The Libertines are an English rock band, formed in London in 1997 by frontmen Carl Barât and Pete Doherty. The band, centered on the songwriting partnership of Barât and Doherty, has included John Hassall and Gary Powell for most of its recording career; the band was part of the garage rock revival and spearheaded the movement in the UK. The band gained some notoriety in the early 2000s. Although their mainstream success was limited, their profile soon grew, culminating in a No. 2 single and No. 1 album on the UK Charts. In December 2004, their self-titled second album was voted the second best album of the year by NME magazine; the first two of their full-length LPs were produced by Mick Jones, of the British punk band The Clash. In spite of their critical and commercial success, the band's music was eclipsed by its internal conflicts, stemming from Doherty's addictions to crack cocaine and heroin, which led to the breakup of the band. Doherty has since stated that the breakup of the band was due to relationship difficulties between Barât and himself that were not related to his drug addictions.
The members of the Libertines went on to form new bands with varying degrees of success. In August 2010, the four members of the Libertines reunited to play a series of shows, including slots at the 2010 Reading and Leeds Festivals; the reunion shows received a positive response from the press and fans. In April 2014 the Libertines announced. In November 2014 the band signed a record deal with Virgin EMI Records, released their third album, Anthems for Doomed Youth on 11 September 2015; the founding members of the Libertines, Peter Doherty and Carl Barât, met when Barât was studying drama at Brunel University in Uxbridge and sharing a flat in Richmond with Amy-Jo Doherty, Peter's elder sister. This lasted until they realised their collective creative capabilities and forged a bond over their shared passion for songwriting. Barât abandoned his course two years in, they formed a band with their neighbour Steve Bedlow referred to as "Scarborough Steve," and named themselves "The Strand" discarded for "The Libertines" after the Marquis de Sade's Lusts of the Libertines.
They met John Hassall and Johnny Borrell, who played bass with the Libertines for a short period. Many of their early gigs took place in the flat shared by Barât, they had booked themselves into the Odessa studios and played at Filthy Macnasty's Whiskey Cafe in Islington, where Pete was working as a barman. Roger Morton thought they offered, with a friend, to manage the Libertines. Despite a separate offer from an experienced member of the music industry, John Waller, the band accepted Morton's services as manager. However, Morton would give up the job after an unsuccessful six months. In March 2000 the Libertines met a lawyer for Warner Chappell Music Publishing. Recognizing their potential, she took on an active role in managing them, they recorded "Legs XI", a set of their best 8 tracks at the time. However, by December 2000, they had still not been signed and this caused Dufour and Pootschi to part ways with the Libertines; the subsequent success of The Strokes, a band with a similar style, caused Pootschi to reconsider her position.
She formed a plan to get the Libertines signed to Rough Trade Records within 6 months. In this period, Barât and Doherty wrote many of the songs. Gary Powell was recruited to play drums, as Paul Dufour was deemed by Pootschi to be'too old'. On 1 October 2001, Doherty played a showcase for James Endeacott from Rough Trade. After Borrell failed to attend this important rehearsal, they telephoned him to discover he was on tour "living the high life." Endeacott's support led to them playing for the heads of Rough Trade, Geoff Travis and Jeanette Lee, on 11 December that year. They were told they would be signed, the official deal took place on 21 December; the Libertines were in need of a bassist, so Hassall rejoined the band at their request, but was informed he would have to stay in the background, as the band would be focused on the partnership of Doherty and Barât. After signing with Rough Trade and Barât rented a flat together at 112a Teesdale Street in Bethnal Green which they named "The Albion Rooms".
Now with a firm line-up, they began to play more gigs alongside The Strokes and The Vines in quick succession. This succeeded in spreading their name around the music press, with the NME taking a particular interest in them, their first single was a double A-side of "What a Waster" and "I Get Along", produced by former Suede guitarist Bernard Butler. It was released on 3 June 2002 to a lukewarm media reception and received little airplay due to its liberal use of profanities. A censored version appeared as Lard's single of the week. On the week the single came out, the Libertines featured on the cover of the NME for the first time; the single reached No. 37 in the UK Singles Chart. Their first album was recorded and produced by Mick Jones of The Clash. Entitled Up the Bracket, it was recorded at the RAK studios in St John's Wood, with mixing taking place at Whitfield studios. During this time, t
The Monochrome Set
The Monochrome Set is a influential English post-punk/new wave band formed in London in 1978. The most recent line-up consists of Andy Warren, John Paul Moran and Mike Urban; the Monochrome Set was formed in London in 1978 from the remnants of a college group called The B-Sides, whose members had included Stuart Goddard known as Adam Ant. Their first live gig was on 15 Feb 1978, at Westfield College in London; the original line-up consisted of Indian-born lead singer and principal songwriter Bid, Canadian guitarist Lester Square, drummer John D. Haney and bass guitarist Charlie X; the band went through several bassists in the next few years, including Jeremy Harrington, Simon Croft and Andy Warren of the Ants, a childhood friend of Bid. Experimental filmmaker Tony Potts began collaborating with the band in 1979, designing lighting and stage sets with film projections for their live appearances; the band's early persona was defined by the shadowy, uncertain stage images created by the films to such an extent he is described as being the band's "fifth member".
They released several singles for the Rough Trade label before recording their debut studio album, Strange Boutique, produced by Bob Sargeant for Virgin Records' imprint DinDisc in 1980. It peaked at No. 62 in the UK Albums Chart in 1980. Their follow-up effort, Love Zombies, was produced by Alvin Clark and the band that same year. Haney left the band in 1981, was replaced by Lexington Crane. In 1982, the band switched labels to Cherry Red to release their third album, Eligible Bachelors, produced by Tim Hart. Square and Crane left soon afterwards, were replaced by keyboardist Carrie Booth and drummer Nicholas Weslowski; this line-up recorded a 1982 single, "Cast a Long Shadow", for Cherry Red, before Booth was in turn replaced by new lead guitarist James'Foz' Foster. In 1983, Cherry Red released Volume, Brilliance... a retrospective of the band's early Rough Trade singles, BBC and Capital Radio sessions, other unreleased early sessions. In 1985, with the same line-up as on Cast a Long Shadow, The Monochrome Set recorded The Lost Weekend for Warner Bros.
Records. The Lost Weekend failed commercially, after a few singles, the band broke up, though they served as Jessica Griffin's backing band on the first album by the Would-Be-Goods, The Camera Loves Me. In early 1990, Bid and Warren reformed the band, with the addition of keyboardist Orson Presence and drummer Mike Urban; the new band toured extensively in Japan, where the band had become popular. The band released several low-key albums for Cherry Red during the 1990s, before going on hiatus in 1998. Bid recorded a number of albums with Scarlet's Well; the song, appeared on the TV series Heroes. The recording used was a cover version of the original recorded by the Brighton Port Authority featuring Iggy Pop; the band reunited on 8 October 2008 for a one-off performance at Cherry Red's 30th anniversary party at Dingwalls, London. It marked the 30th anniversary of The Monochrome Set. Bid and Square were joined by Jennifer Denitto and Sian Chaffer of Scarlet's Well, performed 13 songs. In 2010, Bid and Warren reformed the band, with the addition of drummer Jennifer Denitto from Scarlet's Well and keyboard player John Paul Moran.
Following Bid's recovery from an aneurysm in late 2010, they played dates the following year in the United Kingdom, Germany, Greece and The Netherlands. The band continued to tour in the UK, Europe and Japan throughout 2012, playing material from their 10th studio album Platinum Coils as well as selections from their extensive back catalogue. In 2011 the band were joined by Helena Johansson from Scarlet's Well on violin and mandolin, replacing John Paul Moran, Steve Brummell replaced Jennifer Denitto on drums; the band completed a short tour of the east coast of the USA in Spring of 2013 and released their 11th studio album, Super Plastic City in the autumn of the same year. Helena Johansson left the band in the summer of 2013. In 2014, they signed to the German record label Tapete and their 12th studio album, Spaces Everywhere was released in 2015. Guitarist Lester Square left the band in late 2014, after completing recording of the album, former member John Paul Moran rejoined, their thirteenth studio album, was released on the Tapete label in September 2016.
Mike Urban, in the band in 1990 and played on the Dante's Casino album, joined the band in September 2016, replacing Steve Brummel on drums. In 2018, the fortieth year since the band formed, their 14th studio album, Maisieworld and a box set, The Monochrome Set 1979–1985: Complete Recordings, were released. Timeline Official website The Monochrome Set at AllMusic The Monochrome Set at Trouser Press' website The Monochrome Set discography at Discogs The Monochrome Set photos at New Wave Photos website
Public Image Ltd
Public Image Ltd are an English post-punk band formed by singer John Lydon, guitarist Keith Levene, bassist Jah Wobble, drummer Jim Walker. The group's personnel has changed over the years. Following his departure from the Sex Pistols in January 1978, Lydon was eager to pursue a more experimental "anti-rock" project and formed PiL; that year PIL released their debut First Issue, creating an abrasive, bass-heavy sound that drew on dub, progressive rock and disco. PIL's second album Metal Box pushed their sound further into the avant-garde, is regarded as one of the most important albums of the post-punk era. By 1984, both Levene and Wobble had departed and the group was a solo vehicle for Lydon, who moved toward a more accessible sound with the commercially successful albums This Is What You Want... This Is What You Album. After a late 1990s hiatus, Lydon reformed the group in 2009 and has released several further albums, most What the World Needs Now.... Following the Sex Pistols' break-up in 1978, photographer Dennis Morris suggested that Lydon travel to Jamaica with him and Virgin Records head Richard Branson, where Branson would be scouting for emerging reggae musicians.
Branson flew American band Devo to Jamaica, aiming to install Lydon as lead singer in the band. Devo declined the offer. Upon returning to England, Lydon approached Jah Wobble about forming a band together; the pair had been friends since the early 1970s. Lydon and Wobble had played music together during the final days of the Sex Pistols. Both had broad musical tastes, were avid fans of reggae and world music. Lydon assumed, much as he had with Sid Vicious, that Wobble would learn to play bass guitar as he went. Wobble would prove to be a natural talent. Lydon approached guitarist Keith Levene, with whom he had toured in mid-1976, while Levene was a member of the Clash. Lydon and Levene had both considered themselves outsiders within their own bands. Jim Walker, a Canadian student newly arrived in the UK, was recruited on drums, after answering an ad placed in Melody Maker. PiL began rehearsing together in May 1978. In July 1978, Lydon named the band "Public Image", after the Muriel Spark novel The Public Image.
PiL debuted in October 1978 with "Public Image", a song written while Lydon was still a member of the Sex Pistols. The single was well received and reached number 9 on the UK charts, it performed well on import in the US; the photography for the album was shot by Dennis Morris who created the PiL logo. In preparing their debut album, Public Image: First Issue, the band spent their recording budget well before the record was completed; as a result, the final album comprised eight tracks of varying sound quality, half of which were written and recorded in a rush after the money had run out. The album was released in December 1978; the single "Public Image" was seen as diatribe against Malcolm McLaren and his perceived manipulation of Lydon during his career with the Sex Pistols. The track "Low Life" has been regarded as an attack on McLaren, although Lydon has stated that the lyrics refer to Sid Vicious; the two-part song "Religion" refers contemptuously to Roman Catholicism. The closing track "Fodderstompf" influenced by dub, comprises nearly eight minutes of a circular bass riff, played over a Lydon/Wobble double act lampooning public outrage, love songs and teenage apathy.
The track culminates with the sound of a fire extinguisher being let off in the recording studio, as Lydon had lit a fire whilst in a weird trance-like state during the recording session. The first album was subsequently renamed as First Issue. "PiL was the simple thing of four different people doing different drugs at different times," Wobble observed to Select. "It was only in any way together for the first two months of its existence. We had a fuckin' good drummer called Jim Walker, but he fucked off after a few months and it just fell apart. Somehow it had sort of death throes that produced a couple of blinding albums." The departure of Jim Walker made way for a series of new drummers. Auditions were held at Rollerball Studios in Tooley Street, London Bridge. David Humphrey was their second drummer, who went on to record two tracks at Manor Studios in Oxford, "Swan Lake" and "Albatross", for Metal Box. "Death Disco" was reached No. 20 in the charts. The majority of the drumming on the album was provided by Richard Dudanski, PiL's drummer from April to September 1979.
He was replaced by Karl Burns. Following sessions took place in which Martin Atkins would show up for an'audition' and discover himself in the middle of a recording session with the tape rolling; the recording was released on Metal Box as "Bad Baby". Atkins was PiL's drummer from 1979 to 1980 and 1982 to 1985. Metal Box was released as three untitled 45-rpm 12-inch records packaged in a metal box resembling a film canister with an embossed PIL logo on the lid (it was reissued in more conventional packaging as
Rough Trade (shops)
Rough Trade is a group of independent record shops in the UK and the US with headquarters in London, UK. The first Rough Trade shop was opened in 1976 by Geoff Travis in the Ladbroke Grove district of west London. In 1978, the shop spawned Rough Trade Records, which became the label of bands from The Smiths to The Libertines. In 1982, the two separated and the shop remains an independent entity from the label, although links between the two are strong. At the same time, the shop moved from its original location on Kensington Park Road round the corner to Talbot Road. In 1988, a shop opened in Covent Garden. At various times there were shops in San Francisco and Paris, they were closed following the rise of music sales on the Internet. Rough Trade replaced these stores with an online music store. In 2007, it opened in Dray Walk, Brick Lane, in east London. Musically, Rough Trade specialises in the post-punk genre, but carries items through a range of genres within the alternative or underground scenes.
The shop has released several compilation albums, each focusing on an individual genre such as indie-pop, country, singer songwriter and roll and post-punk. Every January since 2003, it has released a compilation putting together the best of the previous year's music entitled Counter Culture. In 2007, there was the release of Counter Culture 76, reflecting the music of year the shop opened, it released a 4-CD box set for its 25th anniversary in 2001, a special collection of songs chosen by customers was released to celebrate the 30th anniversary in 2006. The store was the first Rough Trade shop and opened at 202 Kensington Park Road in 1976, it moved to 130 Talbot Road. The Covent Garden shop opened in 1988 and was located in the basement of Slam City Skates in Neal's Yard, it closed down shortly before Rough Trade East opened in 2007. In July 2007, Rough Trade opened a 5,000-square-foot shop in Brick Lane; the shop, called "Rough Trade East", is located in the former Truman's Brewery in a courtyard off Brick Lane and puts on free music gigs on a high-spec stage, allowing for an audience of 200.
The shop sells some chart titles, music from bands without distribution deals and a quarter of the merchandise is vinyl. Every item, vinyl and CD, has a written description to encourage discovery. Designed by David Adjaye the shop has a fair trade café and a "snug" area with iMacs and desks. In the first half of 2007, CD sales had fallen by 10 percent and in the month of the shop opening the UK music chain Fopp went into administration. Stephen Godfroy, the store director, said, "I don't think music belongs on the high street as the high street exists at the moment", that retailers, not the consumers, are to blame for the decline in sales. In September 2007, sales in Rough Trade East had exceeded expectations by 20 percent. Stephen Godfroy explained. It's got to be complementary to modern lifestyles and competitive on pricing and have confidence in recommending exciting new products and not rely on chart product." Rough Trade Shops has investors from XL recordings and Beggars Banquet Records causing some to question its independence.
In April 2012, it was announced that Rough Trade would be opening a store in the Williamsburg neighbourhood of Brooklyn, in partnership with Bowery Presents. The store, including a performance space and a coffee counter, was scheduled to open in late 2012; the store opened on 25 November 2013. To complement Nottingham's vibrant music scene, Rough Trade opened a store on Broad Street in Nottingham's Lace Market area in 2014; the store has a performance area on the first floor. Rough Trade Records Cassette culture Official website Rough Trade Shops Compilations – Discography
The Smiths were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1982. The band consisted of vocalist Morrissey, guitarist Johnny Marr, bassist Andy Rourke and drummer Mike Joyce. Critics have called them one of the most important bands to emerge from the British independent music scene of the 1980s. In 2002, NME named the Smiths "the artists to have had the most influence on the NME". In 2003, four of the band's albums appeared on Rolling Stone's list of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Based on the songwriting partnership of Morrissey and Marr, the group signed to the independent record label Rough Trade Records, on which they released four studio albums, they have released several compilations and numerous non-album singles. They had several singles reach the top twenty of the UK Singles Chart and all four of their studio albums reached the top five of the UK Albums Chart, including Meat Is Murder which hit number one, they remain cult favourites. The band have turned down several offers to reunite.
The band's focus on a guitar and drum sound and their fusion of 1960s rock and post-punk, were a rejection of the then-popular, synthesiser-based dance-pop. Marr's guitar work, using a Rickenbacker, had a jangle pop sound reminiscent of Roger McGuinn of the Byrds. Morrissey's complex, literate lyrics combined themes about ordinary people with mordant humour. On 31 August 1978, a 19-year-old Morrissey was introduced to the 14-year-old Johnny Marr by mutual acquaintances Billy Duffy and Howard Bates at a Patti Smith gig held at Manchester's Apollo Theatre. In May 1982 Marr decided that he wanted to establish a new band, subsequently turned up on the doorstep of Morrissey's house – 384 Kings Road, Stretford – accompanied by mutual friend Steve Pomfret, to ask Morrissey if he was interested in founding a band with himself and Pomfret. A fan of the New York Dolls, Marr had been impressed that Morrissey had authored a book on the band, was inspired to turn up on his doorstep following the example of Jerry Leiber, who had formed his working partnership with Mike Stoller after turning up at the latter's door.
According to Morrissey: "We got on famously. We were similar in drive." Conversing, the two found. The next day, Morrissey phoned Marr to confirm that he would be interested in forming a band with him. A few days Morrissey and Marr held their first rehearsal in Marr's rented attic room in Bowdon. Morrissey provided the lyrics for "Don't Blow Your Own Horn", the first song; the next song that they worked on was "The Hand That Rocks the Cradle", which again was based on lyrics produced by Morrissey. Marr included a tempo, based on the Patti Smith song "Kimberly", they recorded it on Marr's TEAC three-track cassette recorder; the third track that the duo worked on was "Suffer Little Children". Alongside these original compositions, Morrissey suggested that the band produce a cover of "I Want a Boy for My Birthday", a song by the 1960s American girl band the Cookies. By the end of the summer of 1982 Morrissey had chosen the band name "the Smiths" informing an interviewer that "it was the most ordinary name and I thought it was time that the ordinary folk of the world showed their faces".
Around the time of the band's formation, Morrissey decided that he would be publicly known only by his surname, with Marr referring to him as "Mozzer" or "Moz". In 1983 he forbade those around him from using the name "Steven". After remaining with the band for several rehearsals, Pomfret departed acrimoniously, he was replaced by the bass player Dale Hibbert, who worked at Manchester's Decibel Studios, where Marr had met him while recording Freak Party's demo. It was through Hibbert that the Smiths were able to record their first demo at Decibel, doing so one night in August 1982. Aided by drummer Simon Wolstencroft, whom Marr had worked with in Freak Party, the band recorded both "The Hand That Rocks the Cradle" and "Suffer Little Children". Wolstencroft was not interested in joining the band, so auditions were held to find a permanent drummer, which resulted in Mike Joyce joining them. Meanwhile, Morrissey took the demo recording to Factory Records, but Factory's Tony Wilson wasn't interested.
In October 1982 the Smiths gave their first public performance as a support act for Blue Rondo à la Turk during a student music and fashion show, "An Evening of Pure Pleasure", at Manchester's The Ritz venue. During the performance, they played both their own compositions and "I Want a Boy for My Birthday". Morrissey had organised the gig's aesthetic. Maker remained onstage during the performance, relating that "I was given a pair of maracas – an optional extra – and carte blanche. There were no instructions – I think it was accepted I would improvise... I was there to drink red wine, make extraneous hand gestures and keep well within the tight, chalked circle that Morrissey had drawn around me." Hibbert however was unhappy with.
Antony and the Johnsons
Antony and the Johnsons is an American music group presenting the work of Anohni and her collaborators. British experimental musician David Tibet of Current 93 heard a demo and offered to release Anohni's music through his Durtro label. Anohni started its name inspired by the transgender rights activist Marsha P. Johnson; the debut album and the Johnsons, was released in 1998. In 2001, Hegarty released a short follow-up EP, I Fell in Love with a Dead Boy, which, in addition to the title track, included a cover of "Mysteries of Love", a David Lynch/Angelo Badalamenti song and "Soft Black Stars", a Current 93 cover. Producer Hal Willner heard the EP and played it to Lou Reed, who recruited Hegarty for his project The Raven. Now gaining more attention, Hegarty signed to U. S.-based record label Secretly Canadian, released another EP, The Lake, with Lou Reed guest-performing on one of the tracks. Secretly Canadian re-released Hegarty's debut album in the United States to wider distribution in 2004.
Anohni's second full-length album, 2005's I Am a Bird Now, was greeted with positive reviews and more mainstream attention. The album featured guest appearances by Lou Reed, Rufus Wainwright, Boy George, Devendra Banhart, circled themes of duality and transformation. I Am a Bird Now featured arrangements by Maxim Moston and Julia Kent and was mixed by Doug Henderson. In September 2005 Antony and the Johnsons were awarded the Mercury Prize for the best UK album of 2005. Rival Mercury nominees, favorites for the prize, the Kaiser Chiefs suggested that Anohni got in on a technicality. S.—although they apologized for the suggestion that she wasn't a deserving winner. Antony and the Johnsons collaborated with experimental film-maker Charles Atlas and presented TURNING in November 2006 in Rome, Paris and Braga. Thirteen women from New York City were presented in intimate live video portraits during the course of the concert; the Guardian called the piece "fragile, life affirming, wonderful". Le Monde in Paris hailed TURNING as "Concert-manifeste transsexuel".
Antony and the Johnsons' 5-song Another World EP was released on 7 October 2008. Antony and the Johnsons' third album, The Crying Light, was released on 19 January 2009 and went to #1 on the European Billboard charts. Anohni has described the theme of the album as being "about landscape and the future". Nature, death and the role of the artist were explored across ten tracks, which included the single "Epilepsy Is Dancing." The album included arrangements by Nico Muhly. Ann Powers wrote of The Crying Light for the LA Times online, "it's the most personal environmentalist statement possible, making an unforeseen connection between queer culture's identity politics and the green movement; as music, it's exquisite—more controlled and considered than anything Antony and the Johnsons have done and sure to linger in the minds of listeners."After touring throughout North America and Europe in support of their new album and the Johnsons presented a unique staging of The Crying Light with the Manchester Camerata at the Manchester Opera House for the 2009 Manchester International Festival.
The concert hall was transformed into a crystal cave filled with laser effects created by installation artist Chris Levine. Antony and the Johnsons went on to present concerts with symphonies across Europe in Summer 2009, including the Opera Orchestra of Lyon, the Metropole Orchestra, Roma Sinfonietta and the Montreux Jazz Festival Orchestra. At Salle Pleyel in Paris, Anohni appeared in a costume designed for her by Riccardo Tisci of Givenchy. After two sold out concerts at the Sydney Opera House and the Johnsons ended their recent touring in February 2010 in Tokyo. Anohni, Johanna Constantine and William Basinski performed at the Sogetsu Hall with butoh master Yoshito Ohno, the son of the 103-year-old dancer Kazuo Ohno, whose image graces the cover of The Crying Light. Kazuo Ohno died in June of that year, Anohni wrote an obituary for the dancer in The Guardian. In interviews around the world in 2010, Anohni described her work on Swanlights and The Crying Light as "a collision between joy and a sense of hopelessness".
Anohni said she was struggling to come to terms with the idea that she was part of a society, having a "virulent" impact on the earth. She suggested that the degradation of nature was a result of the subjugation of women and earth-based spiritual systems. Anohni blamed the collapse of humanity's sustainable relationship with the earth in part on the rise of patriarchal religions that suggest the destiny of humanity to be "a paradise elsewhere". Interview Magazine describes Swanlights as "an emotional personal call for global, collective change". September 2010 saw the release of the Thank You For Your Love EP which includes covers of Dylan's "Pressing On" and Lennon's "Imagine"; the Sun listed Thank You For Your Love as single of the week on 27 August 2010. Antony and the Johnsons released a 4th album Swanlights on 12 October 2010 through Secretly Canadian and Rough Trade Records. Abrams Books published a book edition of Swanlights featuring Anohni's drawings and collages with photography by Don Felix Cervantes.
Antony and the Johnsons performed "Thank You For Your Love" on both the Late Show with David Letterman and Later... with Jools Holland in support of the album's release. In October 2010 Anohni was invited to "takeover" The Guardian's music and arts page that ran for weeks leading up to the release of Swanlights. Stereogum placed Swanlights in its Top 50 Albums of the year at #8. In tribute to Kazuo Ohno and the Johns
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".