Capitan Grande Reservation
The Capitan Grande Reservation is a Kumeyaay Indian reservation in San Diego County, jointly controlled by the Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians and Viejas Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians. The reservation is uninhabited and is 15,753 acres large, located in the Cuyamaca Mountains and middle of the Cleveland National Forest and west of Cuyamaca Peak; the closest town is California. The reservation was created by President Ulysses S. Grant, via executive order in 1875 for local Kumeyaay people, its name comes from the Spanish Coapan, what the area west of the San Diego River was called in the 19th century. The dry and chaparral lands proved inhospitable. In 1931, the state flooded the heart of the reservation. Many Kumeyaay families had homes in the floodzone, they petitioned Congress to prevent the loss of their land; the two tribes and Viejas, were forced to sell the land and with their proceeds they purchased their current reservations, the Barona Reservation and Viejas Reservation, respectively.
In 1973, 7 people lived on the reservation. Today, the two tribes have a joint-trust patent of the remaining reservation, it serves as an ecological preserve. Eargle, Jr. Dolan H. Northern California Guide: Weaving the Past and Present. San Francisco: Tree Company Press, 2000. ISBN 0-937401-10-2. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Shipek, Florence C. "History of Southern California Mission Indians." Handbook of North American Indians. Volume ed. Heizer, Robert F. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. 610-618. ISBN 0-87474-187-4. Barona Band of Mission Indians, official website Viejas Band of Kumeyaay Indians, official website
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
The Yuki are an indigenous people of California, whose traditional territory is around Round Valley, Mendocino County. Today they are enrolled members of the Round Valley Indian Tribes of the Round Valley Reservation. Yuki tribes are thought to have settled as far south as Hood Mountain in present-day Sonoma County; as European-American settlers began to flock to Northern California in the early 1850s, they drove the Yuki from their lands. The Indians suffered deaths in raids by the local ranchers and the authorities, captives were taken into slavery. In 1856, the US government established the Indian reservation of Nome Cult Farm at Round Valley, it forced thousands of Yuki and other local tribes on to these lands without sufficient support for the transition. These events and tensions led to the Mendocino War, where US forces killed hundreds of Yuki and took others by force to Nome Cult Farm; the Yuki language is no longer spoken. It is distantly related to the Wappo language, forming the Yukian family with it.
The Yuki people had a quaternary counting system, based on counting the spaces between the fingers, rather than the fingers themselves. Scholarly estimates have varied for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California, as historians and anthropologists have tried to evaluate early documentation. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the 1770 population of the Yuki proper and Coast Yuki as 2,000, 500, 500 or 3,000 in all. Sherburne F. Cook raised this total to 3,500. Subsequently, he proposed a higher estimate of 9,730 Yuki. In the 2010 census, 569 people claimed Yuki ancestry. 255 of them were full-blooded. Yuki traditional narratives Cook, Sherburne F. 1956. "The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California", Anthropological Records, 16:81-130. University of California, Berkeley. Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. University of California Press, Berkeley. Harrison, K. David 2007; when Languages Die. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D. C. Four Directions Institute Round Valley history "Central California culture", Four Directions Institute
Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation
The Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of Chemehuevi people, who are the southernmost branch of Southern Paiute people. To celebrate their organization under the Indian Reorganization Act, tribal recognition, ratifying their constitution, the tribe hosts Nuwuvi Days, an annual festival held during the first weekend in June; the Chemehuevi Reservation is located in San Bernardino County, bordering Lake Havasu for 25 miles and along the Colorado River. The reservation is 30,653 acres large and has a population of 345; the Chemehuevi Indian Tribe's headquarters is located in California. The tribe is governed by nine-member tribal council; the current administration is. The tribe owns and operates Havasu Landing Resort and Casino on Lake Havasu, near Needles, California; the Chemehuevi Indian Cemetery is located at 34°07′44″N 116°31′14″W. D'Azevedo, Warren L. Volume Editor. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11: Great Basin'. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986.
ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Chemehuevi Indian Tribe, official website
A sutler or victualer is a civilian merchant who sells provisions to an army in the field, in camp, or in quarters. Sutlers sold wares from the back of a wagon or a temporary tent, traveling with an army or to remote military outposts. Sutler wagons were associated with the military, while chuck wagons served a similar purpose for civilian wagon trains and outposts; the word came into English from Dutch, where it appears as zoetelaar. It meant "one who does dirty work, a drudge, a scullion," and derives from zoetelen, a word cognate with "suds", "seethe" and "sodden"; these merchants followed the armies during the French and Indian War, American Revolution, the American Civil War to try to sell their merchandise to the soldiers. The sutlers built their stores within the limits of an army post or just off the defense line, first needed to receive a license from the Commander prior to construction, they operated near the front lines and their work could be dangerous-at least one sutler was killed by a stray bullet during the Civil War.
Sutlers the only local suppliers of non-military goods developed monopolies on simple commodities like tobacco, coffee, or sugar and rose to powerful stature. Since government-issued coinage was scarce during the Civil War, sutlers conducted transactions using a particular type of Civil War token known as a sutler token. Sutlers played a major role in the recreation of army men between 1865 and 1890. Sutlers' stores outside of military posts were also open to non-military travelers and offered gambling and prostitution. In modern use, sutler describes businesses that provide period uniforms and supplies to reenactors to American Civil War reenactors; these businesses play the part of historical sutlers while selling modern-day goods at reenactments. Vivandière Camp follower This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sutler". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. P. 171. Lord, Francis A.. Civil War Sutlers and Their Wares. T. Yoseloff.
ISBN 0-498-06805-6. Butler, Anne M.. Daughters of Joy, Sisters of Misery: Prostitutes in the American West, 1865-90, University of Illinois Press, 137-139. ISBN 0-252-01466-9
Campo Indian Reservation
The Campo Indian Reservation is home to the Campo Band of Diegueño Mission Indians known as the Campo Kumeyaay Nation, a federally recognized tribe of Kumeyaay people in the southern Laguna Mountains, in eastern San Diego County, California. The reservation is 16,512 acres; the reservation can be found "in the southeastern San Diego County atop the Laguna Mountains". The location was set on 710 acres in 1893. Eighty additional acres were added in the winter of 1907, another 13,610 acres were added in 1911. "All land on Campo is tribal-owned land. Pre-Contact The sovereign land of the Kumeyaay Nation ranged from the Northern outskirts of modern San Diego county to the western borders of the imperial valley and the northern tip of Baja California, Mexico. There were many clans of the Kumeyaay nation; the multiple clans would join together. Post-Contact The Campo and their neighboring clans resisted the Spanish soldiers. Notably, the Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcala, founded in 1769, proved to be troubling for the tribe and many revolts broke out.
"The most famous of these was the attack and destruction of the San Diego Mission in 1775". After the Mexican Revolution, the new Mexican government enforced a secularization of the Mission system. Most of the Missions became ranches. In response multiple Indian revolts and raids in the region brought destruction to many of the Ranchos. "By 1842, the Ranchos had been abandoned and the warriors were attacking the last stronghold, the City of San Diego", however the city was not destroyed. The Mexican-American war intersects with the Kumeyaay. Although the Kumeyaay "offered allegiance", they were directed by US forces to stay out of the conflict; this interaction thus led to an agreed upon distinction of land in the Treaty of Santa Ysabel. However, this treaty was "voted down and placed under seal by the Senate of the United States". Through a combination of military conflicts, raid suppression, migration brought by the gold rush: "population of Indians in California dropped by 90% from 1850 to 1860".
And soon after 1870, the land of the Kumeyaay would begin to be divided and set into sections, thus defining the reservations. "Further additions were taken into trust over the next 25 years including the first portion of the Campo Indian Reservation in 1893". Modern Era In time the Treaty of Santa Ysabel, many others of its kind, were revealed to have been kept in secrecy. In 1927, supporters of the Mission Indian Federation, a Riverside County organization in the support of Native rights, came in conflict with the Bureau of Indian Affairs "police resulting in shootings and deaths on the Campo Indian Reservation". Periods of the twentieth century proved to bring minor justices to the Campo Indian Reservation, including "1960s public assistance and food programs", the Self Determination Act of 1975, by 1978, "the Campo people designated the area near the Crestwood freeway off-ramp as an area for economic development". Since the tribe has developed a casino and built a wind farm; the Campo Band is headquartered in California.
They ratified their tribal constitution on July 13, 1975, which established a governing council consisting of all band members aged 18 or over. The democratically elected Executive Committee includes: In 1990, the Campo Band created the Campo Environmental Protection Agency, which protects the environment and public health in the face of commercial development; the tribe has the Campo Indian Education Center and Campo Tribal Training Program. The Campo Kumeyaay Nation receives health services from the Southerm Indian Health Council. There are two areas included in the reservation, found on US Geological Survey feature ID 270242; the address for the tribal government is in the portion of the reservation north of Campo and Cameron Corners. This area is shown on the US Geological Survey Campo and Cameron Corners, California 7.5-minute quadrangles. While not a true square, this part of the reservation is one mile across on each side. A point suitable for finding the reservation on a map is latitude/longitude.
A second, larger area of the Campo Indian Reservation is located to the east in the area around the community of Live Oak Springs. This area is shown on the US Geological Survey Live Oak Springs and Tierra del Sol, California 7.5-minute quadrangles. This portion is rectangular: about six miles in the north-south dimension and about 3.2 miles in the east-west dimension. Live Oak Springs is located at latitude/longitude 32°41′26″N 116°20′01″W; the south extent of the area is about 0.4 miles north of the Mexican border. Muht Hei, Inc. is the tribe's corporation, which oversees Golden Acorn Casino, Campo Materials, Kumeyaay Wind, a wind farm with 25 turbines. The tribe owns and operates the Golden Acorn Casino, the Golden Grill Restaurant, the Del Oro Deli, a travel center, all located in Campo; the Wind farm produces an annual power supply to bring energy to "about 30,000 homes and saves 110,000 tons a year in greenhouse gas emissions". Portions of this remote area have wireless Ethernet Internet capability for tribe members.
The service is provided through the Tribal Digital Village based on the Pala Indian Reservation, about 80 miles north. This was reported in the San Diego Union Tribune, New York Times, on the Community Television of Southern California program, California Connected. Boulevard, California Mountain Empire, San Diego Kumeyaay Language Eargle, Jr. Dolan H. California Indian Country: The Land and the People. S
The Dawes Act of 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey Native American tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Native Americans. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted United States citizenship; the Dawes Act was amended in 1891, in 1898 by the Curtis Act, again in 1906 by the Burke Act. The Act was named for Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts; the objectives of the Dawes Act were to abolish tribal and communal land ownership of the tribes into individual land ownership rights in order to transfer lands under Native American control to white settlers and stimulate assimilation of them into mainstream American society, thereby lift individual Native Americans out of poverty. Individual household ownership of land and subsistence farming on the European-American model was seen as an essential step; the act provided that the government would classify as "excess" those Indian reservation lands remaining after allotments, sell those lands on the open market, allowing purchase and settlement by non-Native Americans.
The Dawes Commission, set up under an Indian Office appropriation bill in 1893, was created to try to persuade the Five Civilized Tribes to agree to allotment plans. This commission registered the members of the Five Civilized Tribes on what became known as the Dawes Rolls; the Curtis Act of 1898 amended the Dawes Act to extend its provisions to the Five Civilized Tribes. This completed the extinguishment of tribal land titles in Indian Territory, preparing it to be admitted to the Union as the state of Oklahoma. During the ensuing decades, the Five Civilized Tribes sold off 90 million acres of former communal lands to non-Natives. In addition, many individuals, unfamiliar with land ownership, became the target of speculators and criminals, were stuck with allotments that were too small for profitable farming, lost their household lands. Tribe members suffered from the breakdown of the social structure of the tribes. During the Great Depression, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration supported passage on June 18, 1934 of the US Indian Reorganization Act.
It ended land allotment and created a "New Deal" for Native Americans, renewing their rights to reorganize and form their self-governments. During the 1850s, the United States federal government's attempt to exert control over the Native Americans expanded. Numerous new European immigrants were settling on the eastern border of the Indian territories, where most of the Native American tribes were situated. Conflicts between the groups increased as they competed for resources and operated according to different cultural systems. Many European Americans did not believe that members of the two racial societies could coexist within the same communities. Searching for a quick solution to their problem, William Medill the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, proposed establishing "colonies" or "reservations" that would be for the natives, similar to those which some native tribes had created for themselves in the east, it was a form of removal whereby the US government would uproot the natives from their current locations to positions to areas in the region beyond the Mississippi River.
The new policy intended to concentrate Native Americans in areas away from encroaching settlers, but it caused considerable suffering and many deaths. During the nineteenth century, Native American tribes resisted the imposition of the reservation system and engaged with the United States Army in what were called the Indian Wars in the West for decades. Defeated by the US military force and continuing waves of encroaching settlers, the tribes negotiated agreements to resettle on reservations. Native Americans ended up with a total of over 155 million acres of land, ranging from arid deserts to prime agricultural land; the Reservation system, though forced upon Native Americans, was a system that allotted each tribe a claim to their new lands, protection over their territories, the right to govern themselves. With the Senate being able to intervene only through the negotiation of treaties, they adjusted their ways of life and tried to continue their traditions; the traditional tribal organization, a defining characteristic of Native Americans as a social unit, became apparent to the non-native communities of the United States and created a mixed stir of emotions.
The tribe was viewed as a cohesive group, led by a hereditary, chosen chief, who exercised power and influence among the members of the tribe by aging traditions. The tribes were seen as strong, tight-knit societies led by powerful men who were opposed to any change that weakened their positions. Many white Americans sought reformation; the Indians' failure to adopt the "Euroamerican" lifestyle, the social norm in the United States at the time, was seen as both unacceptable and uncivilized. By the end of the 1880s, a general consensus seem to have been reached among many US stakeholders that the assimilation of Native Americans into American culture was top priority. On February 8, 1887, the Dawes