The Northern Qi was one of the Northern dynasties of Chinese history and ruled northern China from 550 to 577. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Wenxuan, it was ended following attacks from Northern Zhou; the Chinese state of Northern Qi was the successor state of the Chinese/Xianbei state of Eastern Wei and was founded by Emperor Wenxuan. Emperor Wenxuan had a Han Chinese father Gao Huan, a Xianbei mother, Lou Zhaojun; as Eastern Wei's paramount general Gao Huan was succeeded by his sons Gao Cheng and Gao Yang, who took the throne from Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei in 550 and established Northern Qi as Emperor Wenxuan. Northern Qi was the strongest state of the three main Chinese states. Northern Qi however was plagued by violence and/or incompetent emperors, corrupt officials, deteriorating armies. In 571, an important official who guide the emperors Emperor Wucheng and Houzhu, He Shikai, was killed. Houzhu attempted to strengthen the power of throne, instead he triggered a series of purges that became violent in late 573.
In 577, Northern Qi was assaulted by a kingdom with poorer resources. The Northern Qi, with ineffective leadership disintegrated within a month, with large scale defections of court and military personnel. Both Houzhu and the last emperor Youzhu were captured, both died in late 577. Emperor Wenxuan's son Gao Shaoyi, the Prince of Fanyang, under protection by Tujue declared himself the emperor of Northern Qi in exile, but was turned over by Tujue to Northern Zhou in 580 and exiled to modern Sichuan, it is a matter of dispute whether Gao Shaoyi should properly be considered a Northern Qi emperor, but in any case the year 577 is considered by historians as the ending date for Northern Qi. Northern Qi ceramics mark a revival of Chinese ceramic art, following the disastrous invasions and the social chaos of the 4th century. Northern Qi tombs have revealed some beautiful artifacts, such as porcelain with splashed green designs thought to have been developed under the Tang dynasty. Markedly unique from earlier depictions of the Buddha, Northern Qi statues tend to be smaller, around three feet tall, columnar in shape.
A jar has been found in a Northern Qi tomb, closed in 576, is considered as a precursor of the Tang Sancai style of ceramics. Brown glazed wares designed with Sasanian-style figures have been found in these tombs; these works suggest a strong cosmopolitanism and intense exchanges with Western Asia, which are visible in metalworks and relief sculptures across China during this period. Cosmopolitanism was therefore current during the Northern Qi period in the 6th century before the advent of the notoriously cosmopolitan Tang dynasty, was associated with Buddhism; the Northern Qi, although founded by a ruler of mixed Han/Xianbei origin asserted their Xianbei ethnic cultural identity. They regarded surviving ethnic Tuoba and non-Chinese of the Northern Wei court and as well as literati of all ethnicities as near Chinese, referring to them as Haner; however they made use of sometimes Central Asian courtiers. While some Qi elite families had expressed anti-Chinese sentiments, they may lay claim to Chinese elite origin.
Emperor Wenxuan's father Gao Huan himself, reported as having said to his soldiers in the Xianbei language: "The Chinese are your slaves", was descended from the Han Chinese Gao family of Bohai in what is now modern Hebei. He had become Xianbeified as his family had lived for some time in Inner Mongolia after his grandfather was relocated from Bohai. A Chinese scholar translated the Buddhist text Nirvana Sutra text into a Turkic language during this era; some Zoroastrianism influences that went into previous states continued onto the state of Northern Qi court, such as the love for Persian dogs as they were taken as pets by nobles and eunuchs. The Chinese utilized a number of Persian products. Faced with the threat of the Göktürks from the north, from 552 to 556 the Qi built up to 3,000 li of wall from Shanxi to the sea at Shanhai Pass. In 552, the Great Wall was built, starting at the northwest frontier, starting from Lishi and expanding towards west Shuoxian, with total length of over 400 kilometers.
In 555, Emperor Wenquan commanded to rebuild the existing Great Wall of Northern Wei. Over the course of the year 555 alone, 1.8 million men were mobilized to build the Juyong Pass and extend its wall by 450 kilometres through Datong to the eastern banks of the Yellow River. In 557 a secondary wall was built inside the main one, starting from east of Pianguan, passing Yanmen Pass, Pingxing Pass, continuing to Xiaguan in Shanxi Province. In 563, Emperor Wucheng built a section of frontier wall along the Taihang Mountains on the border of Shanxi and Hebei provinces; these walls were built from local earth and stones or formed by natural barriers. Two stretches of the stone-and-earth Qi wall still stand in Shanxi today, measuring 3.3 metres wide at their bases and 3.5 metres high on average. In 577 the Northern Zhou in 580 made repairs to the existing Qi walls; the route of the Qi and Zhou walls would be followed by the Ming wall west of Gubeikou. Buddhism in China
Mongolia under Qing rule
Mongolia under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty of China over the Mongolian steppe, including the Outer Mongolian 4 aimags and Inner Mongolian 6 leagues from the 17th century to the end of the dynasty. "Mongolia" here is understood in the broader historical sense. The last Mongol Khagan Ligden saw much of his power weakened in his quarrels with the Mongol tribes and was defeated by the Manchus, he died soon afterwards, his son Ejei Khan gave Hong Taiji the imperial authority, ending the rule of Northern Yuan dynasty centered in Inner Mongolia by 1635. However, the Khalkha Mongols in Outer Mongolia continued to rule until they were overrun by the Dzungars in 1690, they submitted to the Qing dynasty in 1691; the Manchu-led Qing dynasty had ruled Outer Mongolia for over 200 years. During this period Qing rulers established separate administrative structures to govern each region. While the empire maintained firm control in both Inner and Outer Mongolia, the Mongols in Outer Mongolia enjoyed more degree of autonomy, retained their own language and culture during this period.
During the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, most regions inhabited by ethnic Mongols, notably Outer and Inner Mongolia became part of the Qing Empire. Before the dynasty began to take control of China proper in 1644, the escapades of Ligden Khan had driven a number of Mongol tribes to ally with the Manchu state; the Manchus conquered a Mongol tribe in the process of war against the Ming. Nurhaci's early relations with the Mongols tribes was an alliance. After Ligden's defeat and death his son had to submit to the Manchus, when the Qing dynasty was founded, most of what is now called Inner Mongolia belonged to the new state; the Khalkha Mongols in Outer Mongolia joined in 1691 when their defeat by the Dzungars left them without a chance to remain independent. The Khoshud in Qinghai were conquered in 1723/24; the Dzungars were destroyed, their territory conquered, in 1756/57 during the Dzungar genocide. The last Mongols to join the empire were the returning Torgud Kalmyks at the Ili in 1771.
After conquering the Ming, the Qing identified their state as Zhongguo, referred to it as "Dulimbai Gurun" in Manchu. When the Qing conquered Dzungaria in 1759, they proclaimed that the new land which belonged to the Dzungar Mongols was now absorbed into "China" in a Manchu language memorial; the Qing expounded on their ideology that they were bringing together the "outer" non-Han Chinese like the Inner Mongols, Eastern Mongols, Oirat Mongols, Tibetans together with the "inner" Han Chinese, into "one family" united in the Qing state. The Manchu language version of the Convention of Kyakhta, a treaty with the Russian Empire concerning criminal jurisdiction over bandits, referred to people from the Qing as "people from the Central Kingdom", the usage of "Chinese" in the convention referred to the Mongols. In the Manchu official Tulisen's Manchu language account of his meeting with the Torghut Mongol leader Ayuki Khan, it was mentioned that the Torghut Mongols were unlike the Russians but were instead like the "people of the Central Kingdom" such as the Manchus.
Due to the different ways of legitimization for different peoples in the Qing Empire, some non-Han people such as the Mongols considered themselves as subjects of the Qing state but outside China or Khitad. From the early years, the Manchus' relations with the neighboring Mongol tribes had been crucial in the dynasty development. Nurhaci had exchanged wives and concubines with the Khalkha Mongols since 1594, received titles from them in the early 17th century, he consolidated his relationship with portions of the Khorchin and Kharachin populations of eastern Mongols. They recognized Nurhaci as Khan, in return leading lineages of those groups were titled by Nurhaci and married with his extended family. Nurhaci chose to variously emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with the Mongols for political reasons. Nurhaci said to the Mongols that "The languages of the Chinese and Koreans are different, but their clothing and way of life is the same, it is the same with us Mongols. Our languages are different, but our clothing and way of life is the same."
Nurhaci indicated that the bond with the Mongols was not based in any real shared culture, rather it was for pragmatic reasons of "mutual opportunism", when he said to the Mongols: "You Mongols raise livestock, eat meat and wear pelts. My people live on grain. We two are not one country and we have different languages." As Nurhaci formally declared independence from the Ming dynasty and proclaimed the Later Jin in 1616, he gave himself a Mongolian-style title, consolidating his claim to the Mongolian traditions of leadership. The banners and other Manchu institutions are examples of productive hybridity, combining "pure" Mongolian elements and Han Chinese elements. Intermarriage with Mongolian noble families had cemented the alliance between the two peoples. Hong Taiji further expanded the marriage alliance policy. Despite the growing intimacy of Manchu-Mongol ties, Ligdan Khan, the last Khan from the Chakhar, resolutely opposed the growing Manchu power and viewed himself as the legitimate representative of the Mongolian imperial tradition.
But after his repeated losses in battle to the Manchus in the 1620s and early 1630s, as well as his own death in 16
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Geography of Mongolia
Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia and East Asia, located between China and Russia. The terrain is one of rolling plateaus, with a high degree of relief; the total land area of Mongolia is 1,564,116 square kilometres. Overall, the land slopes from the high Altai Mountains of the west and the north to plains and depressions in the east and the south; the Khüiten Peak in extreme western Mongolia on the Chinese border is the highest point. The lowest point is at an otherwise undistinguished spot in the eastern Mongolian plain; the country has an average elevation of 1,580 m. The landscape includes one of Asia's largest freshwater lakes, many salt lakes, sand dunes, rolling grasslands, alpine forests, permanent mountain glaciers. Northern and western Mongolia are seismically active zones, with frequent earthquakes and many hot springs and extinct volcanoes; the nation's closest point to any ocean is 645 kilometres from the country's easternmost tip, bordering North China to Jinzhou in Liaoning province, China along the coastline of the Bohai Sea.
Mongolia has two major mountain ranges. The highest is the Altai Mountains, which stretch across the western and the southwestern regions of the country on a northwest-to-southeast axis; the range contains the 4,374 m high Khüiten Peak. The Khangai Mountains, mountains trending northwest to southeast, occupy much of central and north-central Mongolia; these are older and more eroded mountains, with many forests and alpine pastures. Much of eastern Mongolia is occupied by a plain, the lowest area is a southwest-to-northeast trending depression that reaches from the Gobi Desert region in the south to the eastern frontier; some of Mongolia's waterways drain to the oceans, but many finish at Endorheic basins in the deserts and the depressions of Inner Asia. Rivers are most extensively developed in the north, the country's major river system is that of the Selenge, which drains via Lake Baikal to the Arctic Ocean; some minor tributaries of Siberia's Yenisei River, which flows to the Arctic Ocean, rise in the mountains of northwestern Mongolia.
In northeastern Mongolia the Onon River drains into the Pacific Ocean through the Shilka River in Russia and the Amur rivers, forming the tenth longest river system in the world. Many rivers of western Mongolia end at lakes in the Central Asian Internal Drainage Basin, most in the Great Lakes Depression, or at Hulun Lake, Ulaan Lake or Ulungur Lake; the few streams of southern Mongolia do not run into lakes or deserts. Mongolia's largest lake by area, Uvs Lake is in the Great Lakes Depression. Mongolia's largest lake by volume of water, Khövsgöl Nuur, drains via the Selenge river to the Arctic Ocean. One of the most easterly lakes of Mongolia, Hoh Nuur, at an elevation of 557 metres, is the lowest point in the country. In total, the lakes and rivers of Mongolia cover 0.67 % of the country. Mongolia has a high elevation, with a dry climate, it has an extreme continental climate with long, cold winters and short summers, during which most precipitation falls. The country averages 257 cloudless days a year, it is at the center of a region of high atmospheric pressure.
Precipitation is highest in the north, which averages 200 to 350 millimeters per year, lowest in the south, which receives 100 to 200 millimeters. The extreme south is the Gobi Desert, some regions of which receive no precipitation at all in most years; the name Gobi is a Mongol word meaning desert, salt marsh, or steppe, but which refers to a category of arid rangeland with insufficient vegetation to support marmots but with enough to support camels. Mongols distinguish Gobi from desert proper, although the distinction is not always apparent to outsiders unfamiliar with the Mongolian landscape. Gobi rangelands are fragile and are destroyed by overgrazing, which results in expansion of the true desert, a stony waste where not Bactrian camels can survive. Average temperatures over most of the country are below freezing from November through March and are about freezing in April and October. Winter nights can drop to −40 °C in most years. Summer extremes reach as high as 38 °C in 33 °C in Ulaanbaatar.
Most of Mongolia is covered by discontinuous permafrost, which makes construction, road building, mining difficult. All rivers and freshwater lakes freeze over in the winter, smaller streams freeze to the bottom. Ulaanbaatar lies at 1,351 meters above sea level in the valley of the Tuul River. Located in the well-watered north, it receives an annual average of 310 millimetres of precipitation all of which falls in July and in August. Ulaanbaatar has an average annual temperature of −2.9 °C and a frost-free period extending on the average from mid-may to late August. Mongolia's weather is characterized by extreme variability and short-term unpredictability in the summer, the multiyear averages conceal wide variations in precipitation, dates of frosts, occurrences of blizzards and spring dust storms; such weather poses severe challenges to livestock survival. Official statistics list less than 1% of the country as arable, 8 to 10% as forest, the rest as pasture or desert. Grain wheat, is grown in the valleys of the Selenge river system in the north, but yields fluctuate and unpredictably as a result of the amount and the timing of rain and the dates of killing frosts.
Although winters are cold and cl
Tengrism known as Tengriism, Tenggerism, or Tengrianism, is a Central Asian religion characterized by shamanism, totemism, poly-, monotheism, ancestor worship. It was the prevailing religion of the Turks, Hungarians, Bulgars and the Huns, the religion of the several medieval states: Göktürk Khaganate, Western Turkic Khaganate, Old Great Bulgaria, Danube Bulgaria, Volga Bulgaria and Eastern Tourkia. In Irk Bitig, Tengri is mentioned as Türük Tängrisi. Tengrism has been advocated in intellectual circles of the Turkic nations of Central Asia since the dissolution of the Soviet Union during the 1990s. Still practiced, it is undergoing an organized revival in Sakha, Khakassia and other Turkic nations in Siberia. Burkhanism, a movement similar to Tengrism, is concentrated in Altay. Khukh tengri means "blue sky" in Mongolian, Mongolians still pray to Munkh Khukh Tengri and Mongolia is sometimes poetically called the "Land of Eternal Blue Sky" by its inhabitants. In modern Turkey, Tengrism is known as the Göktanrı dini.
According to Hungarian archaeological research, the religion of the Hungarians until the end of the 10th century was Tengrism. The word "Tengrism" is a new term, it is conventionally used to describe a form of Tengri-centered shamanism that prevailed on the Eurasian steppes among early Turkic and Mongol Khanates. Tengrism differs from Siberian shamanism in that the polities practicing it were not small bands of hunter gatherers like the Paleosiberians but a continuous succession of pastoral, semi-sedentarized Khanates and empires from the Xiongnu Empire till the Mongol Empire. Among Turkic peoples it was radically supplanted by Islam while in Mongolia it survives as a synthesis with Tibetan Buddhism while surviving in purer forms around Lake Khovsgol and Lake Baikal. Unlike Siberian shamanism which has no written tradition, Tengrism can be identified from Turkic and Mongolic historical texts like the Orkhon inscriptions, Secret History of the Mongols and Altan Tobchi. However, these texts are more oriented and are not religious texts like the scriptures and sutras of sedentary civilizations which have elaborate doctrines and religious stories.
On a scale of complexity Tengrism lies somewhere between the Proto-Indo-European religion and its form the Vedic religion. The eastern steppe where Tengrism developed had more centralized, hierarchical polities than the western steppe. Tengrism has been noted as more centralized, less polytheistic, less myth-intensive and more focused than the paganism that grew out of the western Proto-Indo-European religion. Nonetheless, the chief god Tengri is considered strikingly similar to the Indo-European sky god *Dyeus and the structure of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion is closer to that of the early Turks than to the religion of any people of Near Eastern or Mediterranean antiquity. Tengrists view their existence as sustained by the eternal blue sky, the fertile mother-earth spirit and a ruler regarded as the holy spirit of the sky. Heaven, spirits of nature and ancestors provide for every need and protect all humans. By living an upright, respectful life, a human will keep his world in balance and perfect his personal Wind Horse, or spirit.
The Huns of the northern Caucasus believed in two gods: Tangri Han, considered identical to the Persian Aspandiat and for whom horses were sacrificed, Kuar. Tengrism is practised in Sakha, Buryatia and Mongolia in parallel with Tibetan Buddhism and Burkhanism. Kyrgyz means "we are forty" in the Kyrgyz language, a reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghurs – Kyrgyzstan's flag has 40 uniformly-spaced rays. Several Kyrgyz politicians are advocating Tengrism to fill a perceived ideological void. Dastan Sarygulov, secretary of state and former chair of the Kyrgyz state gold-mining company, established the Tengir Ordo: a civic group promoting the values and traditions of Tengrism. Sarygulov heads a Tengrist society in Bishkek claiming nearly 500,000 followers and an international scientific center of Tengrist studies. Articles on Tengrism have been published in social-scientific journals in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev and former Kyrgyz president Askar Akayev have called Tengrism the national, "natural" religion of the Turkic peoples.
Gun Ana - the sun Umay – Goddess of fertility and virginity Bai-Ulgan – Greatest deity, after Tengri Erkliğ – God of space Erlik – God of death Flag of Sakha Republic Flag of Kazakhstan Flag of Chuvashia Göktürk coins Tree of Life Öksökö Tengrism was brought to Eastern Europe by the Bulgars. It lost importance when the Uighuric kagans proclaimed Manichaeism the state religion in the eighth century. Tengrism played a large role in the religion of the Gok-Turk and Mongol Empires. Gok-Turk translates as "celestial Turk". Genghis Khan and several generations of his followers were Tengrian believers until his fifth-generation descendant, Uzbeg Khan, turned to Islam in the 14th century; the original Mongol khans, followers of Tengri, were known for their tolerance of other religions. Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, said: "We believe that there is only one God, by whom we live and by whom we die
The Xiongnu were a tribal confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Eurasian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu Empire. After their previous overlords, the Yuezhi, migrated into Central Asia during the 2nd century BC, the Xiongnu became a dominant power on the steppes of north-east Central Asia, centred on an area known as Mongolia; the Xiongnu were active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang. Their relations with adjacent Chinese dynasties to the south east were complex, with repeated periods of conflict and intrigue, alternating with exchanges of tribute and marriage treaties. During the Sixteen Kingdoms era, they were known as one of the Five Barbarians. Attempts to identify the Xiongnu with groups of the western Eurasian Steppe remain controversial. Scythians and Sarmatians were concurrently to the west.
The identity of the ethnic core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses, because only a few words titles and personal names, were preserved in the Chinese sources. The name Xiongnu may be cognate with that of the Huna, although this is disputed. Other linguistic links – all of them controversial – proposed by scholars include Iranian, Turkic, Yeniseian, Tibeto-Burman or multi-ethnic. An early reference to the Xiongnu was by the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian who wrote about the Xiongnu in the Records of the Grand Historian, drawing a distinct line between the settled Huaxia people to the pastoral nomads, characterizing it as two polar groups in the sense of a civilization versus an uncivilized society: the Hua–Yi distinction. Pre-Han sources classify the Xiongnu as a Hu people, a blanket term for nomadic people in general. Ancient China came in contact with the Xianyun and the Xirong nomadic peoples. In Chinese historiography, some groups of these peoples were believed to be the possible progenitors of the Xiongnu people.
These nomadic people had repeated military confrontations with the Shang and the Zhou, who conquered and enslaved the nomads in an expansion drift. During the Warring States period, the armies from the Qin and Yan states were encroaching and conquering various nomadic territories that were inhabited by the Xiongnu and other Hu peoples. Sinologist Edwin Pulleyblank argued that the Xiongnu were part of a Xirong group called Yiqu, who had lived in Shaanbei and had been influenced by China for centuries, before they were driven out by the Qin dynasty. Qin's campaign against the Xiongnu expanded Qin's territory at the expense of the Xiongnu. In 215 BC, Qin Shi Huang sent General Meng Tian to conquer the Xiongnu and drive them from the Ordos Loop, which he did that year. After the catastrophic defeat at the hands of Meng Tian, the Xiongnu leader Touman was forced to flee far into the Mongolian Plateau; the Qin empire became a threat to the Xiongnu, which led to the reorganization of the many tribes into a confederacy.
Chubei Huyan Lan Luandi Qiulin Xubu In 209 BC, three years before the founding of Han China, the Xiongnu were brought together in a powerful confederation under a new chanyu, Modu Chanyu. This new political unity transformed them into a more formidable state by enabling formation of larger armies and the ability to exercise better strategic coordination; the Xiongnu adopted many of the Chinese agriculture techniques such as slave labor for heavy labor, wore silk like the Chinese, lived in Chinese-style homes. The reason for creating the confederation remains unclear. Suggestions include the need for a stronger state to deal with the Qin unification of China that resulted in a loss of the Ordos region at the hands of Meng Tian or the political crisis that overtook the Xiongnu in 215 BC when Qin armies evicted them from their pastures on the Yellow River. After forging internal unity, Modu expanded the empire on all sides. To the north he conquered a number of nomadic peoples, including the Dingling of southern Siberia.
He crushed the power of the Donghu people of eastern Mongolia and Manchuria as well as the Yuezhi in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu, where his son, made a skull cup out of the Yuezhi king. Modu reoccupied all the lands taken by the Qin general Meng Tian. Under Modu's leadership, the Xiongnu threatened the Han dynasty causing Emperor Gaozu, the first Han emperor, to lose his throne in 200 BC. By the time of Modu's death in 174 BC, the Xiongnu had driven the Yuezhi from the Hexi Corridor, killing the Yuezhi king in the process and asserting their presence in the Western Regions; the Xiongnu were recognized as the most prominent of the nomads bordering the Chinese Han empire and during early relations between the Xiongnu and the Han, the former held the balance of power. According to the Book of Han quoted in Duan Chengshi's ninth century Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang: Also, according to the Han shu, Wang Wu and others were sent as envoys to pay a visit to the Xiongnu. According to the customs of the Xiongnu, if the Han envoys did not remove their tallies of authority, if they did not allow their faces to be tattooed, they could not gain entrance into the yurts.
Wang Wu and his company removed their tallies, submitted to tattoo, thus gained entry. The Shanyu looked upon them highly. After Modu leaders formed a dualistic system of political organisation with the left and right branches of the Xiongnu divided on a regional basis; the chanyu or shanyu, a ruler equivalent to the Emperor of China
History of Mongolia
Various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei state, the Rouran Khaganate, the Turkic Khaganate and others, ruled the area of present-day Mongolia. The Khitan people, who used a para-Mongolic language, founded a state known as the Liao dynasty in Central Asia and ruled Mongolia and portions of the present-day Russian Far East, northern Korea, North China. In 1206 Genghis Khan was able to unite and conquer the Mongols, forging them into a fighting force which went on to establish the largest contiguous empire in world history, the Mongol Empire. Buddhism in Mongolia began with the Yuan emperors' conversion to Tibetan Buddhism. After the collapse of the Mongol-led China-based Yuan dynasty in 1368, the Mongols returned to their earlier patterns of internal strife; the Mongols returned to their old shamanist ways after the collapse of their empire and only in the 16th and 17th centuries did Buddhism reemerge. At the end of the 17th century, present-day Mongolia became part of the area ruled by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.
During the collapse of the Qing in 1911, Mongolia declared independence but had to struggle until 1921 to establish de facto independence and until 1945 to gain international recognition. As a consequence, Mongolia came under strong Soviet influence: in 1924 the Mongolian People's Republic was declared, Mongolian politics began to follow the same patterns as Soviet politics of the time. After the revolutions of 1989, the Mongolian Revolution of 1990 led to a multi-party system, a new constitution in 1992, a transition to a market economy; the climate of Central Asia became dry after the large tectonic collision between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. This impact threw up the massive chain of mountains known as the Himalayas; the Himalayas, Greater Khingan and Lesser Khingan mountains act like a high wall, blocking the warm and wet climate from penetrating into Central Asia. Many of the mountains of Mongolia were formed during the Late Early Quaternary periods; the Mongolian climate was more humid hundreds of thousands of years ago.
Mongolia is known to be the source of priceless paleontological discoveries. The first scientifically confirmed dinosaur eggs were found in Mongolia during the 1923 expedition of the American Museum of Natural History, led by Roy Chapman Andrews. During the middle to late Eocene Epoch, Mongolia was the home of many Paleogene mammals with Sarkastodon and Andrewsarchus being the most prominent of them. Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia as much as 800,000 years ago but fossils of Homo erectus have not yet been found in Mongolia. Stone tools have been found in the southern, region dating back as much as 800,000 years. Important prehistoric sites are the Paleolithic cave drawings of the Khoid Tsenkheriin Agui in Khovd province, the Tsagaan Agui in Bayankhongor Province. A neolithic farming settlement has been found in Dornod Province. Contemporary findings from western Mongolia include only temporary encampments of hunters and fishers; the population during the Copper Age has been described as paleomongolid in the east of what is now Mongolia, as europid in the west.
The Slab Grave culture of the late Bronze and early Iron Age, related to the proto-Mongols, spread over Northern and Eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Northwest China, Lesser Khingan, Irkutsk Oblast and Zabaykalsky Krai. This culture is the main archaeological. Deer stones and the omnipresent kheregsüürs are from this era. Deer stones are ancient megaliths carved with symbols that can be found all over central and eastern Eurasia but are concentrated in Siberia and Mongolia. Most deer stones occur in association with ancient graves. There are around 700 deer stones known in Mongolia of a total of 900 deer stones that have been found in Central Asia and South Siberia, their true purpose and creators are still unknown. Some researchers claim that deer stones are rooted in shamanism and are thought to have been set up during the Bronze Age around 1000 BC, may mark the graves of important people. Inhabitants of the area reused them to mark their own burial mounds, for other purposes. In Mongolia, the Lake Baikal area, the Sayan and Altai Mountains, there are 550, 20, 20, 60 known deer stones respectively.
Moreover, there are another 20 deer stones in Kazakhstan and the Middle East and 10 further west in the Ukraine and parts of the Russian Federation, including the provinces of Orenburg and the Caucasus, near the Elbe River. According to H. L. hlyenova, the artistic deer image originated from the Sak tribe and its branches. Volkov believes that some of the methods of crafting deer stone art are related to Scythians, whereas Mongolian archaeologist D. Tseveendorj regards deer stone art as having originated in Mongolia during the Bronze Age and spread thereafter to Tuva and the Baikal area. A vast Iron Age burial complex from the 5th-3rd century also used by the Xiongnu, has been unearthed near Ulaangom. Before the 20th century, some scholars assumed that the Scythians descended from the Mongolic people; the Scythian community inhabited western Mongolia in the 5-6th century. In 2006 the mummy of a Scythian warrior, believed to be about 2,500 years old was a 30-to-40-year-old man with blond hair, was found in the Altai Mountain