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Rothschild family

The Rothschild family is a wealthy Jewish family from Frankfurt that rose to prominence with Mayer Amschel Rothschild, a court factor to the German Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel in the Free City of Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire, who established his banking business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court factors, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth and established an international banking family through his five sons, who established themselves in London, Frankfurt and Naples; the family was elevated to noble rank in the United Kingdom. The family's documented history starts in 16th century Frankfurt. During the 19th century, the Rothschild family possessed the largest private fortune in the world, as well as in modern world history; the family's wealth declined over the 20th century, was divided among many various descendants. Today their interests cover a diverse range of fields, including financial services, real estate, energy, mixed farming and nonprofits; this article is illustrated throughout with their buildings, which adorn landscapes across northwestern Europe.

The Rothschild family has been the subject of conspiracy theories, many of which have antisemitic origins. The first member of the family, known to use the name "Rothschild" was Izaak Elchanan Rothschild, born in 1577; the name is derived from the German zum rothen Schild, meaning "at the red shield", in reference to the house where the family lived for many generations. A red shield can still be seen at the centre of the Rothschild coat of arms; the family's ascent to international prominence began in 1744, with the birth of Mayer Amschel Rothschild in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. He was the son of a money changer who had traded with the Prince of Hesse. Born in the "Judengasse", the ghetto of Frankfurt, Mayer developed a finance house and spread his empire by installing each of his five sons in the five main European financial centres to conduct business; the Rothschild coat of arms contains a clenched fist with five arrows symbolising the five dynasties established by the five sons of Mayer Rothschild, in a reference to Psalm 127: "Like arrows in the hands of a warrior, so are the children of one's youth."

The family motto appears below the shield: Concordia, Industria. Paul Johnson writes "he Rothschilds are elusive. There is no book about them, both revealing and accurate. Libraries of nonsense have been written about them... A woman who planned to write a book entitled Lies about the Rothschilds abandoned it, saying:'It was easy to spot the lies, but it proved impossible to find out the truth.'" He writes that, unlike the court factors of earlier centuries, who had financed and managed European noble houses, but lost their wealth through violence or expropriation, the new kind of international bank created by the Rothschilds was impervious to local attacks. Their assets were held in financial instruments, circulating through the world as stocks and debts. Changes made by the Rothschilds allowed them to insulate their property from local violence: "Henceforth their real wealth was beyond the reach of the mob beyond the reach of greedy monarchs." Johnson argued that their fortune was generated to the greatest extent by Nathan Mayer Rothschild in London.

Another essential part of Mayer Rothschild's strategy for success was to keep control of their banks in family hands, allowing them to maintain full secrecy about the size of their fortunes. In about 1906, the Jewish Encyclopedia noted: "The practice initiated by the Rothschilds of having several brothers of a firm establish branches in the different financial centres was followed by other Jewish financiers, like the Bischoffsheims, Seligmans and others, these financiers by their integrity and financial skill obtained credit not alone with their Jewish confrères, but with the banking fraternity in general. By this means, Jewish financiers obtained an increasing share of international finance during the middle and last quarter of the 19th century; the head of the whole group was the Rothschild family..." It states: "Of more recent years, non-Jewish financiers have learned the same cosmopolitan method, and, on the whole, the control is now rather less than more in Jewish hands than formerly."

Mayer Rothschild kept the fortune in the family with arranged marriages between first- or second-cousins. By the late 19th century, however all Rothschilds had started to marry outside the family into the aristocracy or other financial dynasties, his sons were: Amschel Mayer Rothschild: Frankfurt, died childless as his fortune passed to the sons of Salomon and Calmann Salomon Mayer Rothschild: Vienna Nathan Mayer Rothschild: London Calmann Mayer Rothschild: Naples Jakob Mayer Rothschild: ParisThe German family name "Rothschild" is pronounced in German, unlike in English. The surname "Rothschild" is rare in Germany; the German surname "Rothschild" is not related to the Protestant surname "Rothchilds" from the United Kingdom. Families by country: Rothschild banking

Henry Rudolph Immerwahr

Henry Rudolph Immerwahr was a Classicist known for his work on Attic scripts and Greek epigraphy. The eldest son of Kurt Immerwahr and Johanna Freund Immerwahr, he was educated at the University of Florence. Immerwahr emigrated to the United States, earned a Ph. D. at Yale University in 1942 and performed military service for three years during World War II. He returned to Yale after the war and taught there until 1957, at which point he moved to the University of North Carolina. Immerwahr served as Professor of Greek in the Department of Classics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1957 until his retirement in 1977, at which point he became Director of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, serving in that capacity until 1982. Immerwahr received a Guggenheim fellowship to study at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens in 1946, he was married to the archaeologist Sara Anderson Immerwahr. 1966. Form and thought in Herodotus. Cleveland, Published for the American Philological Association by the Press of Western Reserve University.

1990. Attic Script: a Survey. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 2009. Corpus of Attic vase inscriptions. 2nd ed. Henry Rudolph Immerwahr at the Database of Classical Scholars "Henry R. Immerwahr - John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation". Web.archive.org. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Henry Rudolph Immerwahr at Find a Grave

Rajashekhara (Chera king)

Rajashekhara, proposed full name Rajadhiraja Rama Rajashekhara, was the first Chera/Perumal ruler at Kodungallur in medieval Kerala, south India. Rajasekhara is identified by historians with Cheraman Perumal Nayanar, the venerated Shaiva poet-musician; the next Chera/Perumal king of Kodungallur known to epigraphy is Sthanu Ravi Kulasekhara. Rajasekhara is considered as the first indepedent king of the Chera/Perumal kingdom of Makotai. Present-day central Kerala detached from Kongu Chera/Kerala kingdom to form the Chera/Perumal kingdom. Central Kerala was under some form of viceregal rule prior to this period, it is suggested that Cheraman Perumal Nayanar was on friendly terms with the Pallava dynasty. The direct authority of the Chera/Perumal king was restricted to the country around capital Makotai in central Kerala, his kingship was only ritual and remained nominal compared with the power that local chieftains exercised politically and militarily. Nambudiri-Brahmins possessed huge authority in religious and social subjects.

It was during Rajashekhara's reign—in 825 CE—the calendar known as the Kollam Era commenced in the port of Kollam. According to some recent scholarship, the new era commemorated the foundation of Kollam harbour city after the liberation of Venad from the Pandya rule. Rajashekhara is reputed to have presided over the Vazhapally copper plate — the earliest epigraphical record mentioning a Chera/Perumal king to be discovered. Shivanandalahari, attributed to Hindu philosopher Shankara, indirectly mentions the Chera ruler as Rajashekhara. Sanskrit poet Vasubhatta, described in Kerala traditions as a contemporary of the first Cheraman Perumal, refers to his first patron king as "Rama" and "Rama Rajasekhara" in the Yamaka kavyas Saurikathodaya and Tripuradahana respectively. Vasubhatta names his second royal patron as "Kulasekhara" in his Yudhisthira Vijaya. Rajasekhara is tentatively identified with king "Co-qua-rangon" mentioned in the Thomas of Cana copper plates, it is possible that the king "Rahappa", an unidentified monarch, whom Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna I Akalavarsha is stated to have defeated was Rajasekhara.

Krishna I is stated to have obtained the title "Rajadhiraja Parameswara" after defeating Rahappa. The Vazhappally copper plate from Thiruvatruvay in Vazhappally village is the earliest available Chera/Perumal inscription; the plate is engraved in an old form of Malayalam in Grantha scripts. The inscription begins with the invocation "Namah Shivaya" in place of the usual "Swasti Sri"; the record mentions a coin called "dinara". It records; the resolution describes Thiruvatruvay Pathinettu Nattar, Vazhappally Urar and the king deciding on land grant for muttappali. The plate is owned by Thiruvalla; the plate is said to belonged to and discovered from Talamana Illam or madham, near the eastern tower of Vazhappally Temple, Changanassery. Mathew, Alex - Political identities in History Unpublished Doctoral Thesis