Epfendorf is a municipality in the district of Rottweil, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Epfendorf is located in the Upper Neckar valley between Rottweil; the municipality borders to the north to the town of Oberndorf, to the east to the city of Rosenfeld in Zollernalbkreis, on the south to Dietingen and Villingendorf and on the west to Bösingen. The community consists of the main town Epfendorf and the three districts Harthausen and Trichtingen; the exact age of Epfendorf is not known, but the place was first documented in 994. Findings indicate a Roman settlement, a Roman road led to the Roman settlement in Waldmössingen. On January 1, 1974, the municipality Harthausen was incorporated to Epfendorf; the incorporation of Trichtingen was on January 1, 1975. Mariä Heimsuchung is a Roman Catholic parish of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart in Talhausen; the evangelical church Trichtingen belongs to the church district Sulz am Neckar and this belongs to the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg.
The community belongs to the agreed management community with the city. The local elections on 25 May 2014 led to the following conclusions: CDU / FW 47.2% 9 seats Free citizens 52.8% 10 seats Blazon: In red, a blue-lined golden ducal crown with Hermelinstulp. Epfendorf is located on the Neckar cycle path. Epfendorf has an extensive network of hiking trails; the Schlichem hiking trail ends in Epfendorf. Less experienced hikers can walk in summer with the Cyclo-shuttle from starting-point Tieringen in stages. Not far from Harthausen is located in the woods the Lichtenegg Castle, it can not be visited because it is owned. Epfendorf is located on the Bundesstraße 14 and on the Gäubahn Stuttgart-Hattingen railway, however it is a station without passenger traffic; the municipality has a secondary school with Werkrealschule. All secondary schools are available in the nearby towns of Oberndorf and Rottweil
Sulz am Neckar
Sulz am Neckar is a town in the district of Rottweil, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated on the river Neckar, 22 km north of Rottweil, 19 km southeast of Freudenstadt. Sulz am Neckar came in the possession of the Hohengeroldseck in AD 1242. At Sulz a powerline for traction current crosses the Neckar Valley in a large span, mounted on two 61-metre-tall electricity pylons. Friedrich August von Alberti, geologist Gustav Bauernfeind, painter Joseph Gottlieb Kölreuter, professor of natural history Brigitte Peterhans, architect Richard Schmid and politician and member of the German resistance). Salomon Schweigger, Lutheran theologian, anthropologist and pilgrim Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich and pioneer psychiatrist
Free imperial city
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities worded free imperial city, was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet. An imperial city held the status of Imperial immediacy, as such, was subordinate only to the Holy Roman Emperor, as opposed to a territorial city or town, subordinate to a territorial prince – be it an ecclesiastical lord or a secular prince; the evolution of some German cities into self-ruling constitutional entities of the Empire was slower than that of the secular and ecclesiastical princes. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, some cities were promoted by the emperor to the status of Imperial Cities for fiscal reasons; those cities, founded by the German kings and emperors in the 10th through 13th centuries and had been administered by royal/imperial stewards gained independence as their city magistrates assumed the duties of administration and justice.
The Free Cities were those, such as Basel, Cologne or Strasbourg, that were subjected to a prince-bishop and progressively gained independence from that lord. In a few cases, such as in Cologne, the former ecclesiastical lord continued to claim the right to exercise some residual feudal privileges over the Free City, a claim that gave rise to constant litigation until the end of the Empire. Over time, the difference between Imperial Cities and Free Cities became blurred, so that they became collectively known as "Free Imperial Cities", or "Free and Imperial Cities", by the late 15th century many cities included both "Free" and "Imperial" in their name. Like the other Imperial Estates, they could wage war, make peace, control their own trade, they permitted little interference from outside. In the Middle Ages, a number of Free Cities formed City Leagues, such as the Hanseatic League or the Alsatian Décapole, to promote and defend their interests. In the course of the Middle Ages, cities gained, sometimes — if — lost, their freedom through the vicissitudes of power politics.
Some favored cities gained a charter by gift. Others purchased one from a prince in need of funds; some won it by force of arms during the troubled 13th and 14th centuries and others lost their privileges during the same period by the same way. Some cities became free through the void created by the extinction of dominant families, like the Swabian Hohenstaufen; some voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of a territorial ruler and therefore lost their independence. A few, like Protestant Donauwörth, which in 1607 was annexed to the Catholic Duchy of Bavaria, were stripped by the Emperor of their status as a Free City — for genuine or trumped-up reasons. However, this happened after the Reformation, of the sixty Free Imperial Cities that remained at the Peace of Westphalia, all but the ten Alsatian cities continued to exist until the mediatization of 1803. There were four thousand towns and cities in the Empire, although around the year 1600 over nine-tenths of them had fewer than one thousand inhabitants.
During the late Middle Ages, fewer than two hundred of these places enjoyed the status of Free Imperial Cities, some of those did so only for a few decades. The military tax register of 1521 listed eighty-five such cities, this figure had fallen to sixty-five by the time of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. From the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 to 1803, their number oscillated at around fifty. Unlike the Free Imperial Cities, the second category of towns and cities, now called "territorial cities" were subject to an ecclesiastical or lay lord, while many of them enjoyed self-government to varying degrees, this was a precarious privilege which might be curtailed or abolished according to the will of the lord. Reflecting the extraordinarily complex constitutional set-up of the Holy Roman Empire, a third category, composed of semi-autonomous cities that belonged to neither of those two types, is distinguished by some historians; these were cities whose size and economic strength was sufficient to sustain a substantial independence from surrounding territorial lords for a considerable time though no formal right to independence existed.
These cities were located in small territories where the ruler was weak. They were the exception among the multitude of territorial towns and cities. Cities of both latter categories had representation in territorial diets, but not in the Imperial Diet. Free imperial cities were not admitted as own Imperial Estates to the Imperial Diet until 1489, then their votes were considered only advisory compared to the Benches of the electors and princes; the cities divided themselves into two groups, or benches, in the Imperial Diet, the Rhenish and the Swabian Bench. The following list contains the 50 Free imperial cities that took part in the Imperial Diet of 1792, they are listed according to their voting order on the Swabian benches. These same cities were among the 85 free imperial cities listed on the Reichsmatrikel of 1521: the federal civil and military tax-schedule used for more than a century to assess the contributions of all the Imperial Estates in case
The Danube is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Eastern Europe; the Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km, passing through or bordering Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea, its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The Danube river basin is home to fish species such as pike, huchen, Wels catfish and tench, it is home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass and eel, inhabit the Danube Delta and the lower portion of the river. Since ancient times, the Danube has become a traditional trade route in Europe, nowadays 2,415 km of its total length being navigable; the river is an important source of energy and drinking water. Danube is an Old European river name derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu.
Other river names from the same root include the Dunaj, Dzvina/Daugava, Donets, Dniestr, Dysna and Tuoni. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means "fluid, drop", in Avestan, the same word means "river". In the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra, "a dragon blocking the course of the rivers"; the Finnish word for Danube is Tonava, most derived from the word for the river in Swedish and German, Donau. Its Sámi name Deatnu means "Great River", it is possible that dānu in Scythian as in Avestan was a generic word for "river": Dnieper and Dniestr, from Danapris and Danastius, are presumed to continue Scythian *dānu apara "far river" and *dānu nazdya- "near river", respectively. The river was known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning "strong, swift", from a root also encountered in the ancient name of the Dniester and akin to Iranic turos “swift” and Sanskrit iṣiras "swift", from the PIE *isro-, *sreu “to flow”. In the Middle Ages, the Greek Tiras was borrowed into Italian as Tyrlo and into Turkic languages as Tyrla, the latter further borrowed into Romanian as a regionalism.
The Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, "the bringer of luck". In Latin, the Danube was variously known as Ister; the Latin name is masculine, except Slovenian. The German Donau is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe "wetland". Romanian differs from other surrounding languages in designating the river with a feminine term, Dunărea; this form was not inherited from Latin. To explain the loss of the Latin name, scholars who suppose that Romanian developed near the large river propose that the Romanian name descends from a hypotetical Thracian *Donaris that shares the same PIE root with the Iranic don-/dan-, with the suffix -aris encountered in the ancient name of the Ialomița River, in the unidentified Miliare river mentioned by Jordanes in his Getica. Gábor Vékony says that this hypothesis is not plausible, because the Greeks borrowed the Istros form from the native Thracians, he proposes. The modern languages spoken in the Danube basin all use names related to Dānuvius: German: Donau.
Dunav. Dunai. Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg; the Danube flows southeast for about 2,730 km, passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine. Once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of 10 countries: Romania, Serbia, Germany, Slovakia, Croatia and Moldova, its drainage basin extends into nine more. In addition to the bordering countries, the drainage basin includes parts of nine more countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, Montenegro, Italy, North Macedonia and Albania, its total drainage basin is 801,463 km2. The highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Piz Bernina at the Italy–Switzerland border, at 4,049 metres; the land drained by the Danube extends into many other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges and other shallow-draught boats.
From its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tribu
The Swabian-Alemannic Fastnacht, Fasnacht or Fasnat/Faschnat, is the pre-Lenten carnival in Alemannic folklore in Switzerland, southern Germany and Vorarlberg. Popular etymology links Fastnacht with fasten – from celebrations on the eve preceding fasting. In the beginning of the 20th century it was a common assumption that the tradition has its root in the pre Christian rituals. So there was an assumption Comparison of dialect variants however yields an OHG *fasanaht, with an element fasa- of unclear meaning. A derivation looks to PIE pwo- "purify", or alternatively to Middle High German vaselen "prosper, bud", interprets the festival as a fertility rite, but historians around Werner Mezger refuted all those theories, showed that the name came from fasten and the tradition is Christian. They showed that a lot of the ritus came from the civitas diaboli model of the Catholic church. Fasching is related originally with a second element -gang instead of -nacht. Fastnacht is held in the settlement area of the Germanic tribes of the Swabians and Alemanns, where Swabian-Alemannic dialects are spoken.
The region covers German Switzerland, the larger part of Baden-Württemberg, south-western Bavaria and Vorarlberg. The festival starts on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday, known as Schmotziger Donnerstag. In Standard German, schmutzig means "dirty", but in the Alemannic dialects schmotzig means "lard", or "fat". Elsewhere the day is called "Women's Carnival", being the day when tradition says that women take control. In particular regions of Tyrol and Bavaria traditional processions of the Perchten welcome the springtime; the Schönperchten represent the birth of new life in the awakening nature, the Schiachperchten represent the dark spirits of wintertime. Farmers yearn for the Perchtenlauf is a magical expression of that desire; the nights between winter and spring, when evil ghosts are supposed to go around, are called Rauhnächte. Swabian-Alemannic Fastnacht distinguishes itself from the Rhenish Carnival but did not develop an independent form until the first quarter of the 20th century. Whilst Carnival developed a new form of Fastnacht in the 18th century, an influence, taken up by the Swabian-Alemannic Fastnacht as well, contemplations to look back took place in the 20th century, recalling the traditions of Fastnacht in the Middle Age and the Early modern period.
The program of the coming Fastnacht is announced in public meetings, e.g. in Bad Saulgau or Bonndorf, in other towns like Waldkirch and Löffingen people gather in jesters’ meetings to discuss organizational details. A special type of jesters’ meetings, has been by far the most popular type of meetings for centuries; these are meetings of several thousands of jesters, they are taking place every weekend in the weeks after Epiphany. In many places, jesters will produce deafening noise using whips, or shaking the bells on the Häser until they can be sure that every little bit of dust has fallen out. In the area of the upper Neckar, “Abstauber” with black clothes will go door to door to clean the mothballed jesters' clothes. In Rottenburg am Neckar, witches will conduct a similar procedure on the guests and furniture of local inns. Therefore, the so-called “Fiaßwäsch“ takes place in Lauffen ob Rottweil where the jester’s council wash their feet in the ice-cold water of the fountain. At the same time, the jester’s masks take pride of place in the livingrooms of Immendingen and Möhringen.
The Schramberger jesters show their reverence towards the jester’s clothing by solemnly blessing it: “Sei mir gegrüßt, du edles Kleid der Narren. Tritt nun hervor aus Deiner Jahresbleibe. Und erfülle mit Freude die Großen und die Kleinen. Dir sei geweiht die Fasnet im Jahre des Heils 20..“. The most important role on and around January 6 takes the jester’s friendly gatherings; the number of Fastnacht events again is noticeably increasing everywhere by the 40th day after Christmas, the Candlemas on February 2. On this day, it is common to do the Maschgern, the Strählen, the Schnurren, the Welschen, the Hecheln or the Aufsagen: the jesters choose the most remarkable incidents of the last year to retell them to the people in an entertaining way. Although in some places the Fastnacht celebrations begin on November 11, as is common in the Rhenish regions, in Swabian-Allemanic areas, Fastnacht events only start off after the festive days following Christmas - on January 6, Epiphany. Drawing on an old custom, this is the day when the masks get a dusting and the first events and parades can begin.
Speaking, Fastnacht only begins with Fat Thursday, the climax of the celebrations and the time when the parades and other celebrations become more frequent. There are a number of recipes that are traditionally cooked at that time. Accordingly, to many Swabian-Allemanic Jesters the date when Fastnacht begins marks a crucial distinctive feature to Karneval. Many people consider January 6 to be the original starting date
German mediatisation was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatisation and secularisation of a large number of Imperial Estates. Most ecclesiastical principalities, free imperial cities, secular principalities, other minor self-ruling entities of the Holy Roman Empire lost their independent status and were absorbed into the remaining states. By the end of the mediatisation process, the number of German states had been reduced from 300 to just 39. In the strict sense of the word, mediatisation consists in the subsumption of an immediate state into another state, thus becoming mediate, while leaving the dispossessed ruler with his private estates and a number of privileges and feudal rights, such as low justice. For convenience, historians use the term mediatisation for the entire restructuring process that took place at the time, whether the mediatized states survived in some form or lost all individuality.
The secularization of ecclesiastical states took place concurrently with the mediatisation of free imperial cities and other secular states. The mass mediatisation and secularisation of German states that took place at the time was not initiated by Germans, it came under diplomatic pressure from revolutionary France and Napoleon. It constituted the most extensive redistribution of property and territories in German history prior to 1945; the two highpoints of the process were the secularization/annexation of ecclesiastical territories and free imperial cities in 1802–03, the mediatisation of secular principalities and counties in 1806. Although most of its neighbors coalesced into centralized states before the 19th century, Germany did not follow that path. Instead, the Holy Roman Empire maintained its medieval political structure as a "polyglot congeries of hundreds of nearly sovereign states and territories ranging in size from considerable to minuscule". From a high of nearly 400 – 136 ecclesiastical and 173 secular lords plus 85 free imperial cities – on the eve of the Reformation, this number had only reduced to a little less than 300 by the late-18th century.
The traditional explanation for this fragmentation has focused on the gradual usurpation by the princes of the powers of the Holy Roman Emperor during the Staufen period, to the point that by the Peace of Westphalia, the Emperor had become a mere primus inter pares. In recent decades, many historians have maintained that the fragmentation of Germany – which started out as a large polity while its neighbors started small – can be traced back to the geographical extent of the Empire – the German part of the Empire being about twice the size of the realm controlled by the king of France in the second half of the 11th century – and to the vigor of local aristocratic and ecclesiastical rule from early on in the medieval era. In the 12th century, the secular and spiritual princes did not regard themselves as the Emperor's subordinates, still less his subjects, but as rulers in their own right - and they jealously defended their established sphere of predominance. At the time of Emperor Frederick II's death in 1250, it had been decided that the regnum teutonicum was "an aristocracy with a monarchical head".
Among those states and territories, the ecclesiastical principalities were unique to Germany. The Ottonian and early Salian Emperors, who appointed the bishops and abbots, used them as agents of the imperial crown - as they considered them more dependable than the dukes they appointed and who attempted to establish independent hereditary principalities; the emperors expanded the power of the Church, of the bishops, with land grants and numerous privileges of immunity and protection as well as extensive judicial rights, which coalesced into a distinctive temporal principality: the Hochstift. The German bishop became a "prince of the Empire" and direct vassal of the Emperor for his Hochstift, while continuing to exercise only pastoral authority over his larger diocese; the personal appointment of bishops by the Emperors had sparked the investiture controversy in the 11th century, in its aftermath the emperor‘s control over the bishops' selection and rule diminished considerably. The bishops, now elected by independent-minded cathedral chapters rather than chosen by the emperor or the pope, were confirmed as territorial lords equal to the secular princes.
Having to face with the territorial expansionism of the powerful secular princes, the position of the prince-bishops became more precarious with time. In the course of the Reformation, several of the bishoprics in the north and northeast were secularized to the benefit of Protestant princes. In the sixteenth century the Counter-Reformation attempted to reverse some of these secularizations, the question of the fates of secularized territories became an important one in the Thirty Years' War. In the end, the Peace of Westphalia confirmed the secularization of a score of prince-bishoprics, including the archbishoprics of Bremen and Magdeburg and six bishoprics with full political powers, which were assigned to Sweden and Mecklenburg. On the other hand and Paderborn – under Protestant administration for decades and given up for lost – were restored as prince-bishoprics. In addition, the Peace conclusively reaffirmed the imperial immediacy, therefore the de facto independence, of the prince-bishops and imperial abbots, free imperial cities, imperial counts, as well as the imperial knights.
According to one authority, the sixty-five ecclesiastical rulers cont