Ethnomusicology is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it. It encompasses distinct theoretical and methodical approaches that emphasize cultural, material, cognitive and other dimensions or contexts of musical behavior, instead of only its isolated sound component. Folklorists, who began preserving and studying folklore music in Europe and the US in the 19th century, are considered the precursors of the field prior to the Second World War; the term ethnomusicology is said to have been first coined by Jaap Kunst from the Greek words ἔθνος and μουσική, It is defined as the anthropology or ethnography of music, or as musical anthropology. During its early development from comparative musicology in the 1950s, ethnomusicology was oriented toward non-Western music, but for several decades it has included the study of all and any musics of the world from anthropological and intercultural perspectives. Bruno Nettl once characterized ethnomusicology as a product of Western thinking, proclaiming that "ethnomusicology as western culture knows it is a western phenomenon".
Stated broadly, ethnomusicology may be described as a holistic investigation of music in its cultural contexts. Combining aspects of folklore, cultural anthropology, comparative musicology, music theory, history, ethnomusicology has adopted perspectives from a multitude of disciplines; this disciplinary variety has given rise to many definitions of the field, attitudes and foci of ethnomusicologists have evolved since initial studies in the area of comparative musicology in the early 1900s. When the field first came into existence, it was limited to the study of non-Western music—in contrast to the study of Western art music, the focus of conventional musicology. In fact, the field was referred to early in its existence as “comparative musicology,” defining Western musical traditions as the standard to which all other musics were compared, though this term fell out of use in the 1950s as critics for the practices associated with it became more vocal about ethnomusicology's distinction from musicology.
Over time, the definition broadened to include study of all the musics of the world according to certain approaches. While there is not a single, authoritative definition for ethnomusicology, a number of constants appear in the definitions employed by leading scholars in the field, it is agreed upon that ethnomusicologists look at music from beyond a purely sonic and historical perspective, look instead at music within culture, music as culture, music as a reflection of culture. In addition, many ethnomusicological studies share common methodological approaches encapsulated in ethnographic fieldwork conducting primary fieldwork among those who make the music, learning languages and the music itself, taking on the role of a participant observer in learning to perform in a musical tradition, a practice Hood termed "bi-musicality". Musical fieldworkers also collect recordings and contextual information about the music of interest. Thus, ethnomusicological studies do not rely on printed or manuscript sources as the primary source of epistemic authority.
While the traditional subject of musicology has been the history and literature of Western art music, ethnomusicology was developed as the study of all music as a human social and cultural phenomenon. Oskar Kolberg is regarded as one of the earliest European ethnomusicologists as he first began collecting Polish folk songs in 1839. Comparative musicology, the primary precursor to ethnomusicology, emerged in the late 19th century and early 20th century; the International Musical Society in Berlin in 1899 acted as one of the first centers for ethnomusicology. Comparative musicology and early ethnomusicology tended to focus on non-Western music, but in more recent years, the field has expanded to embrace the study of Western music from an ethnographic standpoint; the International Council for Traditional Music and the Society for Ethnomusicology are the primary international academic organizations for advancing the discipline of ethnomusicology. Ethnomusicologists have offered varying definitions of the field.
More scholars debate what constitutes ethnomusicology. Bruno Nettl distinguishes between discipline and field, believing ethnomusicology is the latter. There are multiple approaches to and challenges of the field; some approaches reference "musical areas" like "musical synthesis in Ghana" while others emphasize "a study of culture through the avenue of music, to study music as social behavior." The multifaceted and dynamic approaches to ethnomusicology allude to. The primary element that distinguishes ethnomusicology from musicology is the expectation that ethnomusicologists engage in sustained, diachronic fieldwork as their primary source of data. There are many groups who can be connected to ethnomusicology. According to Merriam, some of these groups are "players of ethnic music," "music educators," "those who see ethnic music in the context of a global view of music, vis a vis the study of Western "classical" music," "made up of persons with a variety of interests, all of which are in some sense "applied" like "professional ethnomusicologists," music therapists, the "musicologists" and the "anthropologist."
Folklore and Folklorists were the precursors to the field of Ethnomusicology prior to WWII. They laid a foundation of interest in the preservation and continuation of the traditional folk musics of nations and an interest in the differences b
DownBeat is an American magazine devoted to "jazz and beyond", the last word indicating its expansion beyond the jazz realm which it covered in previous years. The publication was established in 1934 in Illinois, it is named after the "downbeat" in music called "beat one", or the first beat of a musical measure. DownBeat publishes results of annual surveys of both its readers and critics in a variety of categories; the DownBeat Jazz Hall of Fame includes winners from both the readers' and critics' poll. The results of the readers' poll are published in the December issue, those of the critics' poll in the August issue. Popular features of DownBeat magazine include its "Reviews" section where jazz critics, using a'1-Star to 5-Star' maximum rating system, rate the latest musical recordings, vintage recordings, books. DownBeat was established in 1934 in Illinois. In September 1939, the magazine announced that its circulation had increased from "a few hundred five years ago to more than 80,000 copies a month", that it would change from monthly to fortnightly from the following month.
In April 1979, DownBeat went to a monthly schedule for the first time since 1939. DownBeat was named Jazz Publication of the Year in 2016 and 2017 by the Jazz Journalists Association; the DownBeat Jazz Hall of Fame's current membership, by year, is listed in the following table. The Readers' Poll began in 1952, the Critics' Poll in 1961, the Veterans Committee in 2008. 2008: Jo Jones, Jimmie Lunceford, Erroll Garner, Harry Carney, Jimmy Blanton 2009: Oscar Pettiford, Tadd Dameron 2010: Baby Dodds, Chick Webb, Philly Joe Jones, Billy Eckstine 2011: Paul Chambers 2012: Gene Ammons, Sonny Stitt 2013: Robert Johnson 2014: Bing Crosby, Dinah Washington 2015: Muddy Waters 2016: Hoagy Carmichael 2017: Eubie Blake, George Gershwin, Herbie Nichols 2018: Marian McPartland The Mary Lou Williams Women in Jazz Award International Association for Jazz Education Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award BBC Jazz Awards NEA Jazz Masters Benny Heller Down Beat website "About Down Beat: A History As Rich As Jazz" The Jazz Journalists Association Lifetime Achievement Award Nesuhi Ertegun Jazz Hall of Fame Arts For Art Lifetime Achievement Award NAMM Oral History Interview with Kevin Maher January 25, 2014 DownBeat Critics Poll Archives at Acclaimed Music Forums
Larry Coryell was an American jazz guitarist known as the "Godfather of Fusion". Larry Coryell was born in Texas, he never knew a musician. He was raised by his stepfather Gene, a chemical engineer, his mother Cora, who encouraged him to learn piano when he was four years old. In his teens he switched to guitar. After his family moved to Richland, Washington, he took lessons from a teacher who lent him albums by Les Paul, Johnny Smith, Barney Kessel, Tal Farlow; when asked what jazz guitar albums influenced him, Coryell cited On View at the Five Spot by Kenny Burrell, Red Norvo with Strings, The Incredible Jazz Guitar of Wes Montgomery. He tried to play jazz when he was eighteen, he said. Coryell graduated from Richland High School, where he played in local bands the Jailers, the Rumblers, the Royals, the Flames, he played with the Checkers from Yakima. He moved to Seattle to attend the University of Washington. In September 1965, Coryell moved to New York City. After moving to New York, he listened to classical composers such as Bartók, Ravel and Shostakovich.
He replaced guitarist Gábor Szabó in Chico Hamilton's quintet. In 1967–68, he recorded with Gary Burton. During the mid-1960s he played with his first recorded band, his music during the late-1960s and early-1970s combined rock and eastern music. He married three times during his life. First to writer-actress Julie Nathanson, daughter of actress Carol Bruce, she appeared on the cover of his albums, Lady Coryell, Larry Coryell at the Village Gate, The Lion and the Ram and wrote the book Jazz-Rock Fusion based on interviews with musicians such as Chick Corea and John McLaughlin. She sang on one track on Coryell's 1984 album Comin' Home; the couple divorced in 1985. She died in 2009. Larry’s second marriage was to Mary Schuler from Connecticut in 1988; the couple divorced in 2005. Larry’s widow is Tracey Coryell, they were married in Orlando Florida in 2007. Tracey is a singer/songwriter/performer who appeared on Larry’s “Laid, Back & Blues” recording in 2006 on Rhombus Records. Larry recorded one of Tracey’s compositions, “First Day of Autumn” on his album “The Lift “ in 2013 on Wide Hive Records.
In the Seventies, he led the group Foreplay with Mike Mandel, a friend since childhood, although the albums of this period, Barefoot Boy and The Real Great Escape, were credited only to "Larry Coryell." He formed The Eleventh House in 1973. Several of the group's albums included drummer Alphonse Mouzon, he recorded two guitar duet albums with Philip Catherine. In 1979, he formed The Guitar Trio with Paco de Lucia; the group toured Europe releasing a video recorded at Royal Albert Hall in London entitled Meeting of Spirits. In early 1980, Coryell's drug addiction led to his being replaced by Al Di Meola, he recorded Together with guitarist Emily Remler, who died from a heroin overdose in 1990. Coryell died on February 19, 2017, of heart failure in New York City, at the age of 73, he was performing at the Iridium jazz club in Manhattan that weekend. In his review of the concert at the Iridium, David Miller of All About Jazz wrote: This was jazz at its finest—complex and virtuosic yet accessible, at times intense, at others fun-filled, always with the feeling of the unknown that comes with spontaneous and inspired improvisation.
While the music was steeped in the bop tradition, the musicians continually found new ways to utilize the idiom. Few locations other than New York could host a powerhouse gathering of musical heavyweights of this order, one can only hope that the shows have been recorded for a future release; when NPR radio host Billy Taylor, on one of the editions of Billy Taylor's Jazz at the Kennedy Center, introduced Coryell, he said: Versatile virtuoso guitarist Larry Coryell proves to be more than an outstanding musician. Lady Coryell Coryell Spaces Larry Coryell at the Village Gate Fairyland Barefoot Boy Offering The Real Great Escape Introducing Eleventh House with Larry Coryell The Restful Mind Level One Planet End The Lion and the Ram Aspects Two for the Road with Steve Khan Twin House with Philip Catherine Back Together Again with Alphonse Mouzon At Montreaux Better than Live Standing Ovation Splendid with Philip Catherine Difference European Impressions Tributaries with John Scofield, Joe Beck Return Boléro The Larry Coryell Michel Urbaniak Duo L'Oiseau de Feu, Petrouchka Comin' Home A Quiet Day in Spring with Michal Urbaniak Together with Emily Remler Equipoise Toku Do Dragon Gate Shining Hour American Odyssey Larry Coryell/Don Lanphere Twelve Frets to One Octave Live from Bahia Fallen Angel I'll Be Over You Sketches of Coryell Spaces Revisited Cause and Effect Private Concert Monk, Miles & Me From the Ashes with L. Subramaniam New High (HighNote
Mali the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres; the population of Mali is 18 million. Its capital is Bamako; the sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on mining; some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, salt. Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy and art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa.
In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan joined with Senegal in 1959. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad; the conflict was complicated by a military coup that took place in March and fighting between Tuareg and rebels. In response to territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.
The name Mali is taken from the name of the Mali Empire. The name was derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning "hippopotamus", but it came to mean "the place where the king lives"; the word carries the connotation of strength. Guinean writer Djibril Niane suggests in Sundiata: An Epic of Old Mali that it is not impossible that Mali was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was called Mali. One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in the Sankarani River, that it's possible to find villages in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have Mali for a name; this name could have been that of a city. In old Mali, there is one village called Malika which means "New Mali."Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/ and the terminal vowel denasalises and raises, thus "Manden" shifts to /Mali/.
Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt and other precious commodities. These Sahelian kingdoms had rigid ethnic identities; the earliest of these empires was the Ghana Empire, dominated by the Soninke, a Mande-speaking people. The empire expanded throughout West Africa from the 8th century until 1078, when it was conquered by the Almoravids; the Mali Empire formed on the upper Niger River, reached the height of power in the 14th century. Under the Mali Empire, the ancient cities of Djenné and Timbuktu were centers of both trade and Islamic learning; the empire declined as a result of internal intrigue being supplanted by the Songhai Empire. The Songhai people originated in current northwestern Nigeria; the Songhai had long been a major power in West Africa subject to the Mali Empire's rule. In the late 14th century, the Songhai gained independence from the Mali Empire and expanded subsuming the entire eastern portion of the Mali Empire.
The Songhai Empire's eventual collapse was the result of a Moroccan invasion in 1591, under the command of Judar Pasha. The fall of the Songhai Empire marked the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads. Following the establishment of sea routes by the European powers, the trans-Saharan trade routes lost significance. One of the worst famines in the region's recorded history occurred in the 18th century. According to John Iliffe, "The worst crises were in the 1680s, when famine extended from the Senegambian coast to the Upper Nile and'many sold themselves for slaves, only to get a sustenance', in 1738–1756, when West Africa's greatest recorded subsistence crisis, due to drought and locusts killed half the population of Timbuktu." Mali fell under the control of France during the late 19th century. By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of French Sudan. In early 1959, French Sudan and Senegal united to become the Mali Federation; the Mali Federation gained independence from France on 20 June 1960.
Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanes
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
The New York Times Magazine
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times. It is host to feature articles longer than those in the newspaper and has attracted many notable contributors; the magazine is noted for its photography relating to fashion and style. The magazine includes various puzzles, which have been popular features since their introduction, its first issue was published on September 6, 1896, contained the first photographs printed in the newspaper. In the early decades it was a section of not an insert as it is today; the creation of a "serious" Sunday magazine was part of a massive overhaul of the newspaper instigated that year by its new owner, Adolph Ochs, who banned fiction, comic strips and gossip columns from the paper, is credited with saving The New York Times from financial ruin. In 1897, the magazine published a 16-page spread of photographs documenting Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, a "costly feat" that resulted in a wildly popular issue and helped boost the magazine to success.
In its early years, The New York Times Magazine began a tradition of publishing the writing of well-known contributors, from W. E. B. Du Bois and Albert Einstein to numerous sitting and future U. S. Presidents. Editor Lester Markel, an "intense and autocratic" journalist who oversaw the Sunday Times from the 1920s through the 1950s, encouraged the idea of the magazine as a forum for ideas. During his tenure, writers such as Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, Gertrude Stein, Tennessee Williams contributed pieces to the magazine. When, in 1970, The New York Times introduced its first Op-Ed page, the magazine shifted away from publishing as many editorial pieces. In 1979, the magazine began publishing Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist William Safire's "On Language", a column discussing issues of English grammar and etymology. Safire's column gained popularity and by 1990 was generating "more mail than anything else" in the magazine; the year 1999 saw the debut of "The Ethicist", an advice column written by humorist Randy Cohen that became a contentious part of the magazine.
In 2011, Ariel Kaminer replaced Cohen as the author of the column, in 2012 Chuck Klosterman replaced Kaminer. Klosterman left in early 2015 to be replaced by a trio of authors—Kenji Yoshino, Amy Bloom, Jack Shafer—who used a conversational format. "Consumed", Rob Walker's regular column on consumer culture, debuted in 2004. The Sunday Magazine features a puzzle page, edited by Will Shortz, that features a crossword puzzle with a larger grid than those featured in the Times during the week, along with other types of puzzles on a rotating basis. In September 2010, as part of a greater effort to reinvigorate the magazine, Times editor Bill Keller hired former staff member and then-editor of Bloomberg Businessweek, Hugo Lindgren, as the editor of The New York Times Magazine; as part of a series of new staff hires upon assuming his new role, Lindgren first hired then–executive editor of O: The Oprah Magazine Lauren Kern to be his deputy editor and hired then-editor of TNR.com, The New Republic magazine's website, Greg Veis, to edit the "front of the book" section of the magazine.
In December 2010, Lindgren hired Joel Lovell story editor at GQ magazine, as deputy editor. In January 2012, humorist John Hodgman, who hosts his comedy court show podcast Judge John Hodgman, began writing a regular column "Judge John Hodgman Rules" for "The One-Page Magazine". In 2004, The New York Times Magazine began publishing an entire supplement devoted to style. Titled T, the supplement appears 14 times a year. In 2009, it launched a Qatari Edition as a standalone magazine. In 2006, the magazine introduced two other supplements: PLAY, a sports magazine published every other month, KEY, a real estate magazine published twice a year. US Poet Laureate Natasha Trethewey selects and introduces every week poems from world-class poets like recipient of Nobel Prize Tomas Transtromer, recipient of Paz Prize Carlos Pintado, recipient of Pulitzer Prize Gregory Pardlo among others; the magazine features the Sunday version of the crossword puzzle along with other puzzles. The puzzles have been popular features since their introduction.
The Sunday crossword puzzle has more clues and squares and is more challenging than its counterparts featured on the other days of the week. A second puzzle is included with the crossword puzzle; the variety of the second puzzle varies each week. These have included acrostic puzzles, diagramless crossword puzzles, other puzzles varying from the traditional crossword puzzle; the puzzles are edited by Will Shortz, the host of the on-air puzzle segment of NPR's Weekend Edition Sunday. In the September 18, 2005, issue of the magazine, an editors' note announced the addition of The Funny Pages, a literary section of the magazine intended to "engage our readers in some ways we haven't yet tried—and to acknowledge that it takes many different types of writing to tell the story of our time". Although The Funny Pages is no longer published in the magazine, it was made up of three parts: the Strip, the Sunday Serial, True-Life Tales. On July 8, 2007, the magazine stopped printing True-Life Tales; the section has been criticized for being unfunny, sometimes nonsensical, e
Dixieland, sometimes referred to as hot jazz or traditional jazz, is a style of jazz based on the music that developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th century. One of the first uses of the term "Dixieland" with reference to music was in the name of the Original Dixieland Jass Band, their 1917 recordings fostered popular awareness of this new style of music. A revival movement for traditional jazz, formed in reaction to the orchestrated sounds of the swing era and the perceived chaos of the new bebop sounds of the 1940s, pulled "Dixieland" out from the somewhat forgotten band's name for the music they championed; the revival movement included elements of the Chicago style that developed during the 1920s, such as the use of a string bass instead of a tuba, chordal instruments, in addition to the original format of the New Orleans style. That reflected the fact that all of the recorded repertoire of New Orleans musicians was from the period when the format was evolving beyond the traditional New Orleans format.
"Dixieland" may in that sense be regarded as denoting the jazz revival movement of the late 1930s to the 1950s as much as any particular subgenre of jazz. The essential elements that were accepted as within the style were the traditional front lines consisting of trumpets and clarinets, ensemble improvisation over a 2-beat rhythm; the Original Dixieland Jass Band, recording its first disc in 1917, was the first instance of jazz music being called "Dixieland", though at the time, the term referred to the band, not the genre. The band's sound was a combination of African American/New Orleans Sicilian music; the music of Sicily was one of the many genres in the New Orleans music scene during the 1910s, alongside sanctified church music, brass band music and blues. Much the term "Dixieland" was applied to early jazz by traditional jazz revivalists, starting in the 1940s and 1950s; the name is a reference to the "Old South" anything south of the Mason-Dixon line. The term encompasses earlier brass band marches, French Quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective, polyphonic improvisation.
While instrumentation and size of bands can be flexible, the "standard" band consists of a "front line" of trumpet and clarinet, with a "rhythm section" of at least two of the following instruments: guitar or banjo, string bass or tuba and drums. Louis Armstrong's All-Stars was the band most popularly identified with Dixieland during the 1940s, although Armstrong's own influence during the 1920s was to move the music beyond the traditional New Orleans style; the definitive Dixieland sound is created when one instrument plays the melody or a recognizable paraphrase or variation on it, the other instruments of the "front line" improvise around that melody. This creates a more polyphonic sound than the arranged ensemble playing of the big band sound or the straight "head" melodies of bebop. During the 1930s and 1940s, the earlier group-improvisation style fell out of favor with the majority of younger black players, while some older players of both races continued on in the older style. Though younger musicians developed new forms, many beboppers revered Armstrong and quoted fragments of his recorded music in their own improvisations.
The Dixieland revival in the late 1940s and 1950s brought many semi-retired musicians a measure of fame late in their lives as well as bringing retired musicians back onto the jazz circuit after years of not playing. Many Dixieland groups of the revival era consciously imitated the recordings and bands of decades earlier. Other musicians continued to create new tunes. For example, in the 1950s a style called "Progressive Dixieland" sought to blend polyphonic improvisation with bebop-style rhythm. Spike Jones & His New Band and Steve Lacy played with such bands; this style is sometimes called "Dixie-bop". Lacy went on to apply that approach to the music of Thelonious Monk, Charles Mingus, Duke Ellington, Herbie Nichols. While the term Dixieland is still in wide use, the term's appropriateness is a hotly debated topic in some circles. For some it is the preferred label, while others would rather use terms like Classic jazz or Traditional jazz; some of the latter consider Dixieland a derogatory term implying superficial hokum played without passion or deep understanding of the music and because "Dixie" is a reference to pre-Civil War Southern States.
Many black musicians have traditionally rejected the term as a style distinctive from traditional jazz, characterized by the staccatic playing in all-white groups such as The Original Dixieland Jazz Band in contrast to the slower, syncopated back-beat style of playing characterized by musicians like King Oliver or Kid Ory. Dixieland is today applied to bands playing in a traditional style. Bands such as those of Eddie Condon and Muggsy Spanier were tagged with the Dixieland label, reflecting the grouping of the Chicago and New Orleans styles of traditional jazz under the same label. "Chicago style" is applied to the sound of Chicagoans such as Jimmy McPartland, Eddie Condon, Muggsy Spanier, Bud Freeman. The rhythm sections of these bands substitute the string bass for the tuba and the guitar for the banjo. Musically, the Chicagoans play in more of a swing-style 4-to-the-bar manner; the New Orleanian preference for an ensemble sound is deemphasized in favor of solos. Chicago-style dixieland differs from its southern origin by being faster paced, resembling the hustle-bu