Stoolball is a sport that dates back to at least the 15th century, originating in Sussex, southern England. It may be an ancestor of cricket and rounders, traditionally it was played by milkmaids who used their milking stools as a wicket. The games popularity has faded since the 1960s, but is played at a local league level in Sussex, Surrey. The National Stoolball Association was formed in 1979 to promote and expand stoolball, the game was officially recognised as a sport by the Sports Council in early 2008. Some variants are played in some schools. Teams can be ladies only or mixed, there are ladies leagues in Sussex and Kent and mixed leagues in Sussex. Stoolball is attested by name as early as 1450, nearly all medieval references describe it as a game played during Easter celebrations, typically as a courtship pastime rather than a competitive game. Stoolball makes an appearance in the dictionary of Samuel Johnson, where it is defined as a game played by driving a ball from stool to stool, the Oxford English Dictionary considers it unlikely that stool ball could have been corrupted into stobball.
Stoolball is played on grass with a 90-yard diameter boundary, each team consists of 11 players, with one team fielding and the other batting. Each over consists of 8 balls, the wicket itself is a square piece of wood at head or shoulder height fastened to a post. Traditionally the seat of a stool hung from a post or tree was used, some versions used a tall stool placed upright on the ground. As it is played today, a bowler attempts to hit the wicket with the ball, the batsman scores runs by running between the wickets or hitting the ball beyond the boundary in a similar way to cricket. A ball hit over the counts for 4 runs if it has hit the ground before reaching the boundary. Fielders attempt to catch the ball or run out the batsman by hitting the wicket with the ball before the returns from his run. Originally the batsman simply had to defend his stool from each ball with his hand, the game evolved to include runs and bats. There was a game called stoolball played by the prisoners-of-war at Colditz castle during World War II and it is described by P. R.
Reid as similar to rugby football and is unrelated to the traditional Sussex game. Bat and trap Origins of baseball Pub games Trap-ball Stoolball England Stoolball is Alive and Well in Sussex Stool ball, a medieval baseball game
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
Gaelic Athletic Association
The Association promotes Irish music and dance, and the Irish language. It has more than 500,000 members worldwide, assets in excess of €2.6 billion, Gaelic football and hurling are the most popular activities promoted by the organisation, and the most popular sports in the Republic of Ireland in terms of attendances. Gaelic football is the largest participation sport in Northern Ireland, GAA Handball is the Irish governing body for the sport of handball, while the other Gaelic sport, rounders, is managed by the GAA Rounders National Council. And so, the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded, the architects and founding members were Michael Cusack of County Clare, Maurice Davin, Joseph K. Bracken, Thomas St George McCarthy, P. J. Ryan of Tipperary, John Wise-Power, and John McKay. Up to the century most of the members were farm labourers, small farmers. But from 1900 onwards a new type of person – those who were now being influenced by the Gaelic League — joined the movement and they tended to be clerks, school teachers or civil servants.
In 1922 it passed over the job of promoting athletics to the National Athletic, while some units of the Association outside Ireland participate in Irish competitions, the Association does not hold internationals played according to the rules of either Gaelic football or hurling. Compromise rules have been reached with two related sports, hurlers play an annual fixture against a national shinty team from Scotland. The venue alternates between Ireland and Australia, the Irish welcomed the All Australian team at the headquarters of the GAA on 21 November 2015. It was single one-off test match, which led the Irish to reclaim the Cormac McAnallen cup by a score of 56-52, the association has had a long history of promoting Irish culture. Through a division of the known as Scór, the Association promotes Irish cultural activities, running competitions in music. Rule 4 of the GAAs Official Guide states, The Association shall actively support the Irish language, traditional Irish dancing, music and other aspects of Irish culture.
It shall foster an awareness and love of the ideals in the people of Ireland. The group was founded in 1969, and is promoted through various Association clubs throughout Ireland. The Association has many stadiums scattered throughout Ireland and beyond, every county, and nearly all clubs, have grounds on which to play their home games, with varying capacities and utilities. The hierarchical structure of the GAA is applied to the use of grounds, the provincial championship finals are usually played at the same venue every year. Croke Park is the Associations flagship venue and is colloquially as Croker or Headquarters. With a capacity of 82,300, it ranks among the top five stadiums in Europe by capacity, having undergone extensive renovations for most of the 1990s, every September, Croke Park hosts the All-Ireland inter-county Hurling and Football Finals as the conclusion to the summer championships
John Newbery, called The Father of Childrens Literature, was an English publisher of books who first made childrens literature a sustainable and profitable part of the literary market. He supported and published the works of Christopher Smart, Oliver Goldsmith, in recognition of his achievements in childrens publishing, the Newbery Medal was named after him. Newbery was born in 1713 to Robert Newbery, a farmer, in Waltham St Lawrence, when he was younger he gave himself an education. He was apprenticed to a printer, William Ayers, at the age of sixteen. The business was sold to William Carnan. In 1737 Carnan died, leaving the business to his brother, Charles Carnan, two years later, Newbery married William Carnans widow, Jordan Mary. He adopted Marys three children, John and Anna-Maria, in 1740 their daughter Mary was born. John, born in 1741, died at age 11, by 1740 Newbery had started his publishing business in Reading. His first two publications were an edition of Richard Allestrees The Whole Duty of Man and Miscellaneous Works Serious and Humerous In Verse and Prose.
In 1743, Newbery left Reading, putting his stepson John Carnan in charge of his business there and he published several adult books, but became interested in expanding his business to childrens books. His first childrens book, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, appeared 18 July 1744, a Little Pretty Pocket-Book is the first in Newberys successful line of childrens books. The book cost six pence but for a two the purchaser received a red and black ball or pincushion. A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, though it would seem didactic today, was well received, promising to infallibly make Tommy a good boy and Polly a good girl, it had poems, proverbs and an alphabet song. The book was child sized with a brightly coloured cover that appealed to children—something new in the publishing industry, known as gift books, these early books became the precursor to the toy books popular in the nineteenth century. This improvement in the quality of books for children, as well as the diversity of topics he published, helped make Newbery the leading producer of books in his time.
In 1745 Newbery moved his firm to a more upmarket address at 65 St. Pauls Churchyard and named it the Bible and Sun, continuing to publish a mix of adult and this new shop did so well he eventually sold the Reading business. His success allowed his son Francis to attend both Cambridge and Oxford Universities, jan Susina, writing in The Lion and the Unicorn says Newberys genius was in developing the fairly new product category, childrens books, through his frequent advertisements. And his clever ploy of introducing additional titles and products into the body of his childrens books, about one-fifth of the five hundred books Newbery produced were childrens stories, including ABC books, childrens novels and childrens magazines
Lapta is a Russian bat and ball game first known to be played in the 14th century. Mentions of lapta have been found in manuscripts, and balls. It is similar to cricket, brännboll, baseball, oină, it, the game is played outside on a field the size of half a football pitch 20 x 25 sazhens. There are 5 people on the field from the defending team and this pitcher server stands near the batter of the opposing team and hits a ball in the direction of the batter. The team that contains six people. Each hitter gets 2 chances to hit the ball over a 10m line, if they succeed at that, the runners can go to an endline at the other end of the pitch. If a player manages to run between the two endpoints, they get 2 points, a game lasts an hour, split into two equal halves. The edges of the field were marked with lines, called salo. The running player should try to avoid being hit with the ball, for successful runs, the team earns points. A team wins by getting more points during the scheduled time or by having all its players complete runs.
A description of lapta is given by Aleksandr Kuprin, This folk game is one of the most interesting, the lazy and cowardly have no place in this game
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to all knowledge. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes, in addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures, the Archive oversees one of the worlds largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501 nonprofit operating in the United States. It has a budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources, revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, donations. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, where about 30 of its 200 employees work, Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, the Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007.
Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at around the time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities, the archived content wasnt available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, Now the Internet Archive includes texts, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of projects, the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It. According to its web site, Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture, without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form, the Archives mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers and scholars. In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, on November 6,2013, the Internet Archives headquarters in San Franciscos Richmond District caught fire, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.
The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage, in November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in the country of Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build an archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump. Kahle was quoted as saying that on November 9th in America and it was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and it means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions
British baseball, sometimes called Welsh baseball, or in the areas where it is popular simply baseball, is a bat-and-ball game played primarily in Wales and England. It is closely related to the game of rounders, and indeed emerged as a sport when governing bodies in Wales. As a traditional game, its roots go back much further. The sport differs in a number of ways from the known game of North American baseball. Delivery of the ball – The ball is thrown underarm, similar to softball, as in cricket the delivery is known as bowling. In North American baseball it is delivered overhand, sidearm, or underarm and is called pitching, number of players – There are 11 players in a team with no substitutions allowed. North American baseball is played by nine players at a time, and while substitutions are allowed, number of innings – In British baseball, each team has 2 innings. An innings ends when all 11 players are dismissed or stranded on base. A regulation game of North American baseball consists of 9 innings, bases – the bases are designated by poles rather than bags.
Bat – the bat has a striking surface, where in North American baseball it is entirely round. Scoring system – In British baseball a player scores a run for every base he/she reaches after hitting the ball and he or she will not subsequently score when moving around the bases on another players hit. The equivalent of a home run scores four runs, as in cricket a bonus run can be awarded for excessively-wide deliveries. In North American baseball, a player scores a run only on a circuit of all four bases, whether on his own or another players hit. Field of play – The ball can be hit in any direction, despite these similarities with cricket, the game is much more like North American baseball in style and operates on a near identical, but smaller, diamond. There are similarities to rounders, which is often considered a transitional game between cricket and baseball. The basic concepts of British baseball cross-blend the basic concepts of cricket, the modern rules of British baseball were codified in 1892, when the term rounders ceased to be the sports official name.
During the same time, the South Wales Baseball Association was established to govern the sport which was popular in Cardiff, the first recognised international match was held between England and Wales on 3 August 1908 at the Harlequins Ground in Cardiff, Wales winning 122 –118. The International Baseball Board was founded in 1927 and is the governing body
Origins of baseball
The question of the origins of baseball has been the subject of debate and controversy for more than a century. Baseball and the other modern bat and running games and rounders, were developed from folk games in early Britain and Continental Europe. Early forms of baseball had a number of names, including ball, goal ball, round ball, fetch-catch, stool ball. In at least one version of the game, teams pitched to themselves, runners went around the bases in the direction of todays game. Just as now, in some versions a batter was called out after three strikes, a number of folk games in early Britain and Continental Europe had characteristics that can be seen in modern baseball. Many of these games involved a ball that was thrown at a target while an opposing player defended the target by attempting to hit the ball away. If the batter hit the ball, he could attempt to score points by running between bases while fielders would attempt to catch or retrieve the ball and put the runner out in some way.
Folk games differed over time and culture, resulting in similar yet variant forms and these games had no standard documented rules and instead were played according to historical customs. These games tended to be played by working classes, early folk games were often associated with earlier religious ceremonies and worship rituals. These games became discouraged and even prohibited by subsequent governing states. The earliest known reference to stoolball is in a 1330 poem by William Pagula, in stoolball, one player throws the ball at a target while another player defends the target. Originally, the target was defended with a bare hand, later, a bat of some kind was used. Stob-ball and stow-ball were regional games similar to stoolball, what the target originally was in stoolball is not certain, it was possibly a tree stump, since stob and stow all mean stump in some local dialects. It is notable that in cricket to this day, the uprights of the wicket are called stumps, of course, the target could well have been whatever was convenient, perhaps even a gravestone. A 17th-century book on games specifies a stool, according to one legend, milkmaids played stoolball while waiting for their husbands to return from the fields.
Another theory is that developed as a game played after attending church services. An 18th-century poem depicts men and women playing together, and it, there were several versions of stoolball. In the earliest versions, the object was primarily to defend the stool, successfully defending the stool counted for one point, and the batter was out if the ball hit the stool
The sport is similar to American handball, Basque pelota, Pêl-Law and squash. It is one of the four Gaelic games organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association, in 2009, Irish Handball was rebranded as GAA Handball. Handball is played in a court, or alley, originally, an alley measuring 60 feet by 30 feet was used with a front wall of 30 feet, off which the ball must be struck. A smaller alley was introduced, measuring 40 feet by 20 feet with a front wall 20 ft high, the first alley of this size was built in Ireland in 1969. This smaller size is now the standard in the version of the game. The objective of a game is to score a set total of points before your opponent does, points are only scored by the person serving the ball. In other words, if a player wins a rally but did not serve at the start of that rally they only win the right to serve, and thus the chance to score after a subsequent rally. The serving player has two opportunities to hit the ball, from the area, off the front wall. Players take turns at hitting the ball off the front wall before the ball twice on the floor of the court following their opponents previous shot.
Most handball games take place in a court but there are three-walled. Handball-like games have originated in places at different times. Hieroglyphs in the temple of Osiris in Egypt portray priests taking part in a very similar to handball. Mesoamerican civilisations in South and Central America had a form of handball-like game, recent archaeological finds in the Callan and Mooncoin areas of Kilkenny indicate that a game similar to handball was played. In Ireland, the earliest written record of a ball game is contained in the town statutes of Galway in 1527. The first depiction of an Irish form of handball does not appear till 1785, on the west coast of Ireland, Galway had many trading links with Spain, especially the Basque regions, where the similar game of pelota is played. All you have to do is hit the ball with or without gloves, both Scottish and Irish immigrants brought the game to many countries in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. It is still played in the United States, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, Africa, the G. A. A. wrote the first rules for the modern game of handball.
Handball was included in the G. A. A, charter of 1884 as one of the sports to be promoted by the new Association
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases, Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the team who reaches a base safely can attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates turns batting. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the team, constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no clock, although almost all games end in the ninth inning. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century and this game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the sport of the United States.
Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, in the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions, East and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series, the top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The evolution of baseball from older bat-and-ball games is difficult to trace with precision, a French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, consensus once held that todays baseball is a North American development from the older game rounders, popular in Great Britain and Ireland. Baseball Before We Knew It, A Search for the Roots of the Game, by David Block, suggests that the game originated in England, recently uncovered historical evidence supports this position.
Block argues that rounders and early baseball were actually regional variants of other. It has long believed that cricket descended from such games. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, David Block discovered that the first recorded game of Bass-Ball took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player. William Bray, an English lawyer, recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford and this early form of the game was apparently brought to Canada by English immigrants
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period which ends with the completion of the reign of Elizabeth I in 1603. The Tudor period coincides with the rule of the Tudor dynasty in England whose first monarch was Henry VII. In terms of the century, Guy argues that England was economically healthier, more expansive. Following the Black Death and the depression of the late 15th century. The export of woollen products resulted in an upturn with products exported to mainland Europe. Henry VII negotiated the favourable Intercursus Magnus treaty in 1496, the high wages and abundance of available land seen in the late 15th century and early 16th century were replaced with low wages and a land shortage. Various inflationary pressures, perhaps due to an influx of New World gold and this was a period of significant change for the majority of the rural population, with manorial lords beginning the process of enclosure. Historian Geoffrey Elton revolutionized the study of Tudor government with his 1953 book The Tudor Revolution in Government and he argued that Thomas Cromwell, who was Henry VIIIs chief minister from 1532 to 1540, was the author of modern, bureaucratic government, which replaced medieval, government-as-household-management.
Cromwell introduced reforms into the administration that delineated the Kings household from the state and he injected Tudor power into the darker corners of the realm and radically altered the role of Parliament. This transition happened in the 1530s, Elton argued, and must be regarded as part of a planned revolution, by masterminding these reforms, wrote Elton, Cromwell laid the foundations of Englands future stability and success. However, Eltons thesis has been challenged by recent historians. The Tudor Government raised an amount of revenue from the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The clerical income from First Fruits and Tenths, which went to the Pope. The Tudor Government gained further revenue from the lands by receiving rents from confiscated lands. Altogether, between 1536 and Henrys death, the Government collected £1.3 million, this influx of money caused Cromwell to change the Crowns financial system to manage the money. He created a new department of state and a new official to collect the proceeds of the dissolution, the Court of Augmentations and number of departments meant a growing number of officials, which made the management of revenue troublesome and expensive.
Partly because of the new revenue raised from the dissolution of monasteries and these were the six courts or departments of state, each fully organised with its own specialised officials, equipped with seals and habitat, and responsible for a particular kind of revenue. The growing number of departments meant that the number of officials involved increased, there were further financial and administrative difficulties in 1540–58, aggravated by war, debasement and inefficiency, which were mainly caused by Somerset