Rothesay, New Brunswick
Rothesay is a town located in Kings County, New Brunswick, Canada. It is adjacent to the City of Saint John along the Kennebecasis River. Located along the lower Kennebecasis River valley, Rothesay borders the city of Saint John to the southwest, the neighbouring town of Quispamsis to the northeast, it is served by a secondary mainline of the Canadian National Railway, though there is no longer any passenger service on the line. The town developed first as a shipbuilding centre and as a summer home community for Saint John's wealthy elite with the arrival of the European and North American Railway in 1853. There is a known story that the new town was named in honour of the visiting Prince of Wales King Edward VII, in 1860 because the area was said to have reminded him of Rothesay, Bute, in Scotland, however, an entry made in the diary of William Franklin Bunting, of Saint John, during the same visit refers to the Rothesay train station, it is unlikely that the name would have taken hold less than a day after the prince's passage through the settlement, it therefore predates the visit or was bestowed on the town in the prince's honour as Duke of Rothesay.
In 1870, a Saint John-owned ship named Rothesay made a famous voyage when a 20-year-old woman named Bessie Hall took command of the fever-stricken ship and sailed it from Florida to Liverpool, England. Rothesay contains many historical landmarks, such as the Rothesay Common, the Rothesay Yacht Club, the former train station, many homes that pre-date Confederation, public parks and modern amenities; the community provides numerous schools, places of worship and recreation areas, along with the convenience of local retail and large-scale commercial developments in the nearby city of Saint John. According to a 2015 Canadian Business article, the top 5 richest neighborhoods in the Province of New Brunswick all lie within the Town of Rothesay. In 1996, the proposition that Grand Bay and the other Kennebecasis Valley communities amalgamate with Saint John was publicly opposed. Concern that a new city would compete with Saint John for government funding and business came after the province began discussing an amalgamation of the Kennebecasis Valley communities in 1997.
On January 1, 1998, the former incorporated villages of East Riverside-Kingshurst and Renforth. The town motto, Quinque luncta In Uno, represents the joining together of the five founding communities. Occasional discussion about the possibility of further amalgamating Rothesay with Quispamsis has not proceeded beyond the discussion phase, though the two municipalities do collaborate extensively to share services and facilities. Admiral Sir Charles Carter Drury, Second Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Personnel was born at Rothesay. Rear Admiral Daniel Lionel Hanington was sunk by a U-boat, participated in the sinking of another U-boat becoming Deputy Chief of Staff for NATO's naval command. John Peters Humphrey resided in Rothesay while attending boarding school, although his permanent residence was in the municipality of Hampton, less than 20 minutes outside of Rothesay. Billionaire industrialist James K. Irving resides in Rothesay, as well as some members of his family. Canadian aviation pioneer Wallace Rupert Turnbull invented the variable-pitch propeller in Rothesay.
List of communities in New Brunswick Town of Rothesay - official website Rothesay High School - official website Rothesay Netherwood School - official website Touchstone Academy - official website Rothesay Park School - official website Rothesay Ballet School - official website
Little Cumbrae or Little Cumbrae Island is an island in the Firth of Clyde, in North Ayrshire, Scotland. The island is known locally as Wee Cumbrae; the Gaelic name Cumaradh means "place of the Cymric people", referring to the Brittonic-speaking inhabitants of the Kingdom of Strathclyde. Alternatively, the name Cumbrae may derive from Kil Maura meaning "cell or church of a female saint". Little Cumbrae was recorded as Kumbrey circa 1300, Cumbraye circa 1330 and Litill Comeray in 1515 and was formerly known as Little or Wee Cumray; the Cumbraes are referred to as the Kumreyiar in the Norse Saga of Haakon Haakonarson. Little Cumbrae lies a kilometre to the south of its larger neighbour, Great Cumbrae, a few kilometres distant from the mainland town of Largs; the islands are collectively referred to as The Cumbraes. In stark contrast to its neighbour and fertile Great Cumbrae, Little Cumbrae is a rough and rocky island. With its many cliffs and rocky outcrops, Little Cumbrae bears more of a resemblance to a Hebridean island than to some of its neighbours in the Clyde.
A number of uninhabited islets skirt the island's east coast, Castle Isle, the Broad Islands and Trail Isle. Today the island's main settlement is at Little Cumbrae House on the eastern shore, facing the Scottish mainland. Unlike its larger neighbour, Little Cumbrae is formed entirely from extrusive igneous rocks; these are a mix of Carboniferous age basalts and hawaiite lava flows cut by a aged WSW-ENE aligned dyke of alkali olivine diorite. A northwest-southeast aligned swarm of dykes of Palaeogene age intrude these rocks whilst several geological faults run NW-SE. There are limited outcrops of sedimentary rock in the east, these being of the Eileans Sandstone assigned to the Clyde Sandstone Formation of the Carboniferous age Inverclyde Group. A raised beach is developed along the lower-lying east coast of the island on which have accumulated marine deposits and blown sand. Glacial striations betray the broadly north-south movement of a glacier over the island during the last ice age. Small pockets of peat have accumulated during the post-glacial period.
Robert II is said to have built a castle on the island, demolished by Cromwell's soldiers in 1653. In the early 20th century, under the ownership of Evelyn Stuart Parker, a new ‘mansion house’ was created from the original single storey farmhouse, the gardens were laid out to a plan by Gertrude Jekyll, the renowned garden designer, substantial repairs were undertaken to the castle and the original lighthouse; the original work commenced in 1913, with subsequent alterations made between 1926 and 1929 when the square tower and top floor were added. Little Cumbrae is the birthplace of the first mayor of Carbondale, Pennsylvania. James Ewing built the first Little Cumbrae lighthouse on the top of Lighthouse Hill in 1757; this was the second lighthouse in Scotland. An open fire was lit at the top of a circular stone tower. Remains of this old structure are designated a scheduled ancient monument; the traditional Cumbrae Lighthouse was built in 1793 by Thomas Smith under commission from the Commissioners of the Northern Lights.
The lighthouse lies on a broad raised beach on the western shore of the island looking out into the Firth. It had a foghorn, slipway and boathouse; the original oil lamps were replaced by Argand lamps in 1826 and a solar-powered light was installed in 1974. The 1793 tower has been unused since 1997, with the light on 36-foot hexagonal/cylindrical tower adjacent to the old generator house. Little Cumbrae was purchased in 2003 and there were plans for its development as a memorial park, nature reserve and corporate escape; the island was sold again in July 2009 for £2 million. The buyers of the island, a Scottish millionaire couple of Indian origin and Sunita Poddar, opened a yoga and meditation centre there with the help of yoga guru Swami Baba Ramdev. There have been rumours of the new owners planning to rename it "Peace Island", but those have been denied. Haswell-Smith, Hamish; the Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7. Johnston, J. B.. Place-names of Scotland. Edinburgh: David Douglas.
Iain Mac an Tàilleir. "Placenames". Pàrlamaid na h-Alba. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 23 July 2010. Pictures of lighthouse YouTube video of Little or Wee Cumbrae island and the castle
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Wemyss Bay is a village on the coast of the Firth of Clyde in Inverclyde in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. It is in the traditional county of Renfrewshire, it is adjacent to North Ayrshire. The villages have always been in separate counties, divided by the Kelly Burn. Wemyss Bay is the port for ferries on the Sea Road to Rothesay on the Isle of Bute. Passengers from the island can connect to Glasgow by trains, which terminate in the village at the remarkable Wemyss Bay railway station, noted for its architectural qualities and regarded as one of Scotland's finest railway buildings; the port is exposed, so in high winds the ferries must travel up river to Gourock to dock. The name Wemyss is derived from the Scottish Gaelic uaimh, it is believed to be taken from the caves of the Firth of Forth where the Clan Wemyss made their home. The chiefs are one of the few noble families who are descended from the Celtic nobility through the Clan MacDuff Earls of Fife; the name Wemyss Bay may be associated with Bob Wemyss, the owner of a hut on the shore in the 19th century.
Wemyss Bay was created in the early 19th century as a'marine village' and watering-place by Robert Wallace of Kelly, whose lands were adjacent to the bay. Wallace was instrumental in establishing the penny post. London merchant James Alexander further developed the area by constructing the first steamboat pier, swept away by a hurricane in 1856, its successor was replaced by the current railway terminus and pier. The opening of the railway connection in 1865 brought grander houses. Among the village's notable residents included Sir George Burns, who with Samuel Cunard founded the British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, his son John who lived at Castle Wemyss, which stood on Wemyss Point above the bay itself. Alan, 4th Baron Inverclyde was married to the actress June, one of Alfred Hitchcock's earliest leading ladies in the 1927 film The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog; the inventor of paraffin and industrial magnate James "Paraffin" Young had a house at Kelly, was buried in the old Inverkip churchyard.
David Livingstone was a friend of Young and a replica of a hut the explorer occupied near Victoria Falls was built in the grounds of Kelly as a memorial to Livingstone. Kelly House was rebuilt twice, the first structure dating from the 15th century, being destroyed by fire in 1740, the second, a William Leiper building, dating from 1793 and the third and final house destroyed in a fire in 1913, only having been built in 1890. Blame was laid at the suffragettes but no evidence was found. Kelly remained a burnt out ruin for several years. A caravan park now occupies the estate. A memorial on the shore road recalls'The Gaiter Club', whose members included Anthony Trollope, Lord Kelvin, Lord Palmerston and the Earl of Shaftesbury. Neither Castle Wemyss nor James Salmon's Wemyss House remain, having been demolished in the 1980s and 1940s respectively. Gone is J. J. Burnet's episcopal Inverclyde Church, which stood on the shore road of Undercliff Road and was demolished in 1970; the Castle Wemyss estate and adjoining areas had been sold off in the 1960s to property developers and since the village has grown albeit a dormitory settlement for Greenock and Glasgow.
However several of the fine red sandstone properties remain and are now seen as renovation opportunities. There is a butcher, newsagent and fish and chip shop in the village and a pub and cafe in the extensive railway station buildings. Walter Smart's Skelmorlie provides an account of both Wemyss Skelmorlie. Gourock and Wemyss Bay from Old Photographs and Gourock and Wemyss Bay in Old Picture Postcards are of interest. All are out of print. M. E. Spragg released. Wemyss Bay local community and business website Video footage of Wemyss Bay railway station and ferry terminal
The Staatliches Bauhaus known as the Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. The Bauhaus was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar; the German term Bauhaus—literally "building house"—was understood as meaning "School of Building", but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department. Nonetheless, it was founded upon the idea of creating a Gesamtkunstwerk in which all the arts, including architecture, would be brought together; the Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in modern design, Modernist architecture and art and architectural education. The Bauhaus movement had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, typography; the school existed in three German cities—Weimar, from 1919 to 1925. Although the school was closed, the staff continued to spread its idealistic precepts as they left Germany and emigrated all over the world.
The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique and politics. For example, the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau though it had been an important revenue source. After Germany's defeat in World War I and the establishment of the Weimar Republic, a renewed liberal spirit allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, suppressed by the old regime. Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution, such as constructivism; such influences can be overstated: Gropius did not share these radical views, said that Bauhaus was apolitical. Just as important was the influence of the 19th-century English designer William Morris, who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function. Thus, the Bauhaus style known as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornamentation and by harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design.
However, the most important influence on Bauhaus was modernism, a cultural movement whose origins lay as early as the 1880s, which had made its presence felt in Germany before the World War, despite the prevailing conservatism. The design innovations associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus—the radically simplified forms, the rationality and functionality, the idea that mass production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit—were partly developed in Germany before the Bauhaus was founded; the German national designers' organization Deutscher Werkbund was formed in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius to harness the new potentials of mass production, with a mind towards preserving Germany's economic competitiveness with England. In its first seven years, the Werkbund came to be regarded as the authoritative body on questions of design in Germany, was copied in other countries. Many fundamental questions of craftsmanship versus mass production, the relationship of usefulness and beauty, the practical purpose of formal beauty in a commonplace object, whether or not a single proper form could exist, were argued out among its 1,870 members.
The entire movement of German architectural modernism was known as Neues Bauen. Beginning in June 1907, Peter Behrens' pioneering industrial design work for the German electrical company AEG integrated art and mass production on a large scale, he designed consumer products, standardized parts, created clean-lined designs for the company's graphics, developed a consistent corporate identity, built the modernist landmark AEG Turbine Factory, made full use of newly developed materials such as poured concrete and exposed steel. Behrens was a founding member of the Werkbund, both Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer worked for him in this period; the Bauhaus was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist had turned from emotional Expressionism to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. An entire group of working architects, including Erich Mendelsohn, Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig, turned away from fanciful experimentation, turned toward rational, sometimes standardized building. Beyond the Bauhaus, many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aesthetic issues and material possibilities as the school.
They responded to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar Constitution. Ernst May, Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner, among others, built large housing blocks in Frankfurt and Berlin; the acceptance of modernist design into everyday life was the subject of publicity campaigns, well-attended public exhibitions like the Weissenhof Estate and sometimes fierce public debate. The Vkhutemas, the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow, has been compared to Bauhaus. Founded a year after the Bauhaus school, Vkhutemas has close parallels to the German Bauhaus in its intent and scope; the two schools were
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle