A canopy is an overhead roof or else a structure over which a fabric or metal covering is attached, able to provide shade or shelter from weather conditions such as sun, hail and rain. A canopy can be a tent without a floor; the word comes from the Ancient Greek κωνώπειον, from κώνωψ, a bahuvrihi compound meaning "mosquito". The first'o' changing into'a' may be due to influence from the place name Canopus, Egypt thought of as a place of luxuries. Architectural canopies include projections giving protection from the weather, or decoration; such canopies are supported by the building to which they are attached and also by a ground mounting provided by not less than two stanchions, or upright support posts. Canopies can stand alone, such as a fabric covered gazebo or cabana. Fabric canopies can meet various design needs. Many modern fabrics are long-lasting, bright cleaned and flame-retardant; this material can be vinyl, polyester or canvas. Modern frame materials offer corrosion resistance; the proper combination of these properties can result in safe, strong and attractive products.
Construction Specifications Institute Division 10 MasterFormat 2004 Edition: 10 73 16 - Canopies 10 73 00 - Protective CoversCSI MasterFormat 1995 Edition: 10530 - Canopies Awning Chuppah Dome Onion dome Pop up canopies
A railway platform is an area alongside a railway track providing convenient access to trains. All stations have some form of platform, with larger stations having multiple platforms; the world's longest station platform is at Gorakhpur Junction in India at 1,355.40 metres. The Appalachian Trail station in the United States, at the other extreme, has a platform, only long enough for a single bench. Among some United States train conductors the word "platform" has entered usage as a verb meaning "to berth at a station", as in the announcement: "The last two cars of this train will not platform at East Rockaway"; the most basic form of platform consists of an area at the same level as the track resulting in a large height difference between the platform and the train floor. This would not be considered a true platform; the more traditional platform is elevated relative to the track but lower than the train floor, although ideally they should be at the same level. The platform is higher than the train floor, where a train with a low floor serves a station built for trains with a high floor, for example at the Dutch stations of the DB Regionalbahn Westfalen.
On the London Underground some stations are served by both District line and Piccadilly line trains, the Piccadilly trains have lower floors. A tram stop is in the middle of the street; the latter requires extra care by other traffic to avoid accidents. Both types of tram stops can be seen in the tram networks of Toronto. Sometimes a tram stop is served by ordinary trams with rather low floors and metro-like light rail vehicles with higher floors, the tram stop has a dual-height platform, as in Amstelveen, Netherlands. A train station may be served by heavy-rail and light-rail vehicles with lower floors and have a dual- height platform, as on the RijnGouweLijn in the Netherlands. Platform types include side platform, split platform and island platform. A bay platform is one at which the track terminates, i.e. a siding. Trains serving a bay platform must reverse out. A side platform is the more usual type, alongside tracks where the train arrives from one end and leaves towards the other. An island platform has through platforms on both sides.
To reach an island platform there may be a tunnel, or a level crossing. A variant on the side platform is the spanish solution which has platforms on both sides of a single through track. Most stations have their platforms numbered consecutively from 1. At Bristol Temple Meads platforms 3 through to 12 are split along their length with odd numbered platforms facing north and east and facing south and west, with a small signal halfway along the platform. Some, such as London Waterloo East, use letters instead of numbers. In the US, a designated place where a train can arrive is referred to as a "track"; the term "platform" is used in the US but refers to the structure rather than a designated place for a train arriving. Therefore an island platform would be described as one platform with two tracks. In some cases, there are numbered tracks which are used only for through traffic and do not have platform access. In other English-speaking countries, "platform" can refer to both the structure or to a designated place for trains arriving.
Therefore an island platform might have two numbered platforms. Some of the station facilities are located on the platforms. Where the platforms are not adjacent to a station building some form of shelter or waiting room is provided, employee cabins may be present; the weather protection offered varies from little more than a roof with open sides, to a closed room with heating or air-conditioning. There may be benches, ticket counters, drinking fountains, trash boxes, static timetables or dynamic displays with information about the next train. There are loudspeakers as part of a public address system; the PA system is used where dynamic timetables or electronic displays are not present. A variety of information is presented, including destinations and times, cancellations, platform changes, changes in routes and destinations, the number of carriages in the train and the location of first class or luggage compartments, supplementary fee or reservation requirements; some metro stations have platform screen doors between the tracks.
They provide more safety, they allow the heating or air conditioning in the station to be separated from the ventilation in the tunnel, thus being more efficient and effective. They have been installed in most stations of the Singapore MRT and the Hong Kong MTR, stations on the Jubilee Line Extension in London. Platforms should be sloped upwards towards the platform edge to prevent wheeled objects such as trolleys and wheelchairs from rolling away and into the path of the train. Many platforms have a cavity underneath an overhanging edge so that people who may fall off the
Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region; the name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military, features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire. Within the borders of the historic county of Yorkshire are vast stretches of unspoiled countryside; this can be found in the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors and with the open aspect of some of the major cities. Yorkshire has been named "God's Own County" or "God's Own Country"; the emblem of Yorkshire is the White Rose of the English royal House of York, the most used flag representative of Yorkshire is the White Rose on a blue background, which after nearly fifty years of use, was recognised by the Flag Institute on 29 July 2008.
Yorkshire Day, held annually on 1 August, is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, ranging from its history to its own dialect. Yorkshire is covered by different Government Office Regions. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber while the extreme northern part of the county, such as Middlesbrough, Redcar and Startforth, falls within North East England. Small areas in the west of the county are covered by the North West England region. Yorkshire or the County of York was so named as it is the shire of York's Shire. "York" comes from the Viking name for Jórvík. "Shire" is from scir meaning care or official charge. The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃə/ "shuh", or /-ʃiə/, a homophone of "sheer". Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi; the Brigantes controlled territory which became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England.
That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county; the Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul. Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber Estuary. Although the Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, the Brigantes remained in control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua and her husband Venutius; this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain. Queen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his armour bearer, setting off a chain of events which changed control of the region. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom.
At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD. The fortified city of Eboracum was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint capital of all Roman Britain; the emperor Septimius Severus ruled the Roman Empire from Eboracum for the two years before his death. Another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Eboracum during a visit in 306 AD; this saw his son Constantine the Great, who became renowned for his contributions to Christianity, proclaimed emperor in the city. In the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops. By this stage, the Western Empire was in intermittent decline. After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in the region, including the Kingdom of Ebrauc around York and the Kingdom of Elmet to the west. Elmet remained independent from the Germanic Northumbrian Angles until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king and annexed the region.
At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in the south. Scandinavian York or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings. Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, however the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by England between 927 and 954 before being annexed into England in 954, it was associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period. An army of Danish Vikings, the Great Heathen Army as its enemies referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD; the Danes conquered and assumed what is now York and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.
The Danes went on to conque
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of 1,552 square kilometres and consists of four metropolitan boroughs, Doncaster and Sheffield. South Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, its largest settlement is Sheffield. Lying on the east side of the Pennines, South Yorkshire is landlocked, borders Derbyshire to the west and south-west, West Yorkshire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north-east, Lincolnshire to the east and Nottinghamshire to the south-east; the Sheffield Urban Area is the tenth most populous conurbation in the UK, dominates the western half of South Yorkshire with over half of the county's population living within it. South Yorkshire lies within the Sheffield City Region with Barnsley being within the Leeds City Region, reflecting its geographical position midway between Yorkshire's two largest cities.
South Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 and its metropolitan boroughs are now unitary authorities, although the metropolitan county continues to exist in law. As a ceremonial county, South Yorkshire has a High Sheriff. South Yorkshire was created from 32 local government districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire, with small areas from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. In the 2016 referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union, South Yorkshire voted 62% leave and 38% remain, making it one of the most Leave areas in the country. Although the modern county of South Yorkshire was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements and parts goes back centuries. Prehistoric remains include a Mesolithic "house" dating to around 8000 BC, found at Deepcar, in the northern part of Sheffield. Evidence of earlier inhabitation in the wider region exists about 3 miles over the county boundary at Creswell Crags in Derbyshire, where artefacts and rock art found in caves have been dated by archaeologists to the late Upper Palaeolithic period, at least 12,800 years ago.
The region was on the frontier of the Roman Empire during the Roman period. The main settlements of South Yorkshire grew up around the industries of mining and steel manufacturing; the main mining industry was coal, concentrated to the north and east of the county. There were iron deposits which were mined in the area; the rivers running off the Pennines to the west of the county supported the steel industry, concentrated in the city of Sheffield. The proximity of the iron and coal made this an ideal place for steel manufacture. Although Christian nonconformism was never as strong in South Yorkshire as in the mill towns of West Yorkshire, there are still many Methodist and Baptist churches in the area. South Yorkshire has a high number of followers of spiritualism, it is the only county. The Local Government Commission for England presented draft recommendations, in December 1965, proposing a new county—York and North Midlands—roughly centred on the southern part of the West Riding of Yorkshire and northern parts of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire.
The review was abolished in favour of the Royal Commission on Local Government before it was able to issue a final report. The Royal Commission's 1969 report, known as the Redcliffe-Maud Report, proposed the removal of much of the existing system of local government; the commission described the system of administering urban and rural districts separately as outdated, noting that urban areas provided employment and services for rural dwellers, open countryside was used by town dwellers for recreation. Redcliffe-Maud's recommendations were accepted by the Labour government in February 1970. Although the Redcliffe-Maud Report was rejected by the Conservative government after the 1970 general election, there was a commitment to local government reform, the need for a metropolitan county of South Yorkshire; the Local Government Act 1972 reformed local government in England by creating a system of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts throughout the country. The act formally established South Yorkshire on 1 April 1974, although South Yorkshire County Council had been running since elections in 1973.
The leading article in The Times on the day the Local Government Act came into effect noted that the "new arrangement is a compromise which seeks to reconcile familiar geography which commands a certain amount of affection and loyalty, with the scale of operations on which modern planning methods can work effectively". South Yorkshire had a two tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and four districts providing most services. In 1974, as part of the South Yorkshire Structure Plan of the environment and land use, South Yorkshire County Council commissioned a public attitudes survey covering job opportunities, educational facilities, leisure opportunities and medical services, shopping centres and transport in the county. In 1986, throughout England the metropolitan county councils were abolished; the functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs. The joint boards continue to include the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive; the South Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner oversees South Yorkshire Police.
Although the county council was abolished, Sou
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds form visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are composed of sandstone allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are better able to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Sandstones are clastic in origin. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals; the cements binding these grains together are calcite and silica. Grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are called argillaceous sediments; the formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains; the most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colors will be tan or yellow. A predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia; the regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other forms of construction. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environmentsRivers Alluvial fans Glacial outwash Lakes Deserts Marine environmentsDeltas Beach and shoreface sands Tidal flats Offshore bars and sand waves Storm deposits Turbidites Framework grains are sand-sized detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a sandstone.
These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition: Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events, while allowing the grains to display some degree of rounding. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock, which are felsic in origin and from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are the second most abundant mineral in sandstones. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: plagioclase feldspars; the different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8, this represents a complete solid solution. Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, called lithic fragments or clasts. Lithic fragments can be any fine-grained or coarse-grained igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock, although the most common lithic fragments found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals include micas, olivine and corundum. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that