SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rotary dial

A rotary dial is a component of a telephone or a telephone switchboard that implements a signaling technology in telecommunications known as pulse dialing. It is used when initiating a telephone call to transmit the destination telephone number to a telephone exchange. On the rotary phone dial, the digits are arranged in a circular layout so that a finger wheel may be rotated against spring tension with one finger. Starting from the position of each digit and rotating to the fixed finger stop position, the angle through which the dial is rotated corresponds to the desired digit. Compact telephones with the dial in the handset had all holes spaced in the dial, a spring-loaded finger stop with limited travel; when released at the finger stop, the wheel returns to its home position driven by the spring at a speed regulated by a centrifugal governor device. During this return rotation, the dial interrupts the direct electrical current of the telephone line the specific number of times associated with each digit and thereby generates electrical pulses which the telephone exchange decodes into each dialed digit.

Each of the ten digits is encoded in sequences to correspond to the number of pulses, so the method is sometimes called decadic dialing. Dial pulsing contacts are closed, in series with the rest of the circuit components. Pulses open the contacts for 50 milliseconds; the earphone is disconnected by the dial mechanism when dialing to prevent loud clicking from being heard in the earphone. Slow-release relays in the central office keep the phone from being disconnected by dial pulses; the first patent for a rotary dial was granted to Almon Brown Strowger as U. S. Patent 486,909, but the known form with holes in the finger wheel was not introduced until about 1904. While used in telephone systems of the independent telephone companies, rotary dial service in the Bell System in the United States was not common until the introduction of the Western Electric model 50AL in 1919. From the 1970s onward, the rotary dial was supplanted by DTMF push-button dialing, first introduced to the public at the 1962 World's Fair under the trade name "Touch-Tone".

Touch-tone technology used a keypad in the form of a rectangular array of push-buttons. From as early as 1836 onward, various suggestions and inventions of dials for sending telegraph signals were reported. After the first commercial telephone exchange was installed in 1878, the need for an automated, user-controlled method of directing a telephone call became apparent. Addressing the technical shortcomings, Almon Brown Strowger invented a telephone dial in 1891. Before 1891, numerous competing inventions, 26 patents for dials, push-buttons, similar mechanisms, specified methods of signalling a destination telephone station that a subscriber wanted to call. Most inventions involved costly, intricate mechanisms and required the user to perform complex manipulations; the first commercial installation of a telephone dial accompanied the first commercial installation of a 99-line automatic telephone exchange in La Porte, Indiana, in 1892, based on the 1891 Strowger designs. The original dials required complex operational sequences.

A workable, albeit error-prone, system was invented by the Automatic Electric Company using three push-buttons on the telephone. These buttons represented the hundreds and single units of a telephone number; when calling the subscriber number 163, for example, the user had to push the hundreds button once, followed by six presses of the tens button, three presses of the units button. In 1896, this system was supplanted by an automatic contact-making calling device. Further development continued during the 1890s and the early 1900s in conjunction with improvements in switching technology. Almon Brown Strowger was the first to file a patent for a rotary dial on December 21, 1891, awarded on November 29, 1892, as U. S. Patent 486,909; the early rotary dials used lugs on a finger plate instead of holes, the pulse train was generated without the control of spring action or a governor on the forward movement of the wheel, which proved to be difficult to operate correctly. On rotary dial phones smaller numbers, such as 2, are dialed more than longer numbers, such as 9.

In 1947, area codes were introduced in the United States, so as to facilitate direct distance dialing first by operators by subscribers. In the original system in use until 1995, the first digit of the area code could not be a one or a zero, but the second number had to be a one or zero; this allowed mechanical switching equipment in the central offices to distinguish local from "long distance" calls. Therefore, the lowest and most dialed code was 212; the Bell System, in developing the original area codes, assigned the lowest codes to the areas where they would be most used: the large cities. 212, the lowest number, was New York City. The next to lowest, 213 and 312, were Chicago. 214 was Dallas and 412 was Pittsburgh. A high number like 919 was assigned to North Carolina. An higher number, 907, was Alaska. In the 1950s, plastic materials were introduced in dial construction, replacing metal, heavier and subject to higher wear. Despite their lack of modern features, rotary phones find special uses.

For instance, the anti-drug Fairlawn Coalition of the Anacostia section of Washington, D. C. persuaded the phone company to reinstall rotary-dial pay phones in the 1980s to discourage loitering by drug purchasers, since the dials could not be used to leave coded digital messages on dealers' pagers. They are retai

Truman Washington Dailey

Truman Washington Dailey known as Mashi Manyi and Sunge Hka, was the last native speaker of the Otoe-Missouria dialect of Chiwere, a Native American language. He was a member of the Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians, he was born on October 1898, on the Otoe-Missouria reservation in Oklahoma Territory. His father, George Washington Dailey, was a member of the Eagle Clan of the Missouria and belonged to a traditionalist group within the combined Otoe-Missouria tribe called the "Coyote Band." As a result, Truman Dailey was well-versed in the traditional lore of his people. Dailey attended Oklahoma A&M College until 1922. While at Oklahoma A&M, Dailey performed in the college band and was made a member of Kappa Kappa Psi band fraternity. In 1928, he married Lavina Koshiway, daughter of Jonathan Koshiway, one of the founders of the Native American Church. By 1938, Truman and Lavina were conducting their own church services, where he was considered a Road Man. During the next decade Dailey served in administrative offices in the Native American Church of Oklahoma and the newly formed Native American Church of the United States.

During the 1960s, Dailey worked at Disneyland as the announcer for the American Indian programs. When Walt Disney hired him, he allowed Dailey to use one of his own Indian names in the show changing it to "Chief White Horse". During this time he appeared on The Steve Allen Show. After leaving California, he and Lavina returned to Oklahoma in 1970, where he taught the Otoe-Missouria language in tribal classes and served as a consultant for the University of Missouri native language project, in order to record Otoe-Missouria for posterity. Dailey remained a vocal advocate of Native American ceremonial rights. In 1974, he testified in Washington, DC, in Omaha, NE, regarding the ceremonial use of feathers and other natural objects in opposition to the Migratory Bird Law. Dailey testified before the United States Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs in 1978; the resulting legislation, the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, was signed into law by President Carter but was only successful, so that in 1992, now 93 years of age, was called upon once again to give testimony to the Senate committee.

This time the subject was the Native American Church's most notable characteristic, the ceremonial use of peyote. The resulting amendment to the Act legalized the use of peyote for official Native American religious purposes; the following year, the University of Missouri at Columbia awarded him an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters. Lavina Koshiway Dailey had died in 1988. Truman Dailey died on December 16, 1996, was buried next to her in the Otoe-Missouria Tribal Cemetery. "Truman Dailey" at Ioway Cultural Institute, URL accessed 05/27/06 Whitman, William. The Oto. New York, NY: Columbia University. Chapman, Berlin Basil; the Missourias. Oklahoma City, OK: Times Journal Publ. Co. Stanley, Lori A.. The Indian Path of Life: A life history of Truman Washington Dailey of the Otoe-Missouria tribe. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri

Tinui

Tinui is a small village 40 kilometres from Masterton, in the Wairarapa, New Zealand. The name comes from the Māori words ti, cabbage tree, nui, many. Tinui Primary School is a small country school serving the Mangapakeha, Annedale, Tinui Valley, Whakataki and Mataikona areas, it is a decile 6 state school and has 55 pupils. Tinui was the first place in New Zealand to have an ANZAC Day cross: the vicar led an expedition to place a large metal cross on the Tinui Taipos, a 360 m high large promontory behind the village, on 25 April 1916 to commemorate the dead, when a service was held. In 2006 the 90th Anniversary was celebrated with a 21-gun salute fired by soldiers from Waiouru Army Camp. In 2009 the Air Force began promoting Tinui as an alternative to travelling to Gallipoli. Veterans' Affairs Minister Judith Collins said of the promotion. In 1936, floods caused thousands of sheep to drown and floodwaters reached a depth of 450mm inside the Tinui Hotel; the 1991 floods devastated the village when 200mm of rain fell over a 24-hour period, the river flooded again in July 1992