Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, specialises in providing academic books and online resources in the fields of humanities, behavioural science, education and social science; the company publishes 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. In 1998, Routledge became a subdivision and imprint of its former rival, Taylor & Francis Group, as a result of a £90-million acquisition deal from Cinven, a venture capital group which had purchased it two years for £25 million. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit and major imprint within the Informa'academic publishing' division. Routledge is headquartered in the main T&F office in Milton Park, Abingdon and operates from T&F offices globally including in Philadelphia, New Delhi and Beijing; the firm originated in 1836, when the London bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsland with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant.

In 1848 the pair entered the booming market for selling inexpensive imprints of works of fiction to rail travellers, in the style of the German Tauchnitz family, which became known as the "Railway Library". The venture was a success as railway usage grew, it led to Routledge, along with W H Warne's brother Frederick Warne, to found the company, George Routledge & Co. in 1851. The following year in 1852, the company gained lucrative business through selling reprints of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which in turn enabled it to pay author Edward Bulwer-Lytton £20,000 for a 10-year lease allowing sole rights to print all 35 of his works including 19 of his novels to be sold cheaply as part of their "Railway Library" series; the company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledge's son, Robert Warne Routledge, entered the partnership. Frederick Warne left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to some titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865, which became known for its Beatrix Potter books.

In July 1865, George Routledge's son Edmund Routledge became a partner, the firm became George Routledge & Sons. By 1899 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring in 1902 by scientist Sir William Crookes, banker Arthur Ellis Franklin, William Swan Sonnenschein as managing director, others, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C. Nimmo Ltd. in 1903. In 1912 the company took over the management of Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner, George Redway. These early 20th-century acquisitions brought with them lists of notable scholarly titles, from 1912 onward, the company became concentrated in the academic and scholarly publishing business under the imprint "Kegan Paul Trench Trubner", as well as reference and mysticism. In 1947, George Routledge and Sons merged with Kegan Paul Trench Trubner under the name of Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Using C. K. Ogden and Karl Mannheim as advisers the company was soon known for its titles in philosophy and the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, acquired by International Thomson in 1987. Under Thomson's ownership, Routledge's name and operations were retained, and, in 1996, a management buyout financed by the European private equity firm Cinven saw Routledge operating as an independent company once again. Just two year Cinven and Routledge's directors accepted a deal for Routledge's acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger. Routledge continues as a primary publishing unit and imprint within Informa's'academic publishing' division, publishing academic humanities and social science books, reference works and digital products. Routledge has grown as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers' titles by its parent company.

Humanities and social sciences titles acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint. The famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was a commissioning editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe, author of Love, worked at the company as a commissioning editor in the 1990s. Routledge has published many of the greatest thinkers and scholars of the last hundred years, including Adorno, Butler, Einstein, Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, McLuhan, Popper, Russell and Wittgenstein; the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series. Competitors to the series are Verso Books' Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Oxford World's Classics. Taylor and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006; some of its publications were: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, but now online. Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B.

Becker, in three volumes. Reference works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge: Europa World Year Book. International Who's Who. Europa

Wynn Resorts

Wynn Resorts Ltd. is an American publicly traded corporation based in Paradise, Nevada, a developer and operator of high end hotels and casinos. It was founded in 2002 by former Mirage Resorts Chairman and CEO Steve Wynn, is now run by CEO Matthew Maddox; as of 2020, the company has developed six properties. In 2000, Steve Wynn agreed to sell Mirage Resorts to MGM Grand, after having led Mirage and its predecessors since 1973. Wynn laid the foundation for his next venture that same year, buying the Desert Inn for $270 million. Wynn found an early partner in Japanese billionaire Kazuo Okada of Universal Entertainment Corporation. Wynn, together with Universal subsidiary Aruze USA, controlled half the stock, making it harder for outside investors to exert control, as they had done at Mirage in response to Wynn's prolific spending. Wynn hired investment banker Ronald Kramer as president and director in 2002 in order to help take the company public and oversee its expansion. Wynn Resorts made its initial public offering on NASDAQ on October 25, 2002.

The company's first project, Wynn Las Vegas, opened on April 28, 2005. Wynn Macau, the company's second project started construction on June 28, 2004, it is now the largest-grossing casino in the region. Encore, an extension to Wynn Las Vegas, broke ground on April 28, 2006, the first anniversary of the opening of Wynn Las Vegas. Encore at Wynn Macau, the company's second project on the Macau Peninsula, People's Republic of China, opened on April 21, 2010. A second resort in Macau, Wynn Palace on the Cotai Strip, opened August 22, 2016. Wynn bought 52 acres of the Cotai Strip in Macau where he hoped to break ground in 2012 for Wynn Cotai for a 2013 or early 2014 opening; the company considered opening a casino as part of the Entertainment City development in the Philippines, but decided against it because of corruption in the country's gaming industry. Okada decided to proceed with the project alone, leading to the rupture of his partnership with Wynn; the dispute went public with reciprocal accusations of corrupt practices.

Wynn and his allies accused Okada of bribing Philippines gaming regulators with over $110,000 in benefits, including free nights in a luxury suite at Wynn Las Vegas, while Okada claimed that Wynn Resorts' record $135 million donation to the University of Macau constituted a bribe. Okada resigned as vice chairman in October 2011, the following February, after a company investigation by the Freeh Group confirmed the charges against him, the board of directors forced Aruze USA to sell back its shares at a nearly 30% discount. Aruze had been the company's largest shareholder, with a 19.7% stake. On September 17, 2014, the Massachusetts Gaming Commission voted to approve Wynn Resorts’ proposed $1.6 billion casino to be located in Everett, Massachusetts on the Mystic River, just north of Boston. This project will be known as Encore Boston Harbor and was scheduled to open in 2019. On February 6, 2018, Steve Wynn resigned as CEO of the company amidst sexual allegations and was replaced by Matthew Maddox.

Amid sexual harassment lawsuits involving directors, Maddox announced the planned departure of two board members, Ray Irani and Alvin Shoemaker, on March 7, 2018. The departure of Irani and Shoemaker was to reassure investors that the corporate culture was changing. In April 2018, the company nominated three women to the board of directors: Dee Dee Myers, Betsy Atkins, Wendy Webb. Talks between Wynn and Crown Resorts of Australia for a $7.1 billion offer collapsed in April 2019. On May 28, 2019 Wynn paid a $35 million fine to the Massachusetts Gaming Commission and the $500,000 fine placed on Matthew Maddox; the Encore in Las Vegas opened shortly after the beginning of the Great Recession. Despite the additional casino at the Encore, net casino revenues for the combined resort were lower. In the first quarter of 2009, net revenues of the Macau operations declined. Following the global economic recovery, performance of the Wynn properties recovered. Wynn remained the only gaming operator to not perform mass layoffs during the recession.

In 2017 CNBC reported that Wynn’s stock was up 44% for the year and that Wynn’s Macau operations were the leading US-based resorts there. Desert Inn, Demolished between 2001 and 2004 to make room for the Wynn and Encore resorts. Wynn Resorts

Lina Khoury

Lina Khoury, born April 27,1976, is a Lebanese theatre director, writer and educator. She is known for raising controversial questions in her plays. Khoury was born in Trieste, Italy in 1976 from a Lebanese father and a Syrian mother from Assyrian ancestry. Khoury grew up in an era defined by Lebanon’s civil war. In 1997 Khoury graduated from the Lebanese American University, with a B. A. degree in Communication Arts. After working as an actress and assistant director in few television shows and plays as well as hosting two radio shows, Khoury moved to the United States, where she pursued her graduate studies and earned her M. F. A in Theatre Directing from the University of Arkansas in 2002. Since Khoury moved back to Beirut in 2003, she has taught, given workshops and master classes in Acting, Script Writing and Directing for theatre and Television in various institutions in Beirut LAU, ALBA, AUST and The Lebanese University. Khoury’s main work and passion is in theatre, she chooses to work on controversial topics that reflect the society’s mal functions as she sees it, daring to question inherited beliefs and norms with wit and style.

Khoury’s influence is felt throughout Lebanese contemporary theatre through her adoption of ground breaking view points, management of talents as Gabriel Yammine, Roula Hmade, Talal El Jourdi, Diamand Bou Aboud, Patricia Namour, Elie Mitri, Nada Abou Farhat, Tarek Tamim and the renowned Ziad Al Rahbani. In 2004 Khoury started working on Haki Niswan, it was inspired by Eve Ensler’s Vagina Monologues and was a pioneer play that tackled taboo subjects in the Lebanese society and the Arab World those of women's issues and sexual freedom. Haki Niswan took the Lebanese theatrical scene by storm and played for two years to full house audiences. Khoury’s fame rose as the play had raving reviews from local and international media. In 2009, Khoury wrote and produced Sar Lazem Nihki, a human comedy about relationships between men and women. Majnoun Yehki, was the third major play that Khoury produced. Based on Tom Stoppard’s EGBDF, it was a musical black comedy which questioned the oppression of regimes and the humanity of individuals.

The play featured Ziad Al Rahbani, whom Khoury brought back to the theatre 20 years after his last play. In 2016 Khoury put Issam Mahfouz’s controversial play Limatha... on stage. Khoury chose to stage this social political tragi-comedy to shed light on the situation of acceptance and numbness of the Lebanese society. In 2018, Khoury wrote and produced Haki Rjel an Avant-garde Black Comedy, a sequel to her hit play Haki Niswan; the play delved into the hidden world of men and related for the first time in Lebanon and the Mena region stories of oppressed men, in a society, well trenched in masculinity and where women are oppressed and face discrimination on multiple levels. In television, Khoury presented two entertainment shows: El Layle Layltak On LBCI and Men El Ekhir on MTV Lebanon, she worked as a producer for El Layle Layltak, as well as Hiya wa Houwa and The Investor with MBC in Dubai. Lina was one of the Acting coaches in Arab Casting on Abu Dhabi MTV Lebanon, she directed and produced corporate videos and video clips in her early days.

In film, Khoury was one of the producers for the film Taxi El Balad. She participates as a jury member in theatre festivals and short film competitions. Independently, Khoury works on various projects as a writer, artistic consultant, acting coach, drama translator. Facebook Page: Instagram Account: @linakhoury27 Twitter Account: @linakhoury27