Pall Mall, London
Pall Mall /ˌpæl ˈmæl/ is a street in the St Jamess area of the City of Westminster, Central London. It connects St Jamess Street to Trafalgar Square and is a section of the regional A4 road, the streets name is derived from pall-mall, a ball game played there during the 17th century. The area was built up during the reign of Charles II with fashionable London residences and it became known for high-class shopping in the 18th century, and gentlemens clubs in the 19th. The Reform and Travellers Clubs have survived to the 21st century, the War Office was based on Pall Mall during the second half of the 19th century, and the Royal Automobile Clubs headquarters have been on the street since 1908. The street is around 0.4 miles long and runs east in the St Jamess area, from St Jamess Street across Waterloo Place, to the Haymarket, the street numbers run consecutively from north-side east to west and continue on the south-side west to east. It is part of the A4, a road running west from Central London.
London Bus Route 9 runs westwards along Pall Mall, connecting Trafalgar Square to Piccadilly, Pall Mall was constructed in 1661, replacing an earlier highway slightly to the south that ran from the Haymarket to the royal residence, St Jamess Palace. When St. Jamess Park was laid out by order of Henry VIII in the 16th century, in 1620, the Privy Council ordered the High Sheriff of Middlesex to clear a number of temporary buildings next to the wall that were of poor quality. Pall-mall, a game similar to croquet, was introduced to England in the early-17th century by James I. The game, already popular in France and Scotland, was enjoyed by James sons Henry, in 1630, St Jamess Field, Londons first pall-mall court, was laid out to the north of the Haymarket – St James road. After the Restoration and King Charles IIs return to London on 29 May 1660, Samuel Pepyss diary entry for 2 April 1661 records that he. Went into St. Jamess Park, where I saw the Duke of York playing at Pelemele and this new court suffered from dust blown over the wall from coaches travelling along the highway.
In July 1661 posts and rails were erected, stopping up the old road, the court for pall-mall was very long and narrow, and often known as an alley, so the old court provided a suitable route for relocating the eastern approach to St Jamess Palace. A grant was made to Dan ONeale, Groom of the Bedchamber, the grant was endorsed Our warrant for the building of the new street to St Jamess. A new road was built on the site of the old pall-mall court and it was named Catherine Street, after Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, but was better known as Pall Mall Street or the Old Pall Mall. The pall-mall field was a place for recreation and Pepys records several other visits. By July 1665 Pepys used Pell Mell to refer to the street as well as the game, in 1662, Pall Mall was one of several streets thought fitt immediately to be repaired, new paved or otherwise amended under the Streets and Westminster Act 1662. The paving commissioners appointed to oversee the work included the Earl of St Albans, the terms of the act allowed commissioners to remove any building encroaching on the highway, with compensation for those at least 30 years old
Spennymoor is a town in County Durham, England. It stands above the Wear Valley approximately seven miles south of Durham, the town was founded over 160 years ago. The Town Council area, which includes the villages of Kirk Merrington, Middlestone Moor, Byers Green, the land on which Spennymoor now stands was once a vast expanse of moorland covered with thorn and whin bushes. The origin of the name remains somewhat uncertain – some believe it to be derived from the Latin Spina which means a thorn and Mor which was the Anglo-Saxon word for a moor. Neither Britons nor Romans cultivated the moor, but on the site of Binchester, a five miles to the south-west. The name Binchester is the usual Saxon corruption or adaptation of the Roman site name, Binchester became one of the vills of the Earl of Northumberland who held it until 1420 when it passed to the Nevilles who finally forfeited it with other lands in 1569. The Manor of Merrington belonged successively to the priors and dean, Merrington church is one of the most prominent local landmarks.
It was originally built by the Normans and its strategic position led to it being fortified in 1143 by the Scots intruder. Inside, the most interesting feature is the screen, an example of late-17th century work. However, William allowed some of the owners to retain their lands. Nevertheless, the whole of this countryside was made desolate by Williams soldiers, on 16 October 1346 David of Scotland was encamped with a great army on the hills near Durham, and raiding bands under a Douglas had been terrorising the neighbourhood. Her advance guards clashed with some of Douglas men near Ferryhill, butchers Race, one of the Five Lanes which meet at Tudhoe Crossroads, was so named after this foray. The next day the bodies of the two armies met at Nevilles Cross, near Durham, and the Scots were slaughtered. Some military training seems to have given, doubtless with a view to the unsettled state of the country due to the growing tension between Parliament and the King. Quite a few of men must have been miners, as at that time coale pits were being worked at Whitworth, Byers Green.
In 1677 the small freeholders and the local gentry divided 243 acres of the moor between themselves, an act which was confirmed by the Chancery Court, the only portion of the common that was left was a small plot reserved for the use of a spring of water. Up to 1800 the moor remained largely barren and the few roads across it were dangerous, the one good road was maintained by tolls collected at turnpike gates. Some of the largest horse-race meetings in the North took place on the moor and these men, early industrial workers, wore their hair long and on these gala days it flowed freely over their shoulders instead of, as usually was the case, being tied in curls
Denham is a village and civil parish in the South Bucks district of Buckinghamshire, England. It is north west of Uxbridge and north of junction 1 of the M40 motorway, Denham contains the Buckinghamshire Golf Club. The village name is derived from the Old English for homestead in a valley and it was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Deneham. The Church of England parish church of Saint Mary has a flint and stone Norman tower, the tree-lined Village Road includes several old red brick houses with mature Wisteria on them, and has been used as a location in British films and television. Southlands Manor is a Grade II listed building and its entry on the English Heritage website states that it was built in the 16th century, with a variety of changes including the addition of four chimney stacks in the early 17th-century. Denham Film Studios were near the village, housing growth has over the years created new parts to Denham. Modern-day Denham consists of, Denham Village, as above, the original settlement Denham Garden Village, Denham Green grew up around the shops beside the railway station.
Alexander Kordas Denham Film Studios used the Broadwater Park land between the junction of the road to Rickmansworth and Moor Hall Road towards Harefield, after the War, the camp land was sold off piecemeal for housing, following a similar trend all over Metro-land. Denham railway station has services to London Marylebone and High Wycombe and limited services to Princes Risborough. Connecting services link to Birmingham Snow Hill, Stratford-on-Avon and Kidderminster, the 331 bus service between Uxbridge and Ruislip stations calls at the Station Parade shops in Denham Green. The 724 Green Line bus service between Harlow and Heathrow passes through Denham Green to Uxbridge and onwards to Heathrow Airport, terminating at the Bus Station at Heathrow Central, the 581 circular bus service provides a link between the various areas of Denham and Uxbridge bus station. The Saturdays-only 582 service links the various Denhams with Iver, the R21 bus service between Uxbridge and Mount Vernon Hospital in Northwood stops twice daily at Denham Station every day except Sunday.
This service is run by Red Rose Travel and forms part of a regular service between Northwood and Maple Cross. Denham Aerodrome was established during the 1930s and is sited on land to the north of the village. It is the base of private and executive aircraft and helicopters and has several hangars. InterContinental Hotels Group has its headquarters and European head office in Denham. Denham Village Infant School, in Cheapside Lane, was the school for Denham. The school building dates from 1832 and is listed, Denham Green E-ACT Primary Academy is located on Nightingale Way, Denham Green
World Rally Championship
The World Rally Championship is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. The drivers world championship and manufacturers championship are separate championships. The series currently consists of 13 three-day events driven on surfaces ranging from gravel and tarmac to snow, each rally is split into 15–25 special stages which are run against the clock on closed roads. The World Rally Car is the current car specification in the series and it evolved from Group A cars which replaced the banned Group B supercars. World Rally Cars are built on production 1, the production car, super 2000 and junior entrants race through the stages after the WRC drivers. The 1973 World Rally Championship was the season of the WRC. The first drivers championship was not awarded until 1979, although 1977 and 1978 seasons included an FIA Cup for Drivers, won by Italys Sandro Munari. Swedens Björn Waldegård became the first official champion, edging out Finlands Hannu Mikkola by one point.
Fiat took the title with the Fiat 131 Abarth in 1977,1978 and 1980, Ford with its Escort RS1800 in 1979. Waldegård was followed by German Walter Röhrl and Finn Ari Vatanen as drivers world champions, the 1980s saw the rear-wheel-drive Group 2 and the more popular Group 4 cars be replaced by more powerful four-wheel-drive Group B cars. FISA legalized all-wheel-drive in 1979, but most manufacturers believed it was too complex to be successful, after Audi started entering Mikkola and the new four-wheel-drive Quattro in rallies for testing purposes with immediate success, other manufacturers started their all-wheel-drive projects. Group B regulations were introduced in the 1982, and with only a few restrictions allowed almost unlimited power, Audi took the constructors title in 1982 and 1984 and drivers title in 1983 and 1984. Audis French female driver Michèle Mouton came close to winning the title in 1982,1985 title seemed set to go to Vatanen and his Peugeot 205 T16 but a bad accident at the Rally Argentina left him to watch compatriot and team-mate Timo Salonen take the title instead.
Italian Attilio Bettega had even a severe crash with his Lancia 037 at the Tour de Corse. However, the season took a dramatic turn. At the Rally Portugal, three spectators were killed and over 30 injured after Joaquim Santos lost control of his Ford RS200, at the Tour de Corse, championship favourite Toivonen and his co-driver Sergio Cresto died in a fireball accident after plunging down a cliff. Only hours after the crash, Jean-Marie Balestre and the FISA decided to freeze the development of the Group B cars, more controversy followed when Peugeots Juha Kankkunen won the title after FIA annulled the results of the San Remo Rally, taking the title from fellow Finn Markku Alén. As the planned Group S was cancelled, Group A regulations became the standard in the WRC until 1997, a separate Group A championship had been organized as part of the WRC already in 1986, with Swedens Kenneth Eriksson taking the title with a Volkswagen Golf GTI 16V
The Olympic Games are considered the worlds foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC is the body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in changes to the Olympic Games. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic, political, as a result, the Olympics has shifted away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship, World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916,1940, and 1944 Games.
Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games, the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, and organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals, silver, the Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is now represented. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame.
The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to themselves to the world. The Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, competition was among representatives of several city-states and kingdoms of Ancient Greece. These Games featured mainly athletic but combat such as wrestling. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished. This cessation of hostilities was known as the Olympic peace or truce and this idea is a modern myth because the Greeks never suspended their wars. The truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus
Rothmans, Benson & Hedges
Rothmans, Benson & Hedges is a Canadian manufacturer and distributor of tobacco products. It was formed by the merger of the Canadian units of Rothmans International and Benson & Hedges, when British American Tobacco bought Rothmans in 1999, it spun off its 60% share of Rothmans, Benson & Hedges as a public company, Rothmans Inc. Philip Morris International bought Rothmans Inc. in 2008, RBH owned or otherwise controls a wide variety of cigarette brands. Some of these are listed and expanded upon below, craven A, This brand is a part of the RBH premium brand strategy, principally within the Canadian market. The brand has experienced declines in market share, in part due to the elimination of all sponsorship activities in Canada in October 2003. The brand has been associated with a number of entertainment events in Canada. Among these has been the Just for Laughs Canadian Comedy Tour in March 1999, Davidoff, As of April 2007, RBH has started importing Davidoff cigarettes for the Canadian and Australian markets.
The package does, state that they are made in Germany, unlike some international cigarettes sold in Canada. Benson & Hedges, The companys flagship brand offered in three formats, King Size, 100s and Superslims, The companys other flagship brand. Belmont, Another flagship brand, offered as King Size, Belvedere, A premium cigarette brand, offered in both regular and king size. In Nova Scotia, a 25 pack of king size Belvedere cigarettes can cost just under $19 CAD, belvedere-branded empty cigarette tubes and rolling tobacco are available for purchase. Mark Ten, A low mid-tier brand offered in Quebec and Atlantic Canada and this brand is known as Québec Classique in Quebec. Brand variants offered are Red and Green, Philip Morris, A budget brand Rothmans has been involved in a number of lawsuits in Canada. In a key suit which commenced in 2006, Rothmans was criminally prosecuted for fraud, the allegation was that Rothmans encouraged smuggling in order to be able to convince Canadian governments to reduce cigarette taxes and thereby discourage that very smuggling.
Rothmans pleaded guilty to the charges in 2008 and agreed to pay a fine of $100 million
Royal Warrant of Appointment (United Kingdom)
Royal warrants of appointment have been issued for centuries to those who supply goods or services to a royal court or certain royal personages. The warrant enables the supplier to advertise the fact that they supply to the royal family, in the United Kingdom, grants are currently made by the three most senior members of the British Royal Family to companies or tradesmen who supply goods and services to individuals in the family. Suppliers continue to charge for their goods and services – a warrant does not imply that they provide goods, the warrant is typically advertised on company hoardings, letter-heads and products by displaying the coat of arms or the heraldic badge of the royal personage as appropriate. Underneath the coat of arms usually appear the phrase By Appointment to. Followed by the title and name of the customer. No other details of what is supplied may be given, the earliest recorded British royal charter was granted to the Weavers’ Company in 1155 by Henry II of England. Food and drinks suppliers have always been some of the most important warrant holders to the palace, one of the first monarchs to grant a warrant was King George IV, who turned Buckingham Palace into his residence.
Warrants are currently granted for the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, Warrants issued by the Queen Mother automatically expired in 2007, five years after her death. Royal Warrants are only awarded to tradesmen, such as carpenters, cabinet makers, dry-cleaners, some are well-known companies, many are not. The professions, employment agencies, party planners, the media, government departments, some 850 individuals and companies, including a few non-UK companies, hold more than 1,100 warrants to the British Royal Family. The Royal Warrant signifies there is a satisfactory trade relation in place between the grantor and the company, within the company, there is a nominated person called the grantee. That person is in all respects responsible for all aspects of the Royal Warrant and it takes at least five years of supplying goods or services to the member of the Royal Family before a company is eligible to have its application considered for recommendation. That application is presented to the Royal Household and goes to the buyer who makes its recommendation for inclusion.
It goes in front of the Royal Household Warrants Committee, which is chaired by the Lord Chamberlain and it goes to the grantor, who personally signs it. The grantor is empowered to reverse the Committees decision, and therefore the decision to accept or withhold a grant is a very personal one. Some Royal Warrants have been held for more than a hundred years, goods need not be for the use of the grantor. For example, cigarettes were only bought for the use of guests of the Royal Family, most Warrant holders are members of the Royal Warrant Holders Association, which liaises closely with the palace. Its secretary, Richard Peck, is a submarine commander
Carreras Tobacco Company
The House of Carreras was a tobacco business that was established in London in the nineteenth century by a nobleman from Spain, Don José Carreras Ferrer. It continued as an independent company until November 1958, when it merged with Rothmans of Pall Mall, in 1972 the name was used as the vehicle for the merger of various European tobacco interests to form Rothmans International. The antecedents of the Carreras business stem back into the eighteenth century, the founder of the business was a Spanish nobleman, Don José Carreras Ferrer, who fought in the Peninsular War under the Duke of Wellington. After serving with distinction and receiving the highest military honours, it is believed he was obliged to leave Spain on account of his political views. During the early years of the 19th century Carreras began trading in London at a time when cigars were increasing in popularity and Don José became a pioneer in his field. However, although the business prospered it did not become a major concern until his son, Don José Joaquin, began to specialise in the blending of tobaccos and snuff.
His fame as a tobacco blender soon spread, and he produced blends to suit the tastes of the highest members of society. One of Don Josés most famous customers was the third Earl of Craven, a special blend, to become known as Craven Mixture, was created specially for him and this blend has since spread in popularity throughout the world. Some of Don Josés tobacco brands became world famous, including Guards Mixture, over one thousand brands of cigar could be bought from Carreras, together with snuffs, cigarettes and all the usual requisites of the trade. The business remained in the hands of the Carreras family until 1894, when Mr W J Yapp, Princes Street became part of Wardour Street in 1878, and Number 61 became known as Princes House, No 7 Wardour Street. The House of Carreras became a London landmark, and it was here that Prince Edward often came to select the finest cigars, Baron was determined to put his making machine into a small concern such as Carreras. The Baron family had a reputation as good employers who treated their staff well, bernhard Baron would walk amongst his employees daily, enquiring after their families, and his son and his grandson, made regular visits to the factory floor.
A tradition developed that on Bernhards birthday, each December, all employees were two weeks wages and a cake to take home. In 1904, a company was established. Called Carreras and Marcianus Ltd and operating from St Jamess Place, Aldgate EC3, the former Baron Machine Company works, the company’s purpose was to commence production of machine made cigarettes. During the last six months of 1904 three brands made their debut, including Black Cat, the first cigarette in the United Kingdom to contain coupons which were redeemable for gifts. In 1905 yet more brands were introduced such as Chick and Sweet Kiss, business prospered and in 1906 additional premises were opened nearby, introducing new brands such as Carreras Ovals and Seven Up. Baron chose many novel schemes for the promotion of Carreras’ pipe tobacco, in 1909, the company introduced the Baron automatic pipe filler in cartridges, which revolutionised pipe smoking and sold by the million
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family, while more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world, Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, which is a stimulant. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco. They can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco. Tobacco use is a factor for many diseases, especially those affecting the heart, liver. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the single greatest preventable cause of death. The English word tobacco originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word tabaco, the precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is generally thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago. Tobacco has long used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC.
Many Native American tribes have traditionally grown and used tobacco, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying ones thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain. These seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more specifically in a known as Los Cigarrales named after the continuous plagues of cicadas. Before the development of lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. The alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success, Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular, James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chair presides over meetings of the group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officers duties include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world. In some organizations, this position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator, the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker. The term chair is used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U. S, president George H. W. Bush used chairman for men and chair for women. A1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as chairman, the Chronicle of Higher Education uses chairman for men and chairperson for women.
An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times, the National Association of Parliamentarians does not approve using chairperson. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called Mr. Chairman, the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using chair or chairperson, rather than chairman. The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the forms are gaining ground. It advocates using chair to refer both to men and to women, the word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be in the chair and is referred to as the chair. Major dictionaries state that the word derives from chair and man, some authorities, including Riddicks Rules of Procedure, suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus, and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word.
Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president, note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong, Chairman Mao. In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting. In some organizations that have titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs
Porsche in motorsport
Porsche has been successful in many branches of motorsport of which most have been in long distance races. The Porsche 917 of 1969 turned them into a house, winning in 1970 the first of over a dozen 24 Hours of Le Mans. With the 911 Carrera RS and the Porsche 935 Turbo, Porsche dominated the 1970s, and even has beaten sports prototypes, Porsche is currently the worlds largest race car manufacturer. In 2006, Porsche built 195 race cars for international motor sports events. Some aspect of the car almost invariably, was being developed, notable early successes in the USA included an overall win in the 1964 Road America 500 for an under-2-litre RS-60 driven by Bill Wuesthoff and Augie Pabst. The 90x series of cars in the 60s saw Porsche start to expand from class winners that stood a chance of overall wins in tougher races where endurance and handling mattered, to likely overall victors. Porsche first expanded its 8-cyl flat engine to 2.2 litres in the 907, developed the 908 with full three litres in 1968.
Based on this 8-cyl flat engine and a loophole in the rules, the 4. 5-litre flat 12917 was introduced in 1969, eventually expanded to five litres, and even to 5.4 and turbocharged. Within few years, Porsche with the 917 had grown from underdog to the supplier of the fastest and most powerful car in the world. Even though introduced in 1963, and winning the Rally Monte Carlo, the water-cooled Porsche 996 series became a success in racing after the GT3 variant was introduced in 1999. The Porsche 917 is considered one of the most iconic racing cars of all time and gave Porsche their first 24 Hours of Le Mans win, Porsche scored a couple of unexpected Le Mans wins in 1996 and 1997. A return to racing in the USA was planned for 1995 with a Tom Walkinshaw Racing chassis formerly used as the Jaguar XJR-14. This is a feat Porsche had achieved in the 956 era, between 1998 and 2014, Porsche did not attempt to score overall wins at Le Mans and similar sports car races, focusing on smaller classes and developing the water-cooled 996 GT3.
Nevertheless, the GT3 and the LMP2 RS Spyder won major races overall during the period, in 2015, a Porsche 919 Hybrid hybrid car driven by Nick Tandy, Earl Bamber and Nico Hülkenberg won the 83rd running of the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The Porsche LMP1 program went on to win the victory in the 2015 FIA World Endurance Championship. The 919 program has gone on to win the 84th running of Le Mans in a 919 driven by Neel Jani, Romain Dumas. In the 1960s, Porsche grew into a competitor in sports car racing. In CanAm, Porsche cooperated with Penske, while in Deutsche Rennsportmeisterschaft, customers like Kremer Racing, Georg Loos, after appearing as Martini Porsche in the mid-1970s, the factory entered as Rothmans Porsche in the mid-1980s
Hong Kong Sevens
The Hong Kong Sevens is considered the premier tournament on the World Rugby Sevens Series competition. The Hong Kong Sevens is currently the seventh tournament on the World Series calendar, the tournament spans three days, beginning on a Friday and concluding on Sunday. The tournament is organised each year by the Hong Kong Rugby Union, the Hong Kong Sevens was originally the idea of the Marketing and Promotions Manager of Rothmans Export for a Pan Asia 15s Rugby Tournament. Rodney Bentham-Wood wanted Rothmans to sponsor a pan Asia rugby Tournament, leah May was considering Carlsberg as the main sponsor. However, after a discussion between him and the chairman of the HKRFU, South African entrepreneur, A. D. C, tokkie Smith, it was decided that a Sevens Tournament would be cheaper and simpler to set up. The idea was implemented by Duncan McTavish, Trevor J. Bedford OBE and Ian Gow. After an initial proposal was refused by the Rugby Football Union in England and this was an important step as this was one of the first rugby tournaments that attracted commercial sponsorship.
These two clubs met in the final where the Cantabrians won 24-8, the series grew into a competition with national representative sevens sides competing, and with this growth, the tournament moved to the Hong Kong Stadium in 1982. South Korea and Western Samoa were every bit as good as Japan, after the first day of the play when the top eight seeded teams meet the smaller fish in a pool system, the second day is divided into three different competitions. The strength of this tournament is that on the opening day the most famous players in the world share a pitch with unknown opponents from countries where Rugby is a minority sport. While tournaments like the Hong Kong Sevens continue to be played, there is, scintillating running and handling which is what the game is supposed to be all about. In 1994, the venue was deemed too small for the tournament and was rebuilt into a 40,000 seat stadium now named the Hong Kong Stadium, today,24 national representative sides compete in the tournament. These include the 16 core members of the IRB Sevens World Series, in 1997 and 2005, the Hong Kong Sevens was not held, taking its place was the Rugby World Cup Sevens, which Hong Kong hosted in both years.
Fiji won both World Cup Sevens tournaments, in 1998, the first tournament after the transfer of sovereignty to China, tickets were not sold internationally and the event was stricken with a bankrupt sponsor Peregrine. In 2011, after HSBC negotiated title sponsorship to the entire World Sevens Series tournaments, the teams are divided into six pools of four teams, who play a round-robin within the pool. The winning team of the tournament acquires 30 points towards its rankings in the World Series instead of the normal 22, and the runner-up earns 25 points instead of the normal 19. Through the 2008–09 World Series, the Hong Kong Sevens awarded 24 points to the runner-up, the 2010 edition saw several significant changes to the tournament format. Foremost among these changes was the introduction of the fourth-level Shield trophy, further major changes were made to the event for 2013