Rotten Tomatoes is an American review-aggregation website for film and television. The company was launched in August 1998 by three undergraduate students at the University of California, Berkeley: Senh Duong, Patrick Y. Lee, Stephen Wang. Although the name "Rotten Tomatoes" connects to the practice of audiences throwing rotten tomatoes when disapproving of a poor stage performance, the original inspiration comes from a scene featuring tomatoes in the 1992 Canadian film Léolo. Since January 2010, Rotten Tomatoes has been owned by Flixster, in turn acquired by Warner Bros. in 2011. In February 2016, Rotten Tomatoes and its parent site Flixster were sold to Comcast's Fandango. Warner Bros. retained a minority stake in the merged entities, including Fandango. Rotten Tomatoes was launched on August 1998, as a spare-time project by Senh Duong, his objective in creating Rotten Tomatoes was "to create a site where people can get access to reviews from a variety of critics in the U. S." As a fan of Jackie Chan, Duong was inspired to create the website after collecting all the reviews of Chan's Hong Kong action movies as they were being released in the United States.
The catalyst for the creation of the website was Rush Hour, Chan's first major Hollywood crossover, planned to release in August 1998. Duong coded the website in two weeks and the site went live the same month, but the release of Rush Hour was delayed until September 1998. Besides Jackie Chan films, he began including other films on Rotten Tomatoes, extending it beyond Chan's fandom; the first non-Chan Hollywood movie whose reviews were featured on Rotten Tomatoes was Your Friends & Neighbors. The website was an immediate success, receiving mentions by Netscape, Yahoo!, USA Today within the first week of its launch. Duong teamed up with University of California, Berkeley classmates Patrick Y. Lee and Stephen Wang, his former partners at the Berkeley, California-based web design firm Design Reactor, to pursue Rotten Tomatoes on a full-time basis, they launched it on April 1, 2000. In June 2004, IGN Entertainment acquired Rotten Tomatoes for an undisclosed sum. In September 2005, IGN was bought by News Corp's Fox Interactive Media.
In January 2010, IGN sold the website to Flixster. The combined reach of both companies is 30 million unique visitors a month across all different platforms, according to the companies. In 2011, Warner Bros. acquired Rotten Tomatoes. In early 2009, Current Television launched The Rotten Tomatoes Show, a televised version of the web review site, it was written by Mark Ganek. The show aired Thursdays at 10:30 EST until September 16, 2010, it returned as a much shorter segment of InfoMania, a satirical news show that ended in 2011. By late 2009, the website was designed to enable Rotten Tomatoes users to create and join groups to discuss various aspects of film. One group, "The Golden Oyster Awards", accepted votes of members for various awards, spoofing the better-known Academy Awards or Golden Globes; when Flixster bought the company, they disbanded the groups. As of February 2011, new community features have been added and others removed. For example, users can no longer sort films by Fresh Ratings from Rotten Ratings, vice versa.
On September 17, 2013, a section devoted to scripted television series, called TV Zone, was created as a subsection of the website. In February 2016, Rotten Tomatoes and its parent site Flixster were sold to Comcast's Fandango. Warner Bros retained a minority stake including Fandango. In December 2016, Fandango and all its various websites moved to Fox Interactive Media's former headquarters in Beverly Hills, California. In July 2017, the website's editor-in-chief since 2007, Matt Atchity, left to join The Young Turks YouTube channel. On November 1, 2017, the site launched a new web series on Facebook, See It/Skip It, hosted by Jacqueline Coley and Segun Oduolowu. In March 2018, the site announced its new design and logo for the first time in 19 years at South by Southwest. Rotten Tomatoes is a top 1000 site, placing around #400 globally and top 150 for the US only, according to website ranker Alexa. Monthly unique visitors to the rottentomatoes.com domain is 26M global according to audience measurement service Quantcast.
Rotten Tomatoes staff first collect online reviews from writers who are certified members of various writing guilds or film critic-associations. To be accepted as a critic on the website, a critic's original reviews must garner a specific number of "likes" from users; those classified as "Top Critics" write for major newspapers. The critics upload their reviews to the movie page on the website, need to mark their review "fresh" if it's favorable or "rotten" otherwise, it is necessary for the critic to do so as some reviews are qualitative and do not grant a numeric score, making it impossible for the system to be automatic. The website keeps track of all the reviews counted for each film and calculates the percentage of positive reviews. Major released films can attract more than 400 reviews. If the positive reviews make up 60% or more, the film is considered "fresh", in that a supermajority of the reviewers approve of the film. If the positive reviews are less than 60%, the film is considered "rotten".
An average score on a 0 to 10 scale is calculated. With each review, a short excerpt of the review is quoted that serves a hyperlink to the complete review essay for anyone interested to read the critic's full thoughts on the subject. "Top Critics", such as Roger Ebert, Desson Thomson, Stephen Hunter, Owen Gleiberman, Lisa Schwarzbaum, Peter Travers and Michael Phillips are identified in a sub-listing that calculates their
Al-Masmiyya al-Saghira known as Mamsiyyat al-Hurani, was a Palestinian Arab village in the Gaza Subdistrict, located 42 kilometers northeast of Gaza. Established in the 19th century, it was situated at an elevation of 60 meters in the southern coastal plain of Ottoman Syria. Al-Masmiyya al-Saghira was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, but prior to that, in 1945, it had a population of 530 inhabitants. Al-Masmiyya al-Saghira was established in the second half of the 19th century by al-Hurani clan who had lived in the adjacent al-Masmiyya al-Kabira, but left because of feuds with other residents. Thus, the village was known as "Masmiyyat al-Hurani"; the adjectival Saghira means "minor" in Arabic and was used to differentiate it from al-Mamsiyya al-Kabira, the latter word meaning "major". In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Mesmiyet Saghira had a population of 261 inhabitants, all Muslims, increasing in the 1931 census when Masmiya El Saghira had an all-Muslim population of 354 in 73 houses.
In the 1945 statistics the population of El Masmiya es Sagira was 530 Muslims, while the total land area was 6,478 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, a total of 147 dunams were used for citrus and bananas, 7 for plantations and irrigable land, 6,126 for cereals, while 18 dunams were built-up areas. Seven small shops provided the village with its basic needs and children attended school in al-Masmiyya al-Kabira. Agriculture was the mainstay of the economy. In addition to cultivation, the inhabitants raised livestock which numbered 4,000 animals, including sheep, cattle, mules. Farmers participated in the weekly market of al-Faluja, sold their products in the cities of Gaza, al-Majdal, Jaffa; the circumstances of al-Masmiyya al-Saghira's capture by Israel was identical to those of its sister village, al-Masmiyya al-Kabira, occupied by the Givati Brigade on July 8–9, 1948. Israeli historian Benny Morris writes that the military operation was undertaken occurred in the ten days between the first two truces of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and that it "precipitated the evacuation of the village".
Following the war the area was incorporated into the State of Israel and the moshav of Kfar HaRif was established on al-Masmiyya al-Saghira's lands in 1956. According to Walid Khalidi: "Virtually no trace of the village remains, the site is overgrown with weeds, tall grasses, a scattering of eucalyptus trees". List of Arab towns and villages depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War Welcome to al-Masmiyya al-Saghira al-Masmiyya al-Saghira, Zochrot Survey of Western Palestine, Map 16: IAA, Wikimedia commons
Louise Baur AM FAHMS is an Australian paediatrician with a research interest in childhood obesity.. In 2015 she was appointed professor and head of paediatrics and child health at the University of Sydney, head of The Children’s Hospital at Westmead Clinical School. Baur was born in New South Wales, Australia where her father worked as a forester, her family moved to Sydney and she went to school at Beecroft Public School and Cheltenham Girls High School. Baur completed her education at the University of Sydney, obtaining her BSc in 1979, her MBBS in 1981 and her PhD in 1993. Baur trained as a general paediatrician at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, she became a Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians in 1988. Her PhD studies were undertaken at the hospital with Martin Silink. In 1994, Baur took up an appointment as senior lecturer in the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health at the University of Sydney, she was promoted to professor in 2004. Baur has held a position as consultant paediatrician at what is now The Children's Hospital at Westmead, in Sydney, since 1994.
She established the first multidisciplinary paediatric obesity Weight Management Service in Australasia, incorporating multidisciplinary clinics, individual therapist consultations, group programs, a health professional training program. She was head of service from 2009 to 2014 and has made a significant contribution to research in paediatric obesity. Baur was made a Member of the Order of Australia in 2010 “for service to medicine in the field of paediatric obesity as a researcher and academic, to the community through support for a range of children’s charities”. In 2014 Baur became a Founding Fellow of the Australian Academy of Medical Sciences, she is a member of the academy’s council. Baur was a director of World Vision Australia from 2007 to 2016 and has been a member of the Sydney Children’s Hospitals Network Governing Board since 2010. Baur was Founding Editor-in-Chief of the journal Pediatric Obesity from 2005 to 2010 and remains an Associate Editor