisions; the Trial Division's jurisdiction covers serious criminal offences, civil matters involving claims of more than $750,000. The Court of Appeal's jurisdiction allows it to hear cases on appeal from the Trial Division, the District Court, a number of other judicial tribunals in Queensland. Appeals against decisions by the Court of Appeal are heard by the High Court of Australia. There are several factors; the legislature has no upper house. For a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that favoured rural electorates.
This, combined with the decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South Wales operated a balloting system known as Optional Preferential Voting for state elections; this is different from the predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting system, in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot, which some say is to the
Ross Dam is a 540-foot -high, 1,300-foot -long concrete thin arch dam across the Skagit River, forming Ross Lake. The dam is in Washington State, while Ross Lake extends 23 miles north to Canada. Both dam and reservoir are located in Ross Lake National Recreation Area, is bordered on both sides by Stephen Mather Wilderness and combined with Lake Chelan National Recreation Area they make up North Cascades National Park Complex. Built as part of the Skagit River Hydroelectric Project by Seattle City Light, the dam is part of a series of three dams through the Skagit Gorge that were built to generate hydroelectricity from the massive elevation drop of over 1,000 feet from the Canada-U. S. border to Newhalem. The other two dams are Diablo Dam, directly below Ross Dam, Gorge Dam, further downstream. Ross Dam can generate up to 460 MW of electricity. Hydro-electric dams provide 92 percent of the electricity used in Seattle. Prior to construction of the dam the Skagit Gorge upstream of the dam was a wild, free flowing undeveloped area.
The canyon held an intact ancient forest of Douglas Fir, Western Hemlock and Western Redcedar, estimated to be millable into up to 340 million usable board feet of timber. With the creation of the Skagit River Hydroelectric Project in the 1910s, the first two dams, Gorge Dam and Diablo Dam, were constructed downstream of the Ross Dam site. In 1937, construction began on the dam slated to be called Ruby Dam, on the first two of four planned construction phases; the name originates from the wife of Dam proponent James Ross, it is the name of Ruby Creek, a Skagit River tributary that flows southwest to meet the Skagit just upstream of the dam site. By 1940, phases 1 and 2 of the dam were complete, the dam stood 305 feet above the river. While the reservoir filled, the Decco-Walton Logging Company was formed in 1945 with the awarding of a contract from Seattle City Light. Decco-Walton logged the Skagit Gorge as Ross Lake rose, floated logs up the river to British Columbia, where it was hauled to the Fraser River.
By the time Ross Lake filled, only 30 million board feet remained in the basin, less than 10% of the original timber. In 1939, superintendent of the Skagit Hydroelectric Project James Delmage Ross died, so Ruby Dam was renamed Ross Dam in his memory. In 1943 a consortium of contractors including Morrison-Knudsen, which had participated in construction of Hoover Dam, began new construction on the dam raising its height to 475 feet. Energy demands during World War II coincided with an energy shortage in Seattle, requiring that the dam be constructed but the dam did not generate any power until many years after the war ended; this third phase was finished to 540 feet. This height would cause the reservoir at full pool to extend past the Washington-British Columbia border; the reservoir, did not fill past the national border until 1954. As compensation for the flooded land, which totals about 500 acres, Seattle City Light paid the Province of British Columbia $250,000, as well as an annual payment of $5,000.
Two years prior to the reservoir reaching full pool, construction of the Ross Dam power plant began, two turbines first went on line in 1956, generating 360 MW of power. Another two generators were added increasing the capacity to its current 460 MW. A controversy arose over the planned fourth stage of the construction of Ross Dam; this argument over land became known as the High Ross Dam Controversy. The dam was built with the potential to be raised 125 feet further, bringing the total height of the dam to 665 feet and raising the reservoir to 1,725 feet above sea level; the stepped "concrete waffle" facing on the front of the dam was designed to accommodate this addition to the height. This would have flooded land into Canada 3 miles further extending up the Klesilkwa River, a Skagit River tributary, provided the opportunity to generate about 272 MW of extra power, bringing the generating capacity to 732 MW, it wasn't until the 1970s when the High Ross project was ended. On the US side, the North Cascades Conservation Council inventoried the ancient forest of Big Beaver Creek which would have been flooded, showed that City Light's statements that no unique forest environments would be lost were not true.
On the Canadian side the raising of the dam was halted by the extensive work by Curley Chittenden - logger turned environmentalist, who worked tirelessly to rally opposition to this additional flooding of the upper Skagit River basin. The Ross Dam is situated in the gorge of the Skagit River about midway along its 150-mile length, 23 miles south of the Canada–US border, it is a concrete thin arch dam 540 feet high and about 1,300 feet long, stretching across one of the narrowest spots in the Skagit Gorge. The North Cascades mountains rise nearly 5,000 feet vertically from the floor of the canyon and surround it on both sides. Directly upstream of the dam, Ruby Creek flows into the reservoir, forming the Ruby Arm of Ross Lake. Directly downstream, Diablo Dam forms Diablo Lake, much smaller than Ross Lake. Other creeks that flow into Ross Lake include Little Beaver Creek and Big Beaver Creek from the west, Lightning Creek from the east. North Cascades Highway known as Washington State Route 20, follows the Skagit River to where it turns away from the river at Ross Dam and follows Ruby Creek instead.
The power plant of Ross Dam is located just downstream of its base and produces 460 MW of power from four hydroelectric turbines. The dam has two over-the-crest spillways on its flanks, each w
The Atkinson Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam across the Buaraba Creek and a forming lagoon, located near Lowood in the South East region of Queensland, Australia. The main purpose of the dam is for irrigation of farming land in the lower Lockyer Valley; the resultant reservoir is called Lake Atkinson. Located in the locality of Atkinsons Dam, 22 kilometres northeast of Gatton in the Somerset Region local government area of West Moreton region, the dam wall was constructed in 1970 over the natural Atkinson Lagoon; the dam wall is 9 metres high and 2,088 metres long and holds back 30,500 megalitres of water when at full capacity. The surface area of the reservoir is 556 hectares and the catchment area is 4,105 square kilometres; the uncontrolled spillway has a discharge capacity of 439 cubic metres per second. The dam is connected to Seven Mile Lagoon via a 1.2-kilometre channel. Facilities at the dam include picnic tables and two caravan parks. A maximum of 15 boats are permitted on the lake at any one time.
In mid-2006 the dam was empty due to drought conditions in Australia. Fish stocking of silver perch, southern saratoga and golden perch has resulted in an excellent fishery, although the dry periods, high evaporation rates and drawdowns for irrigation in summer, result in low water levels as well as oxygen depleted water which makes fishing much more difficult. Other fish that are present includes spangled perch. List of dams in Queensland Media related to Atkinson Dam at Wikimedia Commons Atkinson's Dam Fishing Information, pictures & Water Level Gauge
Bill Gunn Dam
The Bill Gunn Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam with an un-gated spillway located off-stream in the South East region of Queensland, Australia. The main purpose of the dam is for irrigation of the Lockyer Valley; the resultant reservoir is called Lake Dyer. Located 1.5 kilometres west of the town of Laidley, the dam was developed to increase the capacity of the existing Lake Dyer, a natural lake adjacent to Laidley Creek, a tributary of Lockyer Creek. The dam is managed by SEQ Water; the 1,170 m long earthfill structure has a maximum height of 12 m and an overflow spillway which diverts excess water into Laidley Creek. The dam has a maximum surface area of 108 hectares. Water from the dam is used in the densely cropped Lockyer Valley. Bill Gunn Dam suffers from high drawdowns and summer evaporation which together with phosphate fertilizer creates significant blue green algae problems. In November 2005, during drought conditions in the area, the dam's water level declined to just 1%. A boating permit is not required, however a maximum of eight boats are allowed on the lake at once.
A single concrete boat ramp and some facilities for visitors, including campers, are available at a lakeside caravan park, managed by the local council. The dam is stocked with silver perch and golden perch, while bony bream, spangled perch and eel-tailed catfish breed naturally. A Stocked Impoundment Permit is required to fish in the dam; the poor water quality means that fish caught in the dam may, at times of an algae outbreak, be a health hazard if eaten. List of dams in Queensland Sweetwater Fishing, Lake Dyer/Bill Gunn Dam
Barbecue or barbeque is a cooking method, a style of food, a name for a meal or gathering at which this style of food is cooked and served. Barbecue can refer to the cooking method itself, the meat cooked this way, the cooking apparatus/machine used, or to a type of social event featuring this type of cooking. Barbecuing is done outdoors by smoking the meat over wood or charcoal. Restaurant barbecue may be cooked in specially-designed brick or metal ovens. Barbecue is practiced in many areas of the world and there are numerous regional variations. Barbecuing techniques include smoking, roasting or baking and grilling; the technique for which it is named involves cooking using smoke at low temperatures and long cooking times. Baking uses an oven to convection cook with moderate temperatures for an average cooking time of about an hour. Braising combines direct, dry heat charbroiling on a ribbed surface with a broth-filled pot for moist heat. Grilling is done over direct, dry heat over a hot fire for a few minutes.
The English word "barbecue" and its cognates in other languages come from the Spanish word barbacoa. Etymologists believe this to be derived from barabicu found in the language of the Arawak people of the Caribbean and the Timucua people of Florida; the Oxford English Dictionary traces the word to La Hispaniola and translates it as a "framework of sticks set upon posts". Gonzalo Fernández De Oviedo y Valdés, a Spanish explorer, was the first to use the word "barbecoa" in print in Spain in 1526 in the Diccionario de la Lengua Española of the Real Academia Española. After Columbus landed in the Americas in 1492, the Spaniards found Tainos roasting meat over a grill consisting of a wooden framework resting on sticks above a fire; the flames and smoke enveloped the meat, giving it a certain flavor. Traditional barbacoa involves digging a hole in the ground and placing some meat—usually a whole lamb—above a pot so the juices can be used to make a broth, it is covered with maguey leaves and coal, set alight.
The cooking process takes a few hours. Olaudah Equiano, an African abolitionist, described this method of roasting alligators among the Mosquito People on his journeys to Cabo Gracias a Dios in his narrative The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. Linguists have suggested the word barbacoa migrated from the Caribbean and into other languages and cultures. In the form barbacado, the term was used in English in 1648 by the supposed Beauchamp Plantagenet in the tract A description of the province of New Albion: "the Indians in stead of salt doe barbecado or dry and smoak fish". According to the OED, the first recorded use of the word barbecue in English was a verb in 1661, in Edmund Hickeringill's Jamaica Viewed: "Some are slain, And their flesh forthwith Barbacu'd and eat"; the word barbecue was published in English in 1672 as a verb from the writings of John Lederer, following his travels in the North American southeast in 1669-70. The first known use of the word as a noun was in 1697 by the British buccaneer William Dampier.
In his New Voyage Round the World, Dampier wrote, "... and lay there all night, upon our Borbecu's, or frames of Sticks, raised about 3 foot from the Ground". Samuel Johnson's 1756 dictionary gave the following definitions: "To Barbecue – a term for dressing a whole hog" "Barbecue – a hog dressed whole"While the standard modern English spelling of the word is barbecue, variations including barbeque and truncations such as bar-b-q or BBQ may be found; the spelling barbeque is given in the Oxford Dictionaries as a variant. In the southeastern United States, the word barbecue is used predominantly as a noun referring to roast pork, while in the southwestern states cuts of beef are cooked; because the word barbecue came from native groups, Europeans gave it "savage connotations." This association with barbarians and "savages" is strengthened by Edmund Hickeringill's work Jamaica Viewed: with All the Ports and their Several Soundings and Settlements through its descriptions of cannibalism. However, according to Andrew Warnes, there is little proof that Hickeringill's tale of cannibalism in the Caribbean is remotely true.
Another notable false depiction of cannibalistic barbecues appears in Theodor de Bry's Great Voyages, which in Warnes's eyes, "present smoke cookery as a custom quintessential to an underlying savagery... that everywhere contains within it a potential for cannibalistic violence." Today, those in the U. S. associate barbecue with "classic Americana." In American English usage, grilling refers to a fast process over high heat while barbecuing refers to a slow process using indirect heat or hot smoke, similar to some forms of roasting. In a typical U. S. home grill, food is cooked on a grate directly over hot charcoal, while in a U. S. barbecue the coals are dispersed at a significant distance from the grate. In British usage, barbecuing refers to a fast cooking process done directly over high heat, while grilling refers to cooking under a source of direct, moderate-to-high heat—known in the United States as broiling, its South American versions are the Argentine asado. In the Southern United States, barbecues involved the cooking of pork.
During the 19th century, pigs were a low-maintenance food source that could be released to forage in woodlands. When food or meat supplies were low, these semi-wild pigs could be caught and eaten. Accor