Rouen is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy. One of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages, it was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries. The population of the metropolitan area at the 2011 census was 655,013, with the city proper having an estimated population of 111,557. People from Rouen are known as Rouennais. Rouen and its metropolitan area of 70 suburban communes form the Métropole Rouen Normandie, with 494,382 inhabitants at the 2010 census. In descending order of population, the largest of these suburbs are Sotteville-lès-Rouen, Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, Le Grand-Quevilly, Le Petit-Quevilly, Mont-Saint-Aignan, each with a population exceeding 20,000. Rouen was founded by the Gaulish tribe of the Veliocasses, who controlled a large area in the lower Seine valley.
They called. It was considered the second city of Gallia Lugdunensis after Lugdunum itself. Under the reorganization of Diocletian, Rouen was the chief city of the divided province Gallia Lugdunensis II and reached the apogee of its Roman development, with an amphitheatre and thermae of which foundations remain. In the 5th century, it became the seat of a bishopric and a capital of Merovingian Neustria. From their first incursion into the lower valley of the Seine in 841, the Normans overran Rouen. From 912, Rouen was the capital of the Duchy of Normandy and residence of the local dukes, until William the Conqueror moved his residence to Caen. In 1150, Rouen received its founding charter. During the 12th century, Rouen was the site of a yeshiva known as La Maison Sublime. Discovered in 1976, it is now a museum. At that time, about 6,000 Jews lived in the town. On 24 June 1204 King Philip II Augustus of France entered Rouen and definitively annexed Normandy to the French Kingdom, he demolished the Norman castle and replaced it with his own, the Château Bouvreuil, built on the site of the Gallo-Roman amphitheatre.
A textile industry developed based on wool imported from England, for which the cities of Flanders and Brabant were competitors, finding its market in the Champagne fairs. Rouen depended for its prosperity on the river traffic of the Seine, on which it enjoyed a monopoly that reached as far upstream as Paris. In the 14th century urban strife threatened the city: in 1291, the mayor was assassinated and noble residences in the city were pillaged. Philip IV reimposed order and suppressed the city's charter and the lucrative monopoly on river traffic, but he was quite willing to allow the Rouennais to repurchase their old liberties in 1294. In 1306, he decided to expel the Jewish community of Rouen numbering some five or six thousand. In 1389, another urban revolt of the underclass occurred, the Harelle, it was suppressed with the withdrawal of Rouen's river-traffic privileges once more. During the Hundred Years' War, on 19 January 1419, Rouen surrendered to Henry V of England, who annexed Normandy once again to the Plantagenet domains.
But Rouen did not go quietly: Alain Blanchard hanged English prisoners from the walls, for which he was summarily executed. Joan of Arc, who supported a return to French rule, was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431 in this city, where most inhabitants supported the duke of Burgundy, the French king’s enemy; the king of France, Charles VII, recaptured the town in 1449. Rouen was staunchly Catholic during the French Wars of Religion, underwent an unsuccessful five-month siege in 1591/2 by Henry IV and an English force commanded by the Earl of Essex. A brief account by an English participant has survived. See'Memoirs of Robert Carey', pp. 18-21. During the German occupation, the Kriegsmarine had its headquarters located in a chateau on what is now the Rouen Business School; the city was damaged during World War II on D-day, its famed cathedral was destroyed by Allied bombs. Rouen is known for its Rouen Cathedral, with its Tour de Beurre financed by the sale of indulgences for the consumption of butter during Lent.
The cathedral's gothic façade was the subject of a series of paintings by Claude Monet, some of which are exhibited in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris. The Gros Horloge is an astronomical clock dating back to the 14th century, it is located in the Gros Horloge street. Other famous structures include Rouen Castle, whose keep is known as the tour Jeanne d'Arc, where Joan of Arc was brought in 1431 to be threatened with torture. Rouen is noted for its surviving half-timbered buildings. There are many museums in Rouen: the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, an art museum with pictures of well-known painters such as Claude Monet and Géricault.
White Corridors is a 1951 British drama film directed by Pat Jackson and starring Googie Withers, Godfrey Tearle, James Donald and Petula Clark. It is based on a novel by Helen Ashton; the film is set in a hospital shortly after the establishment of the National Health Service. The day-to-day life of the staff and patients at a city hospital. Googie Withers as Dr. Sophie Dean James Donald as Dr. Neil Marriner Godfrey Tearle as Mr. Groom, Sr. Petula Clark as Joan Shepherd Jean Anderson as Sister Gater Timothy Bateson as Dr. Cook Fabia Drake as Miss Farmer Henry Edwards as Phillip Brewster Gerard Heinz as Dr. Macuzek Megs Jenkins as Mrs. Briggs Barry Jones as Dr. Shoesmith Avice Landone as Sister Jenkins Bernard Lee as Burgess Moira Lister as Dolly Clark Dandy Nichols as Char Basil Radford as Retired Civil Servant Bruce Seton as Policeman Patrick Troughton as Sailor Jack Watling as Dick Groom Philip Stainton as Sawyer Dana Wynter – first film role The film marked Googie Withers' return to acting after 13 months off following the birth of her child.
John Mills at once stage was announced to play the male lead. It was the first dramatic role for Petula Clark. Bombardier Billy Wells, the man who bangs the gong on the Rank trademark, had a small role. At the 1951 BAFTAS it was nominated for Best British Film. Petula Clark was nominated for Best Supporting Actress for her role. White Corridors was the 8th most popular film at the British box office in 1951
The Waikaraka Cycleway is an off-road cycleway in the south of Auckland City, New Zealand, running from the Wesley suburb in southern Auckland City along New Zealand State Highway 20 to Onehunga and continuing along the shoreline of the Manukau Harbour beside industrialised areas until it ends at Hugo Johnston Drive, in Southdown. The initial construction of the cycleway was plagued by cost blow-outs, as the cost-estimates did not sufficiently allow for a number of extra factors during construction, such as remedial work around contaminated land, the need to construct the path to a long-lasting quality on worse ground than expected, above an underground gas pipeline route. Running only 4km from Onehunga, near the Mangere Bridge to Pikes Point, the cycleway was extended in 2008 along the Southwestern Motorway as far as the motorway's western end; as of early 2010 this extension of the link still had gaps near Onehunga and the Mt Roskill cone, which were closed as works on the Mangere Bridge duplication and the Mt Roskill park facilities proceeded, with this latter gap finished in July 2010.
The Mt Roskill gap was late in being closed, due to sensitive issues regarding building a motorway and the associated cycleway across the side of a protected environment, important to local Maori. An agreement was reached that narrowed the cycleway locally and included significant new landscaping, as well as Maori carvings such as a winged sculptural gate across the path. NZ Transport Agency has improved linkages to the cycleway near Mangere Bridge, including with a new overbridge over Onehunga Harbour Road and works on the causeway / Old Mangere Bridge link to the Mangere Bridge suburb to the south. In May 2011, the Board of Inquiry hearing the resource consent process for the Waterview Connection decided that NZTA was to set aside $8 million for the construction of an off-road surface cycleway between SH16 and the existing SH20 section in Hillsborough, as part of the tunneling project; this will create a connection between the Waikaraka Cycleway. Waikaraka Cycleway