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Rotary engine

The rotary engine was an early type of internal combustion engine designed with an odd number of cylinders per row in a radial configuration, in which the crankshaft remained stationary in operation, with the entire crankcase and its attached cylinders rotating around it as a unit. Its main application was in aviation, although it saw use before its primary aviation role, in a few early motorcycles and automobiles; this type of engine was used as an alternative to conventional inline engines during World War I and the years preceding that conflict. It has been described as "a efficient solution to the problems of power output and reliability". By the early 1920s, the inherent limitations of this type of engine had rendered it obsolete. A rotary engine is a standard Otto cycle engine, with cylinders arranged radially around a central crankshaft just like a conventional radial engine, but instead of having a fixed cylinder block with rotating crankshaft as with a radial engine, the crankshaft remains stationary and the entire cylinder block rotates around it.

In the most common form, the crankshaft was fixed solidly to the airframe, the propeller was bolted to the front of the crankcase. This difference has much impact on design and functioning; the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace in Paris has on display a special, "sectioned" working model of an engine with seven radially disposed cylinders. It alternates between rotary and radial modes to demonstrate the difference between the internal motions of the two types of engine. Like "fixed" radial engines, rotaries were built with an odd number of cylinders, so that a consistent every-other-piston firing order could be maintained, to provide smooth running. Rotary engines with an number of cylinders were of the "two row" type. Most rotary engines were arranged with the cylinders pointing outwards from a single crankshaft, in the same general form as a radial, but there were rotary boxer engines and one-cylinder rotaries. Three key factors contributed to the rotary engine's success at the time: Smooth running: Rotaries delivered power smoothly because there are no reciprocating parts, the large rotating mass of the crankcase/cylinders acted as a flywheel.

Improved cooling: when the engine was running, the rotating crankcase/cylinder assembly created its own fast-moving cooling airflow with the aircraft at rest. Weight advantage: many conventional engines had to have heavy flywheels added to smooth out power impulses and reduce vibration. Rotary engines gained a substantial power-to-weight ratio advantage by having no need for an added flywheel, they shared with other radial configuration engines the advantage of a small, flat crankcase, because of their efficient air-cooling system, cylinders could be made with thinner walls and shallower cooling fins, which further reduced their weight. Engine designers had always been aware of the many limitations of the rotary engine so when the static style engines became more reliable and gave better specific weights and fuel consumption, the days of the rotary engine were numbered. Rotary engines had a fundamentally inefficient total-loss oiling system. In order to reach the whole engine, the lubricating medium needed to enter the crankcase through the hollow crankshaft.

The only practical solution was for the lubricant to be aspirated with the fuel/air mixture, as in most two-stroke engines. Power increase came with mass and size increases, multiplying gyroscopic precession from the rotating mass of the engine; this produced stability and control problems in aircraft in which these engines were installed for inexperienced pilots. Power output went into overcoming the air-resistance of the spinning engine. Engine controls were tricky, resulted in fuel waste; the late WWI Bentley BR2, as the largest and most powerful rotary engine, had reached a point beyond which this type of engine could not be further developed, it was the last of its kind to be adopted into RAF service. It is asserted that rotary engines had no throttle and hence power could only be reduced by intermittently cutting the ignition using a "blip" switch; this was literally true of the "Monosoupape" type, which took most of the air into the cylinder through the exhaust valve, which remained open for a portion of the downstroke of the piston.

Thus the richness of the mixture in the cylinder could not be controlled via the crankcase intake. The "throttle" of a monosoupape provided only a limited degree of speed regulation, as opening it made the mixture too rich, while closing it made it too lean. Early models featured a pioneering form of variable valve timing in an attempt to give greater control, but this caused the valves to burn and therefore it was abandoned; the only way of running a Monosoupape engine smoothly at reduced revs was with a switch that changed the normal firing sequence so that each cylinder fired only once per two or three engine revolutions, but the engine remained more or less in balance. As with excessive use of the "blip" switch: running the engine on such a setting for too long resulted in large quantities of unburned fuel and oil in the exhaust, gathering in the lower cowling, where it was a notorious fire hazard. Most rotaries had normal inlet valves, so that the fuel was taken into the cylinders mixed with air - as in a normal four-stroke

Bellanca TES

The Bellanca TES or Blue Streak was a push-pull sesquiplane aircraft designed by Giuseppe Mario Bellanca in 1929 for the first non-stop flight from Seattle to Tokyo. In 1930 it was refitted with two 600 hp Curtiss Conqueror engines and reinforced for the Chicago Daily News as a cargo plane named The Blue Streak; the aircraft crashed on 26 May, 1931 when the rear propeller driveshaft broke due to vibration and all four on board lost their lives. Data from Aerofiles: Bellanca, Letec: Bellanca TESGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: 2 pax or relief crew Length: 44 ft 2 in Wingspan: 83 ft 2 in Empty weight: 6,990 lb Max takeoff weight: 20,935 lb Fuel capacity: 2,200 US gal Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 425 hp each </ref>2x 600 hp Curtiss V-1570 Conqueror laterPropellers: 3-bladed metal propellersPerformance Maximum speed: 149 mph Range: 3,100 mi to 9,300 mi Alan Abel and Drina Welch Abel: Bellanca's Golden Age, Stockton: Wild Canyon Books, 2004, ISBN 1-891118-46-3 Page dedicated to Shirley J. Short Bellanca TES images from the archive of San Diego Air & Space Museum

The Unamenables

The Unamenables is a 1959 Soviet comedy, directorial debut of Yuri Chulyukin. Two foolish and frivolous guys cause suffering for the whole youth union at the factory, it was decided to dismiss Anatoly Gracchkin and his friend Victor Gromoboev, but they are taken under the wing by Nadia Berestova, a diminutive funny woman, known as the popular one at the plant. Because of Nadia's status of a respectable and reliable person, the Komsomol members, without wasting time give her the assignment to re-educate the boys. At first, Nadya takes it with reluctance and apprehension, but this task becomes the most important thing in her life. However, after Gracchkin and Gromoboev succeed in tricking Nadya more than once, she understands that standard methods in this situation will not help... Nadezhda Rumyantseva – Nadia Berestova Yuri Belov – Tolya Grachkin Alexei Kozhevnikov – Victor Gromoboev Valentin Kozlov – Volodya Yakovlev Vera Karpova – Rosa Katkova Svetlana Kharitonova – Lisa Kukushkina's friend Nadi Victor Egorov – Leon Butusov Yuri Nikulin – Vasily Klyachkin Konstantin Nassonov Plant Director Andrei Ilich Baryshev Ivan Kashirin – workshop master Ivan Ignatievich Vatagin Victor Terekhov – Petya Vladimir ZemlyanikinZernov Yevgeny Bykadorov diving coach Lilia Gritsenko – mother of Nadi Leonid Marennikov – waiter Pasha Vladimir Picek – waiter Nina Agapova – host of the contest Sergey Filippov – the policeman Tamara Yarenko – episode Zinaida Tarahovskaya – episode Sasha Smirnov – boy who brought the cutter At the All-Union Film Festival in Minsk in 1960, the film received the prize for best comedy.

Nadezhda Rumyantseva was awarded for the best performance of the female role and Yuri Belov for the best performance of the male role. The Unamenables on IMDb