The Royal Air Force College is the Royal Air Force training and education academy which provides initial training to all RAF personnel who are preparing to be commissioned officers. The College provides initial training to aircrew cadets and is responsible for all RAF recruiting along with officer and aircrew selection. Established as a naval aviation training centre during World War I, the College was established as the world's first air academy in 1919. During World War II, the College was closed and its facilities were used as a flying training school. Reopening after the War, the College absorbed the Royal Air Force Technical College in 1966; the Royal Air Force College is based at RAF Cranwell near Sleaford in Lincolnshire, is sometimes titled as the Royal Air Force College Cranwell. In December 1915, after the Royal Naval Air Service had broken away from the Royal Flying Corps, Commodore Godfrey Paine was sent to Cranwell to start a naval flying training school in order that the Royal Navy would no longer need to make use of the Central Flying School.
The Royal Naval Air Service Training Establishment, Cranwell opened on 1 April 1916 at Cranwell under Paine's leadership. In 1917 Paine was succeeded by Commodore John Luce and in 1918 following the foundation of the Royal Air Force in April, Brigadier-General Harold Briggs took over; as the naval personnel were held on the books of HMS Daedalus, a hulk, moored on the River Medway, this gave rise to a misconception that Cranwell was first established as HMS Daedalus. The Royal Air Force was formed on 1 April 1918 and, as a Royal Air Force establishment, Cranwell became the headquarters of No. 12 Group for the last few months of the war. After the cessation of hostilities in November 1918, the Chief of the Air Staff, Sir Hugh Trenchard, was determined to maintain the Royal Air Force as an independent service rather than let the Army and Navy control air operations again; the establishment of an air academy, which would provide basic flying training, provide intellectual education and give a sense of purpose to the future leaders of the service was therefore a priority.
Trenchard chose Cranwell as the College's location because, as he told his biographer: "Marooned in the wilderness, cut off from pastimes they could not organise for themselves, the cadets would find life cheaper and more wholesome." The Royal Air Force College was formed on 1 November 1919 as the RAF College under the authority of its first commandant Air Commodore Charles Longcroft. On 20 June 1929, an aeroplane piloted by Flight Cadet C J Giles crashed on landing at the College and burst into flames. A fellow flight cadet, William McKechnie, pulled Giles, incapable of moving himself, from the burning wreckage. McKechnie was awarded the Empire Gallantry Medal for his actions. Prior to the construction of the neo-classical College Hall, training took place in old naval huts. In the 1920s Sir Samuel Hoare battled for a substantial College building. Architect's plans were drawn up in 1929 for the present-day College. After some disagreement between Hoare and architect James West, the building plans incorporated design aspects of Christopher Wren's Royal Hospital at Chelsea.
In September 1933 the building was completed. Its frontage was 800 feet. In front of the Hall, orange gravel paths lead around a circular grass area toward the parade ground; the building, which has Grade II listed status, became the main location for RAF officer training when the Prince of Wales opened it in October 1934. In 1936 the College was reduced from command to group status within Training Command and the commandant ceased to hold the title of Air Officer Commanding RAF Cranwell. Just before the outbreak of the Second World War, the Air Ministry closed the College as an initial officer training establishment. With the need to train aircrew in large numbers it was redesignated the RAF College Flying Training School and it did not return to its former function until 1947, it was in 1947 that the Equipment and Secretarial Branch cadets were admitted to the College alongside the traditional flight cadets. The postwar restoration of the College was a period of uncertainty. Recruiting failed to find enough qualified candidates to fill each entry The pilot washout rate approached 50 per cent, so RAF authorities debated whether flying training to professional levels should be separated from a officer training course.
Cranwell cadets were in 1950 equipped and treated as airmen, i.e. had to clean their own quarters and uniforms impeccably, while undergoing both flying training and college-level courses in engineering. By 1960 they were dressed as officers, served by batmen. In the same period the 1957 Defence White Paper suggested the RAF would replace human pilots by guided missiles, at least for home defence of the UK; these vicissitudes are documented in Haslam's narrative and the personal memoir of a New Zealand cadet who attended the college from 1951 to 1953. In 1952 a College Memorial Chapel was established within College Hall. Ten years it was relocated to the new College Church, St Michael and All Angels, situated nearby to the south-east of College Hall. Cranwell became the entry point for all those who wished to become permanent officers in the RAF; the course took two years, but by the 1950s this had expanded to three. Basic training was provided on Percival Provosts. However, with the arrival of No. 81 Entry in September 1959, the college gave students the option of taking a degree and allowed them to fly Jet Provosts.
A new academic building, now known as Whit
Toronto Community Housing Corporation is a municipally owned corporation which serves as the public housing agency in Toronto, Canada. It is the second-largest housing provider in North America, behind the New York City Housing Authority, with over 58,000 units of housing and an estimated 164,000 tenants; the agency owns more than 2200 buildings including high and low-rise apartments and houses. It is an organized under the municipal government of Toronto, with its funding provided by both the City of Toronto and the Government of Ontario. Tenants pay rent according to income, with some buildings having a mix of tenants paying market-level rents while others pay subsidized rates. Through the latter half of the 20th century, prior to the amalgamation of Metropolitan Toronto in 1997, there were three municipally owned and operated affordable housing providers, each operated by differing levels of government under the former municipal federation of Metropolitan Toronto including Metro itself, the former City of Toronto, the Government of Ontario.
Of these included the Metropolitan Toronto Housing Company Ltd. and the City of Toronto Non Profit Housing Corporation known as Cityhome. In 1998, as part of a sweeping re-organization of the provincial government under premier Mike Harris, housing was downloaded to local municipalities to administer; the Metropolitan Toronto Housing Corporation was formed to take over provincial public housing units in the municipality. The existing companies including Cityhome and the Metro municipal housing authorities were merged into the Toronto Housing Company; the forced amalgamation of the federation of municipalities under Metropolitan Toronto including its affordable housing providers was carried out with the forced downloading of operating and capital expenses for a number of public services including affordable housing. The provincial government under rule by the Ontario PC Party under Harris promised that the downloading of expenses would be revenue neutral, which turned out to be not true, which contributed a great deal to the existing repair backlog now faced by city housing.
In 2002, four years after the forced amalgamation of Toronto, MTHC merged with THC to form the new Toronto Community Housing Corporation to administer all public housing units within the merged City of Toronto. As the dust settled on amalgamation, focus shifted to creating the newly amalgamated city's first official plan, which included identifying key areas in need of revitalization; these became known as the priority neighbourhoods, leading to among other things the unveiling of the suburban light rail plan Transit City, the early stages of planning for Toronto Community Housing first new development, the revitalization of Regent Park. On February 14, 2006 demolition work began on Regent Park, shortly followed by the completion of the new neighbourhood's first building in 2008. In October 2008, TCHC was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc. and was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine. That month, TCHC was named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers, announced by the Toronto Star newspaper.
On April 8, 2010, TCHC tenants between 14 and 28 years of age went to the polls to vote in the inaugural youth tenant election at locations across the city. Over a two-year term, elected youth tenant representatives will sit on youth councils that will have a say on capital priorities and planning in their communities, they will engage work with staff to make things work better at the community level. 2011 Audit report controversyToronto Auditor General Jeffery Griffiths conducted audits of TCHC procurements and employee expenses from January 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010, reporting his findings in two separate reports on December 7, 2010. His report on employee expenses revealed a list of inappropriate expenses incurred by TCHC as a result of staff abusing the organization's funds for personal interest. Examples include a $1,850 boat cruise for "staff development", $1,925 for manicures and pedicures, $6,000 for a planning session in Muskoka, $53,500 for a 2008 staff party, $40,000 for a staff Christmas party in 2009, $800 to provide massages at a staff picnic.
Deemed the most offensive of all the expenses by media figures, social advocates, TCHC residents alike was the purchase of chocolates from luxury department store Holt Renfrew at a cost of $1,000. The procurement audit found that procurement policy and procedures adopted by the TCHC board of directors were sometimes ignored. For instance, an open tendering process was sometimes not used when it should have been, the tendering process was not always transparent, purchase orders were sometimes split to circumvent procurement procedures. Several cases of single tendering were deemed inappropriate, including one case of a potential conflict of interest not declared in writing and one case of nearly $25 million in work awarded to an unsolicited proposal without competition from other vendors; the report criticized TCHC for bypassing the formal requirement that bidders make deposits—a requirement that protects the TCHC should a bidder fail to meet its contractual obligations—and for its documentation inadequately supporting some cases of single tendering.
Toronto Mayor Rob Ford demanded the resignation of the board of TCHC and although they were defiant, by March 3, 2011, all board members had resigned. The board was replaced on a temporary basis by former city councillor Case Ootes. Ford demanded the resignation of TCHC CEO Keiko Nakamura who refused to step down. Toronto land development agency Build Toronto removed its CEO Derek Ballantyne, the CEO of TCHC. Ford called for the privatization of Toronto Community Housing C
Thomas Edward Lee was an archaeologist for the National Museum of Canada in the 1950s and discovered Sheguiandah on Manitoulin Island. Public interest in the find contributed to passage in Ontario of a bill to protect archeological sites. While working with Laval University's Centre for Northern Studies, Lee discovered the Cartier Site on the Ungava Peninsula in Quebec. Thomas Edward Lee was born April 6, 1914 at Port Bruce, Elgin County in southwestern Ontario, Canada. At the University of Michigan and University of Toronto, he studied archeology. Lee started working at the National Museum of Canada soon after completing graduate school, his discoveries while with them include Sheguiandah on Manitoulin Island in 1952. Public interest was raised by the finds. Lee believed; the important find contributed to passage in 1953 of legislation to protect archeological sites in Ontario. Lee returned to the site three more times with teams to undertake thorough evaluation of the artifacts and the geology.
Sheguiandah has been excavated by other teams, including Storck and Patrick Julig, who disagreed with some of Lee's conclusions. All agree the site has evidence of Paleo-Indian and Archaic cultures, dating to about 10,000 BCE. In 1960, he was commissioned to study the former 1660 DesOrmeaux battle site in Ontario; when Lee's mentor was ousted from the National Museum, Lee resigned out of loyalty. He did not gain full-time archaeological work, he taught there for the rest of his career. In 1964, Lee investigated the Cartier Site at Payne Lake on Quebec's Ungava Peninsula, he thought. He found. Thinking it to be an artifact of Viking exploration, Lee named it "Hammer of Thor"; some scholars believe it may be a type of stone landmark. In 1970, Lee excavated & researched longhouses on Ungava Bay, near Kangirsuk; the Cartier Site revealed stone foundations, similar to other discoveries in the Canadian Arctic. Lee thought these to be "temporary shelters built by Norse voyagers visiting the region around A.
D. 1000". This would make these sites the same age as L'Anse aux Meadows. Lee revisited the site of his 1952 discovery at Ontario. While being a resident in Ottawa, Ontario, he had died on August 2, 1982. Hammer of Thor - thought by Lee to be a monument erected by the Vikings, on the Ungava Peninsula in northern Quebec
Daniel Rutherford was a Scottish physician and botanist, known for the isolation of nitrogen in 1772. Rutherford was born on 3 November 1749, the son of Anne Mackay and Professor John Rutherford.. He began college at the age of 16 at Mundell's School on the West Bow close to his family home, studied medicine under William Cullen and Joseph Black at the University of Edinburgh, graduating with a doctorate in 1772. From 1775 to 1786 he practiced as a physician in Edinburgh. In 1783 he was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, he was president of the Harveian Society in 1787. At this time he lived at Hyndford Close on the Royal Mile, he was a professor of botany at the University of Edinburgh and the 5th Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh from 1786 to 1819. He was president of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh from 1796 to 1798, his pupils included Thomas Brown of Waterhaughs. Around 1805 he moved from Hyndfords Close to a newly built townhouse at 20 Picardy Place at the top of Leith Walk, where he lived for the rest of his life.
He died in Edinburgh on 15 December 1819. In 1786 he married Harriet Mitchelson of Middleton. Rutherford was the maternal uncle of the novelist Sir Walter Scott. Rutherford discovered nitrogen by the isolation of the particle in 1772; when Joseph Black was studying the properties of carbon dioxide, he found that a candle would not burn in it. Black turned this problem over to his student at Rutherford. Rutherford kept a mouse in a space with a confined quantity of air, he burned a candle in the remaining air until it went out. Afterwards, he burned phosphorus in that; the air was passed through a carbon dioxide absorbing solution. The remaining component of the air did not support combustion, a mouse could not live in it. Rutherford called the gas "noxious air" or "phlogisticated air". Rutherford reported the experiment in 1772, he and Black were convinced of the validity of the phlogiston theory, so they explained their results in terms of it. "Rutherford, Daniel". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
1885–1900. Biographical note at “Lectures and Papers of Professor Daniel Rutherford, Diary of Mrs Harriet Rutherford”
The Digital MonsterJPN is a digital pet released in 1997 by Bandai. This pet was a masculine counterpart to the Tamagotchi, deemed more appropriate for girls, it spawned the Digimon franchise. It was similar to earlier virtual pets with the distinctions of being a fighting pet that could connect with others like it; the original Digital Monster model, released in 1997 sold 14 million units worldwide, including 13 million in Japan and 1 million overseas, up until March 2004. By 2005, more than 24 million Digital Monster units had been sold. In 2017, a 20th anniversary edition was released in Japan which allows the owner to choose from any of the eggs from the first 5 versions of the original toy, as well as several new ones unlocked through various methods; this edition was released worldwide in 2019, the anniversary of the franchise outside of its home country. The Digimon game consists of the following functions: Checking the pet's status Feeding the Digimon to increase the pet's fullness and energy Training the Digimon to lose weight and increase strength Battle mode Cleaning up the Digimon's droppings Toggling the light.
If the Digimon fell asleep and the light was never turned off, its overall condition would decrease, its chances of a high-power evolution would decrease. Healing the Digimon. If the Digimon got sick or injured in battle, it would have to be healed before it could battle again; the original Digimon Device has three buttons and one reset button, located to the right of the screen. The top "A" button scrolls through the options on the screens; the middle "B" button activates the selected function. The bottom "C" button cancels out. Pressing "A" and "C" toggles the sound; the reset button could only be pressed with other sharp object. When the product brought to the US, elements such as the "Megalithic Mainframe" were added to soften the concept of death. Devimon was renamed Darkmon because of censorship and the Japanese-related reference in Monzaemon's name was removed in favor of Teddymon. In 1998, Bandai released a follow-up virtual pet series known as Pendulums which features higher evolution levels and is the first to introduce the Jogress function which enable combination between certain type of digimons.
The pendulum is used to count the number of times. Five versions of the Digimon Pendulum were released, Nature Spirit for version 1, Deep Savers for version 2, Nightmare Soldier for version 3, Wind Guardian for version 4 and Metal Empire for version 5; each of these being followed by a 0.5 version which contained a slightly-altered character lineup. A Version 0 representing Virus Busters was later released. Pendulum Progress was the successor of the original Pendulum series. There are three in total; the character lineup on each is expanded and it retains the pendulum feature that became a series standard. The successor of the Pendulum Progress, the Pendulum X series, was released in 2003, it combined the RPG elements of the Digivice games with the standard pet-raising. Unlike its predecessors, the Pendulum X line was accompanied by a story titled Digimon Chronicle, told through prose text interspersed with short, non-sequitur six-page manga comics printed in the booklets. There were four "chapters", one sold with each progressive version of the Pendulum X.
In this storyline, the Digital World is controlled by an intelligent computer named Yggdrasil. Digimon have multiplied so much that Yggdrasil is unable to handle the load and the Digital Hazard occurs; this leads to the creation of the "New Digital World", which consists of three layers known as Urd and Skuld. Yggdrasil lets loose the Project Ark as well as the X Program to eliminate any Digimon it no longer wants. However, some Digimon adapt by obtaining a program called the X-Antibody, which strengthens them, changes their appearances, immunizes them against the X Program. Yggdrasil sends in the thirteen Royal Knights to keep order in the Digital World. After that, three human boys, Kouta and Shinji, find their way into the Digital World and meet their respective partner Digimon, Dorumon and Omnimon X. Kouta and Yuuji resist Yggdrasil and the Royal Knights, while Shinji sides with the computer and the thirteen Digimon. 15 years in 2019, the Manga received a sequel titled "Digimon Chronicle X", which followed the story of the Royal Knights and Seven Great Demon Lords fighting against each other in their X forms.
The Digimon Mini is modeled to the original pets but at a much smaller size. The character set has been minimized and functions are limited. For example, there is no status screen to view the Digimon's hunger; the player must feed it when it is hungry. The Mini uses the three-prong connector; the third Mini updates the character roster, expanding the available Digimon from 13 to 18. Digital Monster Ver. WonderSwan is a Japanese handheld version of the original Digimon pet for the WonderSwan, it includes all of the original Digimon from the first four virtual pet devices and the first pendulum device. In this game the player can have up
Dido, Queen of Carthage is a short play written by the English playwright Christopher Marlowe, with possible contributions by Thomas Nashe. It was written between 1587 and 1593, was first published in 1594; the story focuses on the classical figure of the Queen of Carthage. It tells an intense dramatic tale of Dido and her fanatical love for Aeneas, Aeneas' betrayal of her and her eventual suicide on his departure for Italy; the playwrights relied on Books 1, 2, 4 of Virgil's Aeneid as primary source. Dido – Queen of Carthage Aeneas – a Trojan royal hero, son of Anchises and the goddess Venus Ascanius – son of Aeneas Iarbas – King of Gaetulia, in love with Dido Achates – friend of Aeneas Ilioneus - Greek Slave Cloanthus Sergestus - Commander of the Five armies Anna – Dido's sister Jupiter Ganymede Cupid Mercury Venus Juno A Lord A Nurse - Dido's widowed elderly nurse other Trojans and Carthaginians servants and attendants Dido is based on books 1, 2 and 4 of The Aeneid, but the author makes several deviations from this material.
Pigman draws attention to how imitators'exploit... the historical distance between a text and its model', leading to'crucial departures from, sometimes criticisms of, the model'. Stump suggests that these changes in Queen of Carthage make a mockery of Aeneas, they notably include: Dido steals Aeneas's oars, preventing him from leaving. Aeneas dresses like a beggar, is unrecognisable when he first arrives. Aeneas reacts violently to recollections of Troy, is mad with grief over its loss. Aeneas is forced to beg Iarbus for help to space. Anna and Iarbus commit suicide. Jupiter is fondling Ganymede, who says that Jupiter's wife Juno has been mistreating him because of her jealousy. Venus enters, complains that Jupiter is neglecting her son Aeneas, who has left Troy with survivors of the defeated city. Aeneas is now lost in a storm. Jupiter tells her not to worry. Venus travels to Libya, where she disguises herself as a mortal and meets Aeneas, who has arrived, lost, on the coast, he and a few followers have become separated from their comrades.
He recognises her. She helps him meet up with Illioneus and Cloanthes, other surviving Trojans who have received generous hospitality from the local ruler Dido, Queen of Carthage. Dido promises to supply his ships, she asks him to give her the true story of the fall of Troy, which he does in detail, describing the death of Priam, the loss of his own wife and his escape with his son Ascanius and other survivors. Dido's suitor, presses her to agree to marry him, she seems to favour him. She disguises Cupid as Aeneas's son Ascanius, so that he can get close to Dido and touch her with his arrow, he does so. Dido's sister Anna, in love with Iarbas, encourages Dido to pursue Aeneas. Dido and Aeneas meet at a cave, they enter the cave to make love. Iarbas swears. Venus and Juno appear. Venus believes that Juno wants to harm her son, but Juno denies it, saying she has important plans for him. Aeneas's followers say. Aeneas seems to agree, prepares to depart. Dido sends Anna to find out, she brings Aeneas back.
Dido as a precaution removes all the sails and tackle from his ships. She places Ascanius in the custody of the Nurse, believing that Aeneas will not leave without him. However, "Ascanius" is the disguised Cupid. Dido says that Aeneas will be king of anyone who objects will be executed. Aeneas plans to build a new city to rival Troy and strike back at the Greeks. Mercury appears with the real Ascanius and informs Aeneas that his destiny is in Italy and that he must leave on the orders of Jupiter. Aeneas reluctantly accepts the divine command. Iarbas sees the opportunity to be rid of his rival and agrees to supply Aeneas with the missing tackle. Aeneas tells Dido, she pleads with him to ignore Jupiter's command. He departs; the Nurse says. Dido orders her to be imprisoned, she tells Iarbas and Anna that she intends to make a funeral pyre on which she will burn everything that reminds her of Aeneas. After cursing Aeneas' progeny, she throws herself into the fire. Iarbas, kills himself too. Anna, seeing Iarbas dead, kills herself.
The play was first published in 1594, a year after Marlowe's untimely death in Deptford, by the widow Orwin for the bookseller Thomas Woodcock, in Paul's Churchyard. The title page attributes the play to Marlowe and Nashe, states that the play was acted by the Children of the Chapel; that company of boy actors stopped regular dramatic performance in 1584, but appears to have engaged in at least sporadic performances in the late 1580s and early 1590s, so that scholars give a range of 1587–93 for the first performance of Dido. The nineteenth-century scholar Frederick Gard Fleay attempted to delineate the collaborators' respective shares in the text, assigned to Nashe these portions – Act I, scene i. However, subsequent critics have not concurred in this assessment, most notably the investigations of Knutowski, R. B. McKerrow, Tucker Brooke found little that they felt could be credited to Nashe. While Frederick S. Boas admitted a few detail