Roulette is a casino game named after the French word meaning little wheel. In the game, players may choose to place bets on either a single number, various groupings of numbers, the colors red or black, whether the number is odd or or if the numbers are high or low. To determine the winning number and color, a croupier spins a wheel in one direction spins a ball in the opposite direction around a tilted circular track running around the outer edge of the wheel; the ball loses momentum, passes through an area of deflectors, falls onto the wheel and into one of 37 or 38 colored and numbered pockets on the wheel. The winnings are paid to anyone who has placed a successful bet; the first form of roulette was devised in 18th century France. Many historians believe Blaise Pascal introduced a primitive form of roulette in the 17th century in his search for a perpetual motion machine; the roulette mechanism is a hybrid of a gaming wheel invented in the Italian game Biribi. The game has been played in its present form since as early as 1796 in Paris.

An early description of the roulette game in its current form is found in a French novel La Roulette, ou le Jour by Jaques Lablee, which describes a roulette wheel in the Palais Royal in Paris in 1796. The description included the house pockets, "There are two slots reserved for the bank, whence it derives its sole mathematical advantage." It goes on to describe the layout with, "...two betting spaces containing the bank's two numbers and double zero". The book was published in 1801. An earlier reference to a game of this name was published in regulations for New France in 1758, which banned the games of "dice, hoca and roulette"; the roulette wheels used in the casinos of Paris in the late 1790s had red for the single zero and black for the double zero. To avoid confusion, the color green was selected for the zeros in roulette wheels starting in the 1800s. In 1843, in the German spa casino town of Bad Homburg, fellow Frenchmen François and Louis Blanc introduced the single 0 style roulette wheel in order to compete against other casinos offering the traditional wheel with single and double zero house pockets.

In some forms of early American roulette wheels, there were numbers 1 through 28, plus a single zero, a double zero, an American Eagle. The Eagle slot, a symbol of American liberty, was a house slot that brought the casino extra edge. Soon, the tradition vanished and since the wheel features only numbered slots. According to Hoyle "the single 0, the double 0, eagle are never bars. In the 19th century, roulette spread all over Europe and the US, becoming one of the most famous and most popular casino games; when the German government abolished gambling in the 1860s, the Blanc family moved to the last legal remaining casino operation in Europe at Monte Carlo, where they established a gambling mecca for the elite of Europe. It was here that the single zero roulette wheel became the premier game, over the years was exported around the world, except in the United States where the double zero wheel had remained dominant. In the United States, the French double zero wheel made its way up the Mississippi from New Orleans, westward.

It was here, because of rampant cheating by both operators and gamblers, that the wheel was placed on top of the table to prevent devices being hidden in the table or wheel, the betting layout was simplified. This evolved into the American-style roulette game; the American game was developed in the gambling dens across the new territories where makeshift games had been set up, whereas the French game evolved with style and leisure in Monte Carlo. During the first part of the 20th century, the only casino towns of note were Monte Carlo with the traditional single zero French wheel, Las Vegas with the American double zero wheel. In the 1970s, casinos began to flourish around the world. By 2008, there were several hundred casinos worldwide offering roulette games; the double zero wheel is found in the U. S. Canada, South America, the Caribbean, while the single zero wheel is predominant elsewhere. In 2016, The Venetian Las Vegas introduced the first triple-zero wheel, which has since spread to a few additional casinos.

The sum of all the numbers on the roulette wheel is 666, the "Number of the Beast". Roulette players have a variety of betting options. Placing inside bets is either selecting the exact number of the pocket the ball will land in, or a small range of pockets based on their proximity on the layout. Players wishing to bet on the'outside' will select bets on larger positional groupings of pockets, the pocket color, or whether the winning number is odd or even; the payout odds for each type of bet are based on its probability. The roulette table imposes minimum and maximum bets, these rules apply separately for all of a player's inside and outside bets for each spin. For inside bets at roulette tables, some casinos may use separate roulette table chips of various colors to distinguish players at the table. Players can continue to place bets as the ball spins around the wheel until the dealer announces no more bets or rien ne va plus; when a winning number and color is determined by the roulette wheel, the dealer will place a marker known as a dolly, on that winning number on the roulette table layout.

When the dolly is on the table, no players may place bets, collect bets, or remove

Alex Sanderson

Alexander Sanderson is an English former rugby union footballer who played in the 1990s and 2000s, who played in the back row for Saracens and Sale Sharks. He is the brother of Pat Sanderson who played rugby for Littleborough RUFC, his rugby career blossomed under coach Brian Gornall at Kirkham Grammar School. His first Sale coach, John Mitchell had a great influence on him as did Steve Diamond and Jim Mallinder, both of whom he played alongside when he broke into the first team, he scored a try on his England debut after coming on as a replacement against Romania in November 2001, having captained the England midweek side in North America soon after being selected for the England XV against the Barbarians at Twickenham. He made his Six Nations debut as a replacement against Italy in March 2003 and was part of the wider 43-man squad for the World Cup, playing in the pre-World Cup warm-up matches against Wales and France in Marseille, he was forced to retire from rugby in 2005 due to a back injury.

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Matsudaira Tadamasa

Matsudaira Tadamasa was an early to mid-Edo period Japanese samurai, daimyō. Tadamasa was born in Osaka as the second son of Yūki Hideyasu, his childhood name was Toramatsu become Toranosuke. In 1607, he was received in audience by his grandfather, Tokugawa Ieyasu and uncle Tokugawa Hidetada. Hidetada took a liking to the boy, ordered that he be raised in the Tokugawa household by Eishō-in together with Tokugawa Yorinobu. In the same year, he was assigned a fief of 10,000 koku, became daimyō of Kazusa-Anegasaki Domain, he was noted for his skill in the martial arts, accompanied Hidetada during the Siege of Osaka, where he was frustrated that he would not be allowed to participate in the battle due to his youth. He petitioned Hidetada to perform his genpuku ceremony before the start of the Osaka summer campaign, Hidetada agreed, granting him a kanji from his name and Court rank of Senior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade and the courtesy title was Iyo-no-kami, he subsequently distinguished himself in combat with his prowess with the spear, which became an heirloom of the Echizen-Matsudaira clan.

As a reward for his actions in battle, he was transferred to Shimotsuma Domain in Hitachi Province in 1615, but the following year he replaced the disgraced Matsudaira Tadateru at Matsushiro Domain in Shinano Province. In 1619 he was transferred again, this time to Takada Domain in Echigo Province. In 1623, he replaced his elder brother Matsudaira Tadanao as daimyō of Fukui Domain In 1626 his court rank was raised to Senior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade. In 1634, he accompanied Shōgun Tokugawa Iemitsu to Kyoto, Fukui Domain reached its peak kokudaka of 505,600 koku. In 1637, he was disappointed that no order came to lead his troops during the Shimabara Rebellion, so he visited the battle in a private capacity with only twelve retainers. In 1643, he ordered the rebuilding of Mikuni Harbor as the main port of Fukui Domain, he died in 1648 at the domain's residence in Edo. On his death, seven of his senior retainers committed junshi, his grave is at the temple of Eihei-ji in Fukui. He had a magnificent upper residence constructed outside Edo Castle.

Father: Yuki Hideyasu Mother: Seiryō-in, daughter Nakagawa Kazushige Wives: Asano Hanahime, daughter of Asano Yoshinaga of Wakayama Domain Ichihime, daughter of kuge Hirohashi Kuroishi Concubines: Kōshō-in Shiraishi dono Children: Matsudaira Masakatsu by Shiraishi Matsudaira Mitsumichi by Ichihime Chōmatsu Tokumatsu Matsudaira Masachika by Uragami Manhime married Matsudaira Tsunataka of Matsue Domain Kunihime married Honda Shigeaki of Muraoka Domain married Asukai Masanao Senhime married Mōri Tsunahiro of Chōshū Domain Furihime married Doi Toshinao of Owa Domain Papinot, Edmond.. Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan. New York: Overbeck Co. Fukui Domain on "Edo 300 HTML" 越前松平氏 at