Xàtiva is a town in eastern Spain, in the province of Valencia, on the right bank of the river Albaida and at the junction of the Valencia–Murcia and Valencia Albacete railways. It is located 25 km west of the Mediterranean Sea. During the Al-Andalus Islamic era, Arabs brought the technology to manufacture paper to Xàtiva. In the 12th century, Xàtiva was known for its schools and learning circles. Islamic scholar Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi's last name refers to Xàtiva where he died. Xàtiva was famous in Roman times for its linen fabrics, mentioned by the Latin poets Ovid and Catullus. Xàtiva is known as an early European centre of paper manufacture. In the 12th century, Arabs brought the technology to manufacture paper to Xàtiva, it is the birthplace of two popes, Callixtus III and Alexander VI, the painter José Ribera. It suffered a dark moment in its history at the hands of Philip V of Spain, after his victory at the Battle of Almansa during the War of the Spanish Succession, had the city besieged ordered it to be burned and renamed San Felipe.
In memory of the insult, the portrait of the monarch hangs upside down in the local museum of l'Almodí. Xàtiva was a provincial capital under the short-lived 1822 territorial division of Spain, during the Trienio Liberal; the Province of Xàtiva was revoked with the return to absolutism in 1823. Xàtiva is built on the margin of a fertile plain, on the southern slopes of the Monte Vernissa, a hill with two peaks crowned by Xativa Castle; the Collegiate Basilica, dating from 1414, but rebuilt about a century in the Renaissance style, was a cathedral, is the chief among many churches and convents. The town-hall and a church on the castle hill are constructed of inscribed Roman masonry, several houses date from the Moorish period. Other sights include: Royal Monastery of the Assumption and Baroque style, built during the 14th century and renovated in the 16th–18th centuries. Natal house of the Pope Alexander VI. Sant Feliu – 13th century church. Sant Pere -14th century church; the interior has a Coffered ceiling decorated in Gothic-Mudéjar style.
Hermitage of Santa Anna, in Gothic style Almodí, a 14th-century Gothic edifice now housing a Museum Casa de la Enseñanza, Xàtiva Sant Francesc The Republic of Sorió, where you could find the famous valencian version of the Olsen sisters, known for having sung in Maqueta Jove TV Show. In the summer, the village is blessed with the visit of an old friend of the sisters': the well-known Hanna Gorbana. Pope Calixtus III Pope Alexander VI Tomás Cerdán de Tallada Diego Ramírez de Arellano Jusepe de Ribera Jaime Villanueva Raimon Joan Ramos Toni Cucarella Feliu Ventura Route of the Borgias Official website Media related to Xàtiva at Wikimedia Commons Xàtiva travel guide from WikivoyageThere is plenty of information available about Xativa and the surrounding area on the English language website. "Játiva". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Mudéjar refers to an architecture and decoration style in Christian Iberia, influenced by Moorish taste and workmanship, reaching its greatest expression in medieval Aragon and the city of Toledo. Mudéjar refers to the large group of Muslims in Spain who remained in Christian Iberia despite their territories being reconquered; the distinctive Mudéjar style is still evident in regional architecture, as well as in art, crafts Hispano-Moresque ware, lustreware pottery, exported across Europe. The Mudéjar style was first characterized as a specific aesthetic trend by Spanish art historian Pedro de Madrazo in 1888; this important distinction clarified that the specific qualities were not just signature of specific artisans or craftsmen but it was the collective aesthetic style of Mudéjar Muslims in the Iberian peninsula. Mudéjar was the term used for Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not forcibly converted to Christianity or forcibly exiled.
The word Mudéjar references cultural borrowings. It was a medieval Spanish borrowing of the Arabic word Mudajjan مدجن, meaning "tamed", referring to Muslims who submitted to the rule of Christian kings; the term originated as a taunt, as the word was applied to domesticated animals such as poultry. The term Mudéjar can be translated from Arabic as "one permitted to remain", which references Christians allowing Muslims to remain in Christian Spain. Another term with the same meaning, ahl al-dajn, was used by Muslim writers, notably al-Wansharisi in his work Kitab al-Mi'yar. Mudéjars in Spain lived under a protected tributary status known as dajn which references ahl al-dajn; this protected status suggested subjugation at the hands of Christian rulers as the word dajn resembled haywanāt dājina which meant "tame animals". Their protected status was enforced by local charters which dictated Christians laws. Muslims of other regions outside of the Iberian Peninsula disapproved of the Mudéjar subjugated status and their willingness to live with non-Muslims.
Mudéjar was used in contrast to both Muslims in Muslim-ruled areas and Moriscos, who were forcibly converted and may or may not have continued to secretly practice Islam. The Treaty of Granada protected religious and cultural freedoms for Muslims in the imminent transition from the Emirate of Granada to a Province of Castile. After the fall of the last Islamic kingdom in the Battle of Granada in January 1492, Mudéjars, unlike the Jews who were expelled that same year, kept a protected religious status, although there were Catholic efforts to convert them. However, over the next several decades this religious freedom deteriorated. Islam was outlawed in Portugal by 1497, the Crown of Castile by 1502, the Crown of Aragon by 1526, forcing the Mudéjars to convert or in some cases leave the country. Following the forced conversion, they faced suspicions that they were not converted but remained crypto-Muslims, were known as Moriscos; the Moriscos, were expelled, in 1609–1614. The Muslim population in Castile immigrated from Toledo and other Andalusi territories.
They were not original to the land in Castile. Muslim immigration into Castile was sponsored settlement by the Kingdom of Castile, it is hypothesized that the slow-growing Christian population demonstrated a need to bring more people into Castile. Primary documents written by the Spanish in Castile in the 13th century indicate that Muslims were able to maintain some agency while in Spain; the Mudéjars were able to maintain their religion, their laws, they had their own judges. The Mudéjars in Castile spoke the Romance dialects as their Christian neighbors. Like the Mudéjars in Castile and Catalan Mudéjars spoke the Romance languages of their Christian counterparts. However, unlike the Mudéjars in Castile, there were Muslim villages in Aragon and, to a lesser extent, in south-western Catalonia which populated the land before Christian conquests, setting up a history of Muslim cultivation and population of the land. Besides the large Muslim populations in Granada and Valencia, the Aragonese Muslim peasants were the most well-established Muslim community in the region, while in Catalonia Muslim authoctonous presence was limited only to the Low Ebro and Low Segre areas.
Aragonese and Catalan Muslims were under the jurisdiction of the Christian Crown and were designated a special status. This status applied to the Mudéjar cultivators, the exarici, this status made them subservient to their Christian superiors because by law, they were required to cultivate the land of royal estates. However, this status was beneficial as the law suggested that this land be passed down through Muslim family members. Despite their expulsion at the end of the Morisco period, the Mudéjars in Aragon left evidence of their style in architecture, while in Catalonia only some reminiscences of this architecture can be appreciated in some Gothic churches and cathedrals in some shires of Lleida. In the 13th century, the Aragonese Christians conquered Valencia. Unlike in Aragon, the Mudéjar population in Valencia vastly outnumbered Christians in the area. In Valencia, the majority of communities were Muslim. Although there was a disparity between Christians and Muslims, it is important to note that a Christian king ruled over Valencia, not a sultan or an imam and this shaped the experience of Mudéjars in this regi
James I of Aragon
James I the Conqueror was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign—the longest of any Iberian monarch—saw the expansion of the House of Aragon and House of Barcelona in three directions: Languedoc to the north, the Balearic Islands to the southeast, Valencia to the south. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the County of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown, he renounced northward expansion and taking back the once Catalan territories in Occitania and vassal counties loyal to the County of Barcelona, lands that were lost by his father Peter II of Aragon in the Battle of Muret during the Albigensian Crusade and annexed by the Kingdom of France, decided to turn south. His great part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. One of the main reasons for this formal renunciation of most of the once Catalan territories in Languedoc and Occitania and any expansion into them is the fact that he was raised by the Knights Templar crusaders, who had defeated his father fighting for the Pope alongside the French, so it was forbidden for him to try to maintain the traditional influence of the Count of Barcelona that existed in Occitania and Languedoc.
As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the European kings. James compiled the Llibre del Consolat de Mar, which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean, he was an important figure in the development of the Catalan language, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets. James was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II of Marie of Montpellier; as a child, James was made a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles helping the Cathar heretics of Albi against the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter, when the former was only two years old, he entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213.
Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was handed over to the papal legate Peter of Benevento at Carcassonne in May or June 1214. James was sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of Guillem de Montredó, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza. In 1221, he was married to daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile; the next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles and the king came to terms. In 1228, James faced the sternest opposition yet from a vassal. Guerau IV de Cabrera occupied the County of Urgell in opposition to Aurembiax, the heiress of Ermengol VIII, who had died without sons in 1208. Although Aurembiax's mother, had made herself a protegée of James's father, upon her death in 1220 Guerau occupied the county and displaced Aurembiax, claiming that a woman could not inherit.
James intervened to whom he owed protection. He bought Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to reclaim her territory, which she did at Lleida also becoming one of James' earliest mistresses, she agreed to hold Urgell in fief for him. On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal. From 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. James and Sancho negotiated a treaty whereby James would inherit Navarre on the old Sancho's death, but when this occurred in 1234, the Navarrese nobles elevated Theobald to the throne instead, James disputed it. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene. In the end, James accepted Theobald's succession. James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees in order to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire; as with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical and political obstacles.
As in the case of Navarre, he declined to launch into perilous adventures. By the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he ended his conflict with Louis IX of France, securing the renunciation of French claims to sovereignty over Catalonia. After his false start at uniting Aragon with the Kingdom of Navarre through a scheme of mutual adoption, James turned to the south and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. On 5 September 1229, the troops from Aragon, consisting of 155 ships, 1,500 horsemen and 15,000 soldiers, set sail from Tarragona and Cambrils to conquer Majorca from Abú Yahya, the semi-independent Almohad governor of the island. Although a group of Aragonese knights took part in the campaign because of their obligations to the king, the conquest of Majorca was a Catalan undertaking, Catalans would make up the majority of Majorca's settlers. James conquered Majorca on 31 December 1229, Menorca and Ibi
Canals is a municipality in the comarca of Costera in the Valencian Community, Spain. It shares borders with the municipalities of l'Alcúdia de Crespins, Cerdà, la Granja de la Costera, Xàtiva, Llanera de Ranes, Montesa and Vallés and with Aielo de Malferit and l'Olleria. Canals is located in the valley between the Grossa mountains and la Costera; the highest points are in la Serra Grossa, where we can find the peaks of l'Atalaia and la Creu, on the municipal boundary with l'Olleria. The Cànyoles River crosses the town in the west-northeast direction; the village lies on the left bank of the Cànyoles river. Canals and l'Alcúdia de Crespins together form a conurbation. From València you can reach Canals taking the A-7 highway. Canals Aiacor Torre d'En Torre dels Frares; some evidence of Roman civilization has been found. During the year of Muslim occupation it was a important "alqueria" owned by Xàtiva. In the Christian era, in 1244, king James I of Aragon gave Dionís of Hungary the tower and the small village of Canals and created the new lordship of the Señorío de Torre de Canals.
Dionis of Hungary gave the king the castle in the valley of Veo and the castle of Ain and other territories. The Christian resettlement was made by Catalans. On July 30, Peter IV "el Cerimoniós" gave the place to Raimon de Riusech taking it from Joan Eximenis d'Urrea, with the condition that if he had no male descendents it would be given back to the crown, but in the end it was sold to Xàtiva, with the king's approval on February 19 of 1353 as a barony. During the rule by Xàtiva there were continuous tributary conflicts. In the year 1506 Xàtiva bought La Torreta. In 1522 during the Revolt of the Brotherhoods, Canals was used by the viceroy as his headquarters to attack Xàtiva, where the'Encobert' was hidden. Many prisoners were taken from Xàtiva to Canals. In 1639 Phillip IV, paid Xàtiva 20.000 pounds, gave independence to Canals as a village. In the 19th century Canals developed industry, with 24 glass factories, a paper factory, metal workshops, flour mills, cloth sellers. In the 20th century this industrial activity increased with oil, construction materials and cloth production.
Tower and walls of the Borgias Oratory of the Borgias Route of the Borgias Alfons de Borja, Pope Callixtus III The economy is divided into agriculture, industry famous for its clothing and leather production, marble. Today the industry is dead with the main companies having closed down: Ferry's, Rodrigo Sancho S. A. and many others. Pottery has been important, has given the people from Canals the nickname of "perolers". Canals Actualitat La web lider en noticies i opinions de Canals. Ajuntament de Canals Assemblea de Joves de Canals Enllaç a Canals en el google maps Conèixer Canals, Web per a conèixer la població de la Costera, Canals La Costera Digital, Periòdic independent de la Costera, Canals. Institut Valencià d'Estadística Portal de la Direcció General d'Administració Local de la Generalitat AI MARE!, Web de fotos i videos d'humor feta a Canals 4Q-QUARTET - Quartet de trombons Associació Musical Canalense
Oratory of the Borgias
The Oratory of the Borgias or Church of the Tower is located in the municipality of Canals, Spain. It is a church built in early Valencian Gothic style in the 13th century, it has been reformed on several occasions. In the oratory is conserved a medieval table about the Last Judgment, attributed to the Master of Borbotó. In the oratory was kept a shield with the arms of the House of Borgia, lost after the intervention of 1878, it was part of the palace complex of the Borgias at their ancestral power base in the Señorío de Torre de Canals. The original invocation of the oratory was the True Cross; the building consists of a single nave's rectangular, flat head, walls of stone and mortar, covered gabled sustained by two diaphragm arches supported by pillars. The roof was of wood; the original major altar was lost during the Spanish Civil War. It is believed that at one of the tables of the major altar, it was represented the True Cross, a gift of the Pope Callixtus III, according to the historical tradition.
CEBRIÁN Y MOLINA,J. L.: L’oratori i la torrassa del Palau dels Borja a la Torre de Canals, Ayuntamiento de Canals, 1990. LA PARRA LÓPEZ,S.: La ruta valenciana de los Borja, Gandía, Escapada-Punto Cero, 1997. MARTÍ DOMÍNGUEZ: Els Borja, Gandía, CEIC ”Alfons el Vell”, 1985. VV. AA.: Los Borja: del mundo gótico al universo renacentista, Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia, Generalitat Valenciana, 2001. VV. AA.: Canals, la Torre del Borja: excavacions arqueológiques i procés de restauració, Ayuntamiento de Canals, 1995. Route of the Borgias Tower and walls of the Borgias Article about the Oratory of the Borgias
Pope Callixtus III
Pope Callixtus III known as Alfonso de Borgia, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 April 1455 to his death in 1458. He is the most recent pope to have taken the pontifical name of "Callixtus" upon his election, he was responsible for the retrial of Joan of Arc that saw her vindicated. A member of the powerful Borgia family, Callixtus III was the uncle of Pope Alexander VI, whom he appointed to the College of Cardinals. Alfonso de Borgia was born in La Torreta in 1378. La Torreta was at the time in the Señorío de Torre de Canals. At the time he was born in the Kingdom of Valencia under the Crown of Aragon, he was the son of Domingo de Francina Llançol. He was the eldest child and his siblings were Isabel, Juana and Francisca, he was baptized at Saint Mary's Basilica in Xativa, where he is now honored with a statue in his memory. During the Great Western Schism he supported Antipope Benedict XIII and was the driving force behind Antipope Clement VIII's submission to Pope Martin V in 1429.
Borgia studied grammar and the arts in Valencia and went in 1392 to the University of Lleida where he obtained a doctorate in both canon law and civil law. His early career was spent as a professor of law at the University of Lleida and he served as a diplomat to the Kings of Aragon during the Council of Basel; when he was a priest he attended a sermon that Vincent Ferrer held around 1411. At the end of his message, the Dominican said to the future pope: "My son, you one day will be called to be the ornament of your house and of your country. You will be invested with the highest dignity. After my death, I shall be the object of your special honour. Endeavor to persevere in a life of virtue." As pope, Borgia canonized Ferrer on 3 June 1455. Borgia was chosen as a delegate of the Diocese of Lerida to the Council of Constance in 1416, but did not partake in the proceedings as King Alfonso V of Aragon was opposed to the council; because of this he went to Barcelona as a representative of his diocese in a synod.
Borgia cared for the reestablishment of the unity of the church and his influence with the Aragonese monarch was the factor that allowed for the conclusion of the accord between the king and the new pope. In 1418 he was named as the rector of San Nicolas of Valencia, he was the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Lerida from 1420 to 1423. In 1424 he dedicated his service to the Aragonese king. In 1424 he was named, it was at that time. Borgia was appointed Bishop of Valencia by Pope Martin V on 20 August 1429 and was consecrated on 31 August 1429, he authorized Pedro Llorens to take possession of the see in his name. Borgia tutored Alfonso V's illegitimate son Ferrante. Pope Eugene IV elevated him to the cardinalate on 2 May 1444 after he managed to reconcile the pope and King Alfonso V of Aragon, he was elevated as the Cardinal-Priest of Santi Quattro Coronati. He was a member of the Roman Curia, he participated in the papal conclave of 1447 that saw the election of Pope Nicholas V. He was known for an charitable life.
Borgia's coat of arms after he was consecrated featured a grazing ox. As pope it remained the same. Borgia was raised to the papal chair on 8 April 1455 at an advanced age as a "compromise candidate" in the papal conclave of 1455, he took the pontifical name of "Callixtus III". He was crowned as pope on 20 April 1455 by the Cardinal Protodeacon Prospero Colonna, he is viewed by historians as being an pious person and a firm believer in the authority of the Holy See. Not quite two years after the Fall of Constantinople, he was chiefly concerned with the organization of Christian Europe against an invasion by the Turks. An extensive building program under way in Rome was cancelled and the money funneled toward a crusade. Papal Nuncios were dispatched to all the countries of Europe to beseech the princes to join once more in an effort to check the danger of a Turkish invasion. Missionaries were sent to England, Germany, Hungary and Aragon to preach the Crusade, to engage the prayers of the faithful for the success of the enterprise.
It was by order of Callixtus III that the bells were rung at midday to remind the faithful that they should pray for the welfare of the crusaders. The princes of Europe were slow in responding to the call of the pope due to national rivalries. England and France's Hundred Years' War had just ended in 1453. Forces met the Turks and defeated them at Belgrade. Shortly after his victory, Hunyady himself died of a fever. On 29 June 1456, Callixtus III ordered the church bells to be rung at noon as a call to prayer for the welfare of those defending Belgrade. To commemorate this victory, Callixtus III ordered the Feast of the Transfiguration to be held annually on 6 August. In 1456 the pope issued the papal bull Inter Caetera to Portugal; this bull reaffirmed the earlier bulls Dum Diversas and Romanus Pontifex which recognized Portugal's rights to territories it had discovered along the West African coast as well as the enslavement of infidels and non-Christians captured there. This confirmation of Romanus Pontifex gave the Portuguese the military Order of Christ under Prince Henry the Navigator.
Inter Caetera of 1456 was in direct contradiction to the stance
Convent of Santa Clara of Gandia
The Convent of Santa Clara is 15th-century, Roman Catholic convent belonging to cloistered order of the Colettine Poor Clares, located in the town of Gandia, province of Valencia, Spain. It is located in the centre of Gandia and at few meters from the Collegiate Basilica of Gandia, in María Enríquez de Luna square; the Convent of Santa Clara was founded in 1431 by Violante of Aragon, daughter of Alfonso of Aragon and Foix, Royal Duke of Gandía. It is a clear demonstration of the artistic significance of the city; the Gothic-style church houses an altarpiece by Paolo da San Leocadio. There were many women of the Borgia family. After the death of its founder, Violante of Aragon, spend a few years in which the convent is uninhabited; the valencian noble Luis Vich y de Corbera will be who decided to restore this convent. The convent was the new home for ten nuns from the same community who abandoned her French convent of the city of Lézignan-Corbières. Among these nuns was María Escarlata, the sister of the French Prince.
She took refuge in the convent of Gandia fleeing of being married by force. María Enríquez de Luna, Duchess of Gandia entered the convent with the name of Sister Gabriela, she became Abbess of the convent in 1530, died nine years later. Would be his daughter, Sister Francisca de Jesús, chosen abbess of the convent in 1533, ruled it until in 1548, he resigned to foundations away from their family environment, he had the satisfaction of seeing religious of his convent of Gandia to his own mother, Sister María Gabriela and five nieces, daughters of his brother Juan de Borja y Enríquez de Luna, sisters of Saint Francis Borgia. In the courtyard of the convent is an olive tree which according to tradition was planted by Saint Francis Borgia; the convent has the image of the Virgin of the Virgin of the Bastion. The convent preserves an outstanding art collection bequeathed by the Borgias including the works of José de Ribera, Juan de Juanes, Paolo da San Leocadio, Francisco Salzillo or Francisco Ribalta school painters.
In 2010 the convent signed a collaboration agreement which yields works to the Town Hall of Gandia that are a part of the future Museum of the Poor Clares, at the old Sant Marc Hospital. It is a cloistered convent, so it is only possible to visit the church of Valencian Gothic style, located on the right side of the construction. Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics Artícle about the Convent of Santa Clara