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Rotary International

Rotary International is an international service organization whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian service and to advance goodwill and peace around the world. It is a non-political and non-religious organization open to all people regardless of race, religion, sexual orientation / identity or political preference. There are 35,000+ member clubs worldwide, 1.2 million individuals, known as Rotarians, have joined. Rotarians gather weekly for breakfast, lunch, or dinner to fulfill their first guiding principle to develop friendships as an opportunity for service. "It is the duty of all Rotarians," states their Manual of Procedure, "outside their clubs, to be active as individuals in as many constituted groups and organizations as possible to promote, not only in words but through exemplary dedication, awareness of the dignity of all people and the respect of the consequent human rights of the individual." The Rotarian's primary motto is "Service Above Self".

The object of Rotary is to encourage and foster the ideal of service as a basis of worthy enterprise and, in particular, to encourage and foster: The development of acquaintance as an opportunity for service. High ethical standards in business and professions, the recognition of the worthiness of all useful occupations, the dignifying of each Rotarian's occupation as an opportunity to serve society; the application of the ideal of service in each Rotarian's personal and community life. The advancement of international understanding and peace through a world fellowship of business and professional persons united in the ideal of service; this objective is set against the "Rotary 4-Way Test", used to see if a planned action is compatible with the Rotarian spirit. The test was developed by Rotarian and entrepreneur Herbert J. Taylor during the Great Depression as a set of guidelines for restoring faltering businesses and was adopted as the standard of ethics by Rotary in 1942, it is still seen as a standard for ethics in business management.

The 4-Way Test considers the following questions in respect to thinking, saying or doing: Is it the truth? Is it fair to all concerned? Will it build goodwill and better friendships? Will it be beneficial to all concerned? The first Rotary Club was formed when attorney Paul P. Harris called together a meeting of three business acquaintances in downtown Chicago, United States, at Harris's friend Gustave Loehr's office in the Unity Building on Dearborn Street on February 23, 1905. In addition to Harris and Loehr, Silvester Schiele, Hiram E. Shorey were the other two who attended this first meeting; the members chose the name Rotary because they rotated subsequent weekly club meetings to each other's offices, although within a year, the Chicago club became so large it became necessary to adopt the now-common practice of a regular meeting place. The next four Rotary Clubs were organized in cities in the western United States, beginning with San Francisco Oakland and Los Angeles; the National Association of Rotary Clubs in America was formed in 1910.

On November 3, 1910, a Rotary club began meeting in Winnipeg, Canada, the beginning of the organisation's internationality. On 22 February 1911, the first meeting of the Rotary Club Dublin was held in Ireland; this was the first club established outside of North America. In April 1912, Rotary chartered the Winnipeg club marking the first establishment of an American-style service club outside the United States. To reflect the addition of a club outside of the United States, the name was changed to the International Association of Rotary Clubs in 1912. In August 1912, the Rotary Club of London received its charter from the Association, marking the first acknowledged Rotary club outside North America, it became known that the Dublin club in Ireland was organized before the London club, but the Dublin club did not receive its charter until after the London club was chartered. During World War I, Rotary in Britain increased from 9 to 22 clubs, other early clubs in other nations included those in Cuba in 1916, Philippines in 1919 and India in 1920.

In 1922, the name was changed to Rotary International. From 1923 to 1928, Rotary's office and headquarters were located on E 20th Street in the Atwell Building. During this same time, the monthly magazine The Rotarian was published mere floors below by Atwell Printing and Binding Company. By 1925, Rotary had grown to 200 clubs with more than 20,000 members. In 2018, the young Jean dos Santos Silva, from the Rotary Club of Pará de Minas, in the city of Pará de Minas, Minas Gerais - Brazil, took over as president, taking over the service club at the age of 27 and he was re-elected to the 2019-2020 term, thus being considered by Rotary International the youngest president of a Rotary club in the world. Jean dos Santos Silva has a double association, being a member of the Rotaract Club of Pará de Minas. Rotary Clubs in Spain ceased to operate shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Clubs were disbanded across Europe as follows: Netherlands Finland Austria Italy Czechoslovakia Estonia, Lithuania, Poland and Luxembourg Hungary Rotary International has worked with the UN since the UN started in 1945.

At that time Rotary was involved in 65 countries. The two organizations shared ideals around promoting peace. Rotary receive

The Third Industrial Revolution

The Third Industrial Revolution. The premise of the book is that fundamental economic change occurs when new communication technologies converge with new energy regimes renewable electricity; the Sharing economy is explored as a crucial element of the Third Industrial Revolution. The book has been translated into 19 languages. By 2013, 400,000 copies were in print in China alone. Rifkin has been interviewed on NPR. In 2017 a documentary based on the book was released by Vice Media starring Jeremy Rifkin. 100% renewable energy Digital revolution Sharing economy Other books by Jeremy Rifkin: The End of Work The European Dream The Empathic Civilization Official website The Economist: The Third Industrial Revolution - The digitisation of manufacturing will transform the way goods are made, change the politics of jobs


Alpha-thalassemia is a form of thalassemia involving the genes HBA1 and HBA2. Thalassemias are a group of inherited blood conditions which result in the impaired production of hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in the blood. Normal hemoglobin consists of two beta chains. Furthermore, alpha-thalassemia leads to the production of unstable beta globin molecules which cause increased red blood cell destruction; the degree of impairment is based on. The presentation of individuals with alpha-thalassemia consists of: Alpha-thalassemias are most inherited in a Mendelian recessive manner, they are associated with deletions of chromosome 16p. Alpha thalassemia can be acquired under rare circumstances; the mechanism sees that α thalassemias results in decreased alpha-globin production, therefore fewer alpha-globin chains are produced, resulting in an excess of β chains in adults and excess γ chains in newborns. The excess β chains form unstable tetramers called hemoglobin HbH of four beta chains.

The excess γ chains form tetramers which are poor carriers of O2 since their affinity for O2 is too high, so it is not dissociated in the periphery. Homozygote α0 thalassaemias, where numerous γ4 but no α-globins occur at all result in death soon after birth. Diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia is by laboratory evaluation and molecular diagnosis. Alpha-thalassemia can be mistaken for iron-deficiency anaemia on a full blood count or blood film, as both conditions have a microcytic anaemia. Serum iron and serum ferritin can be used to exclude iron-deficiency anaemia. Two genetic loci exist for α globin, thus four alleles are in diploid cells. Two alleles are maternal and two alleles are paternal in origin; the severity of the α-thalassemias is correlated with the number of affected α-globin alleles: the greater, the more severe will be the manifestations of the disease. When noting the genotype, an "α" indicates a functional alpha chain, and'-' a pathological one. Initial laboratory diagnosis should include red blood cell indices.

As well, a peripheral blood smear should be reviewed. Hemoglobin analysis is important for the diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia as it determines the types and percentages of types of hemoglobin present. Several different methods of hemoglobin analysis exist, including hemoglobin electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography. Molecular analysis of DNA sequences can be used for the confirmation of a diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia for the detection of alpha-thalassemia carriers. Treatment for alpha-thalassemia may include blood transfusions to maintain hemoglobin at a level that reduces symptoms of anemia; the decision to initiate transfusions depends on the clinical severity of the disease. Splenectomy is a possible treatment option to increase total hemoglobin levels in cases of worsening anemia due to an overactive or enlarged spleen, or when transfusion therapy is not possible. However, splenectomy is avoided when other options are available due to an increased risk of serious infections and thrombosis.

Additionally, gallstones may be a problem. Secondary complications from febrile episode should be monitored, most individuals live without any need for treatment. Additionally, stem cell transplantation should be considered as a treatment, best done in early age. Other options, such as gene therapy, are still being developed. A study by Kreger et al combining a retrospective review of three cases of alpha thalassemia major and a literature review of 17 cases found that in utero transfusion can lead to favorable outcomes. Successful hematopoietic cell transplantation was carried out in four patients. Worldwide distribution of inherited alpha-thalassemia corresponds to areas of malaria exposure, suggesting a protective role. Thus, alpha-thalassemia is common in sub-Saharan Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, tropical regions; the epidemiology of alpha-thalassemia in the US reflects this global distribution pattern. More HbH disease is seen in Southeast Asia and the Middle East, while Hb Bart hydrops fetalis is acknowledged in Southeast Asia only.

The data indicate that 15% of the Greek and Turkish Cypriots are carriers of beta-thalassaemia genes, while 10% of the population carry alpha-thalassaemia genes. Beta-thalassemia Delta-thalassemia Hemoglobinopathy Anie KA, Massaglia P. "Psychological therapies for thalassaemia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: CD002890. Doi:10.1002/14651858.cd002890.pub2. PMID 24604627. Galanello R, Cao A. "Gene test review. Alpha-thalassemia". Genetics in Medicine. 13: 83–8. Doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181fcb468. PMID 21381239. "What Are Thalassemias? - NHLBI, NIH". Retrieved 15 September 2016

Smooth earth snake

The smooth earth snake is a species of nonvenomous natricine colubrid snake native to the eastern half of the United States. It is monotypic in the genus Virginia; the specific name or epithet, valeriae, is in honor of Valeria Biddle Blaney, who collected the first specimen in Kent County and was a first cousin of Spencer Fullerton Baird. The smooth earth snake is found from Iowa to New Jersey and Florida; the following is a description of the scalation of V. valeriae. Rostral nearly as deep as broad, visible from above. Dorsal scales in 15 or 17 rows. Anal divided. Ventrals 111-135; the following description of coloration of a live specimen uses Robert Ridgway's Color Standards and Color Nomenclature. Dorsally Virginia valeriae is benzo deep brownish drab, mars brown, or light brownish drab; the first row of dorsal scales is colored like the adjacent ventrals, which are light vinaceous-fawn, pale vinaceous-fawn, pale grayish vinaceous, or pale vinaceous-pink. The top of the head is hair like the dorsum, with many dark spots on the plates.

The upper labials are ecru-drab or lighter. There is a small black ring around the eye; the ventral surface of the head is white. Sometimes a faint median light line is present. There may be tiny black spots on the back and sides in the nominate race. Adults are 18–25 cm in total length; the smooth earth snake is a small, fossorial species which spends most of its time buried in loose soil or leaf litter. The smooth earth snake eats earthworms and soft-bodied arthropods. Given its lack of sufficient defense mechanisms against larger animals, the smooth earth snake is not aggressive towards humans and is harmless if encountered. While it does have teeth, the size of the mouth and teeth make any strikes against humans superficial at worst, it may defecate as a defense mechanism to make itself less palatable to would-be predators. If necessary, it can be relocated. Including the nominotypical subspecies, three subspecies of Virginia valeriae are recognized as being valid; these subspecies have been considered full species.

Virginia valeriae elegans Kennicott, 1859 – western earth snake, dorsal scales in 17 rows, southern Indiana through western Kentucky and Tennessee to the Gulf of Mexico, westward to eastern Kansas and central Texas. Virginia valeriae pulchra – mountain earth snake, dorsal scales weakly keeled, mountains of western Pennsylvania, adjacent northeastern West Virginia and western Maryland. Virginia valeriae valeriae Baird & Girard, 1853 – eastern earth snake, dorsal scales in 15 rows, New Jersey to Georgia and west through northern Alabama and southern Ohio. Nota bene: A trinomial authority in parentheses indicates that the subspecies was described in a genus other than Virginia. V. valeriae bears live young in August. Brood size is fewer than 10; the total length of a newborn is about 6 cm. Baird SF, Girard CF. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part I.—Serpents. Washington, District of Columbia: Smithsonian Institution. Xvi + 172 pp.. Behler JL, King FW.

The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 743 pp. 657 color plates. ISBN 0-394-50824-6.. Conant R, Bridges W. What Snake Is That? A Field Guide to the Snakes of the United States East of the Rocky Mountains.. New York and London: D. Appleton-Century. Frontispiece map + viii + 163 pp. + Plates A-C, 1-32.. Goin CJ, Goin OB, Zug GR. Introduction to Herpetology, Third Edition. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company. Xi + 378 pp. ISBN 0-7167-0020-4.. Kennicott R. "Notes on Coluber calligaster of Say, a description of new species of Serpents in the collection of the North Western University of Evanston, Ill." Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 11: 98-100.. McCoy CJ. Identification Guide to Pennsylvania Snakes.. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. 12 pp.. Morris PA. Boy's Book of Snakes: How to Recognize and Understand Them. A volume of the Humanizing Science Series, edited by Jacques Cattell. New York: Ronald Press. Viii + 185 pp.. Powell R, Conant R, Collins JT. Peterson Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Fourth Edition.

Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Xiv + 494 pp. 207 figures. ISBN 978-0-544-12997-9.. Richmond ND. "The ground snake Haldea valeriae in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, with a description of a new subspecies". Annals of Carnegie Museum 33: 251-260.. Stejneger L, Barbour T. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 125 pp.. Smooth Earth Snake, Reptiles and A

Atlantis Marine Park

Atlantis Marine Park is an abandoned theme park built in 1981 in Two Rocks, a small fishing community 60 kilometres north of Perth, the capital of Western Australia. The park was a major feature of Alan Bond's Yanchep Sun City plan, it closed in August 1990 due to financial difficulty. In the 1970s Bond purchased 20,000 acres of land in Yanchep with a plan to build a large resort and residential area; the Park was constructed in 1981 with the hope that Perth's rapid expansion would be accompanied by an equal growth in tourism. Six months before the park was opened, seven bottlenose dolphins were caught locally and trained as performance animals for the next ten years; the park was opened by the Premier of Western Australia the Hon. Ray O'Connor and the chairman and president of the Tokyu Corporation Mr Noburu Gotoh. In his opening speech Mr Gotoh explained that Atlantis was the first element in an expansion plan to make the Yanchep Sun City a premier leisure recreation region. In 1988, three female dolphin calves were born, which as a result of changes in regulations for holding marine mammals meant Atlantis would have to construct a larger dolphin enclosure.

This, coupled with the park losing money, was the reason for the owners closing Atlantis in August 1990. Prior to the park's opening, seven bottlenose dolphins were caught from the local coastal population and were used as performance animals for the next ten years. At the time Atlantis closed in 1990, the park had nine dolphins, six wild born, three captive born juveniles. With the closure of the park, the owners Tokyu Corporation of Japan agreed to a proposal by Dr. Nick Gales, a marine park veterinarian and research scientist to fund the release of the animals to the wild, provided it would end their financial commitment to the dolphins; the project to release the animals into the wild began in March 1991. The dolphins were released into the wild in January 1992; the initial release encountered problems, with some of the dolphins losing a lot of weight. Three of them were returned to the sea pen; the three recaptured dolphins were not re-released to the wild, but were relocated to Underwater World, now the Aquarium of Western Australia.

Since its closure in 1990 the park has been abandoned and vandalised, though the site was featured in the CBBC programme All Over the PlaceAustralia in March 2014. The site is owned by property developers, the Fini Group. A plan has been put forward to the City of Wanneroo to develop the area into a mix of retail and entertainment land uses. In the plan, key features of the Marine Park such as King Neptune would be retained. After a several months long restoration, the King Neptune sculpture and surrounding area was reopened to the public in May 2015; the sculpture was heritage listed by the Western Australian Heritage Council in 2006. Media related to Atlantis Marine Park at Wikimedia Commons

Comme le vent

Comme le vent is the first of the Études in the minor keys, Op. 39 for solo piano by the French composer Charles-Valentin Alkan. It is in A minor; the tempo marking is prestissimamente, the unusual 216 time signature further encourages a fast performance. The piece is quiet, but is interrupted by short loud outbursts; the piece is technically demanding, requiring digital velocity and dexterity, as well as stamina: lasting on average four and a half minutes, its 23 pages contains long passages of perpetual triplet-32nd notes for the right hand. The piece is not to be confused with Alkan's earlier Le one of the Trois morceaux op. 15. Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji considered the earlier piece to be better, making the piece'rather anticlimactic and redundant.'The piece was in the repertoire of Sergei Rachmaninoff in the 1919/1920 concert season. 12 Études in All the Minor Keys, Op. 39: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Performance by Jack Gibbons Digital rendition by Youtube user celach