Julia Marlowe was an English-born American actress and suffragist, known for her interpretations of William Shakespeare's plays. Marlowe was born as Sarah Frances Frost at Caldbeck, England, to clogger and shoemaker John Frost and Sarah Hodgson; when she was four her family emigrated to the United States. Her father, an avid fan of local sports, "fled to America in 1870 under the erroneous impression that he had destroyed a neighbour's eye by flicking a whip at him during a race." He changed his name to Brough and after first settling in Kansas he moved his family east to Portsmouth and Cincinnati. Marlowe obtained the nickname of "Fanny" and in her early teens began her career in the chorus of a juvenile opera company. While touring with the company for nearly a year performing Gilbert and Sullivan's H. M. S. Pinafore, under the direction of Colonel Robert E. J. Miles she was given the part of Sir Joseph Porter, she played in W. S. Gilbert's Pygmalion and Galatea, her training and initial success was due to Miles's sister-in-law Ada Dow.
Still in Cincinnati, Fanny played her first Shakespearean roles as Balthazar in Romeo and Juliet and as Maria in Twelfth Night she was billed as Fanny Brough. Soon after Ada Dow took Fanny to New York where for several years she received voice training by Parsons Price. Finished with the voice training she changed her name to Julia Marlowe; as an unknown, Marlowe was, at first, unable to get a Shakesperean role. Colonel Miles, the new manager of the New York Bijou Opera House, gave her the opportunity to play for two weeks on tour in New England, starting in New London, Connecticut; this gave Marlowe the repertoire. On 20 October 1887, her mother hired the Bijou for a matinee of Ingomar, the Barbarian, in which Marlowe received acclaim which served as a stepping stone to Broadway. In early 1891, Marlowe came down with a severe case of typhoid fever while on tour in Philadelphia; the owner of the Philadelphia Times newspaper and his wife took Julia in and oversaw her return to health. At one point her face became so swollen that doctors considered lancing her face to release the toxins, but the good judgment of one doctor prevailed and a different treatment was arrived at which would fight the toxins and save her face for her acting career.
Had this measure not been taken, she would never have been performing on Broadway by 1895 and would never have established herself as the leading American actress of Shakespeare in her day alongside actor E. H. Sothern, she went on to appear in more than seventy Broadway productions. With the money from her first Broadway success, she bought the townhouse known as River Mansion at 337 Riverside Drive, her first husband was Broadway actor Robert Taber. Their marriage produced no children. Taber and Marlowe were married in 1894. According to many who knew her, Marlowe sacrificed her own self-interests many times in order to promote Taber's career. Despite this, professional jealousy ended their marriage in 1900. In a letter dated April 2nd, 1895 from Taber he writes "I herewith return your play. Mrs. Taber is grateful for your kindness in submitting it and notwithstanding its interest - She finds it unsuited for her present use. Yours, Robert Taber". Taber was touring in England at the time of their divorce.
In 1904, Marlowe starred as Mary Tudor in Paul Kester's adaptation of. This was an enormous success, made Marlowe financially independent. Other hits for Marlowe followed including Charlotte Oliver in the adaptation by Kester and Middleton of George Washington Cable's The Cavalier, Ingomar, both in 1903. Of her performance in the latter, The New York Sun wrote, "There is not a woman player in America or in England, – attractively considered – fit to unlace her shoe". In 1904, she began an successful partnership with actor E. H. Sothern, beginning with their appearances in the title roles in Romeo and Juliet and Benedick in Much Ado About Nothing, the leads in Hamlet, they toured all over the U. S. in these plays, adding The Taming of the Shrew, The Merchant of Venice and Twelfth Night to their repertoire in 1905. Unhappy with their compensation from their manager, Charles Frohman, they continued under the management of the Shubert Brothers, from on receiving a percentage of the profits. In 1906, together with Sothern, she played the title character in Percy MacKaye's Jeanne d'Arc, Salome in Sudermann's John the Baptist and Rautendelein in The Sunken Bell, receiving favorable reviews.
After another season in New York and on tour, Sothern and their company crossed the Atlantic to play in London. They were unable to attract audiences in England and returned to America after a season. Back in the U. S. they presented Shakespeare at affordable prices at the Academy of Music in New York, allowing audiences who had not been able to afford their productions to see them. Marlowe and Sothern formed separate companies for a time, she played in J. B. Fagan's Gloria, in Juliet and in As You Like It. In 1908, she played. At the end of 1909, Sothern and Marlowe reunited in Cleopatra. In 1910, they toured in Macbeth, receiving enthusiastic notices and bringing the production to New York where it was a hit, they continued to tour their Shakespearean repertoire, playing special performances of the plays for schoolchildren. Marlowe and Sothern married in 1911; the couple
Arsène Charles Ernest Wenger is a French football manager and former player. He was the manager of Arsenal from 1996 to 2018, where he was the longest-serving and most successful in the club's history, his contribution to English football through changes to scouting, players' training, diet regimens revitalised Arsenal and aided the globalisation of the sport in the 21st century. Born in Strasbourg and raised in Duttlenheim to an entrepreneurial family, Wenger was introduced to football by his father, the manager of the local village team. After a modest playing career, in which he made appearances for several amateur clubs, Wenger obtained a manager's diploma in 1981. Following an unsuccessful period at Nancy which culminated in his dismissal in 1987, Wenger joined Monaco. In 1991, Wenger guided Monaco to victory in the Coupe de France, but their failure to regain the league title in seasons led to his departure from the club by mutual consent in 1994, he coached J. League side Nagoya Grampus Eight and won the Emperor's Cup and Japanese Super Cup during his stay in Japan.
Wenger was named manager of Arsenal in 1996, two years he led the club to a Premier League and FA Cup double. The club retained the FA Cup a year later. In 2004, Wenger managed Arsenal to an undefeated domestic league season, a feat last accomplished by Preston North End, 115 years previously. Arsenal eclipsed Nottingham Forest's record of 42 league matches unbeaten and went seven more matches before losing in October 2004; the club made their first appearance in a Champions League final in 2006, though they lost to Barcelona. After a period of nine years without a trophy, which coincided with the club relocating to the Emirates Stadium, Wenger guided Arsenal to further FA Cup success in 2014, 2015 and 2017, before stepping down as manager a year later; the nickname "Le Professeur" is used by fans and the British media to reflect Wenger's studious demeanour. His approach to the game emphasises an attacking mentality, with the aim that football ought to be entertaining on the pitch. Wenger's Arsenal teams have been criticised for their indiscipline.
At Monaco, Wenger earned a reputation for spotting young talent, he has remained focused on developing a youth system. Arsène Charles Ernest Wenger was born on 22 October 1949 in Strasbourg, the youngest of three children born to Alphonse and Louise Wenger, he lived in Duppigheim during the 1950s, but spent most of his time in the neighbouring village of Duttlenheim, ten miles south-west of Strasbourg. Alphonse, like many Alsatians, was conscripted into the German Army by force following Germany's earlier annexation of the French region of Alsace-Lorraine, he was sent to fight on the Eastern Front in October 1944, at the age of 24. The Wengers owned a bistro titled La croix d'or, it meant that they had difficulty looking after their children, but Duttlenheim was a village where everyone took care of the young. Before Wenger started school, he expressed himself in the local Alsatian dialect of Low Alemannic German; the primary school which Wenger attended was run by the Catholic Church, as one of its brightest students, he was accepted into a secondary school in Obernai.
According to his father, who managed the village team, Wenger was introduced to football "at about the age of six". He was taken to games in Germany. Alsace was an area steeped in religion; because the population of Duttlenheim was short in numbers, it proved difficult to field a team of 11 players of equal ages. Claude Wenger, a teammate of Arsène's, noted his lack of pace as a player, which he made up for with his "ability to guard the ball, to have a complete vision of the pitch and having an influence among his team-mates", according to Marcel Brandner, the president of FC Duttlenheim; as a young teenager, he was called Petit. The team did not have a coach to prepare the players tactically, rather a person who supervised training sessions. Wenger took it upon himself to manage the side, with Claude stating "Arsène wasn't the captain and yet he was, it was'You do this, you do that, you do this, you do that.' He was the leader". In 1969 Wenger was recruited to nearby third division club Mutzig.
The club was famed for playing the "best amateur football" in Alsace and managed by Max Hild, who would go on to become Wenger's mentor. Wenger's emergence at Mutzig aged 20 was considered too late for him to build a reputable playing career. Football was not seen as his future, he was however of the age to start increasing his tactical knowledge of the sport. He read France Football and alongside Hild made trips to Germany to watch Bundesliga matches and observe the different managerial styles. During Wenger's three years at Mutzig, the club beat RC Strasbourg 3–0 to win the Coupe d'Alsace, he represented Alsace in a competition held annually between the regional leagues. Wenger took his studies further and in 1971 enrolled at the Faculté des sciences économiques et de gestion (Faculty of Economic and Manage