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Royal Aircraft Establishment

The Royal Aircraft Establishment was a British research establishment, known by several different names during its history, that came under the aegis of the UK Ministry of Defence, before losing its identity in mergers with other institutions. The first site was at Farnborough Airfield in Hampshire to, added a second site RAE Bedford in 1946. In 1988 it was renamed the Royal Aerospace Establishment before merging with other research entities to become part of the new Defence Research Agency in 1991. In 1904–1906 the Army Balloon Factory, part of the Army School of Ballooning, under the command of Colonel James Templer, relocated from Aldershot to the edge of Farnborough Common in order to have enough space to inflate the new "dirigible balloon" or airship, under construction. Templer's place was taken by Colonel John Capper and Templer himself retired in 1908. Besides balloons and airships, the factory experimented with Samuel Franklin Cody's war kites and aeroplanes designed both by Cody and J. W. Dunne.

In October 1908 Cody made the first aeroplane flight in Britain at Farnborough. In 1909 Army work on aeroplanes ceased and the Factory was brought under civilian control. Capper was replaced as Superintendent by Mervyn O'Gorman. In 1912 the Balloon Factory was renamed the Royal Aircraft Factory, its first new designer was Geoffrey de Havilland who founded his own company. Colleagues included John Kenworthy who became chief engineer and designer at the Austin Motor Company in 1918 and who went on to found the Redwing Aircraft Co in 1930 and Henry Folland – chief designer at Gloster Aircraft Company, founder of his own company Folland Aircraft. One of the designers in the engine department was Samuel Heron, who went on to invent the sodium-filled poppet valve, instrumental in achieving greater power levels from piston engines. While at the RAF, Heron designed a radial engine that he was not able to build during his time there, however upon leaving the RAF he went to Siddeley-Deasy where the design, the RAF.8, was developed as the Jaguar.

Heron moved to the United States where he worked on the design of the Wright Whirlwind. Other engineers included Major F. M. Green, G. S. Wilkinson, James E. "Jimmy" Ellor, Prof. A. H. Gibson, A. A. Griffith. Both Ellor and Griffith would go on to work for Rolls-Royce Limited. In 1918 the Royal Aircraft Factory was once more renamed, becoming the Royal Aircraft Establishment to avoid confusion with the Royal Air Force, formed on 1 April 1918, because it had relinquished its manufacturing role to concentrate on research. During WWII the Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment based at Helensburgh in Scotland, was under the control of the RAE. In 1946 work began to convert RAF Thurleigh into RAE Bedford. Engineers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment invented high strength carbon fibre in 1963. In 1961, the world's first grooved runway for reduced aquaplaning was constructed. In 1965, a US delegation visited to view the new surfacing practice and initiated a study by the FAA and NASA. On 1 May 1988 the RAE was renamed the Royal Aerospace Establishment.

On 1 April 1991 the RAE was merged into the Defence Research Agency, the MOD's new research organisation. On 1 April 1995 the DRA and other MOD organisations merged to form the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency; the Bedford site was shut down in 1994. In 2001 DERA was part-privatised by the MOD, resulting in two separate organisations, the state-owned Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, the privatised company QinetiQ. Between 1911 and 1918 the Royal Aircraft Factory produced a number of aircraft designs. Most of these were research aircraft, but a few went into mass production during the war period; some orders were met by the factory itself, but the bulk of production was by private British companies, some of which had not built aircraft. Up to about 1913 the designation letters referred to the general layout of the aircraft, derived from a French manufacturer or designer famous for that type: S. E. = Santos Experimental B. E. = Blériot Experimental F. E. = Farman Experimental From 1913/4 onwards this was changed to a designation based on the role for which the aircraft was designed: A.

E. = Armed or Armoured Experimental C. E. = Coastal Experimental F. E. = Fighting experimental N. E. = Night Experimental R. E. = Reconnaissance experimental S. E. = Scout experimental fast single-seat aircraft. The B. S. 1 of 1913 was a one-off anomaly. R. T. & T. E. were used for one off prototypes. Several aircraft were produced during the days as the Army Balloon Factory; these include the airships as well as the Dunne designs. Subsequent Royal Aircraft Factory type designations are confusing. For instance the "F. E.2" designation refers to three quite distinct types, with only the same broad layout in common, the F. E.2, the F. E.2, the famous wartime two-seat fighter and general purpose design, the F. E.2. This last aircraft was the one that went into production, had three main variants, the F. E.2a, F. E.2b, the F. E.2d. As if this wasn't enough, there is the F. E.2c. E.2b's that experimentally reversed the sea

Tengo Tanto

Tengo Tanto is an album recorded by Puerto Rican singer Manny Manuel. The album was released on 11 September 2007, in North America by Universal Music; the first single from the album was "No Me Hagas Sufrir". The second single was "Se me Olvido"; the video for "No Me Hagas Sufrir" premiered worldwide on the program Al Rojo Vivo con Maria Celeste. In New Orleans, the tropical interpreter shows vocal maturity in his new musical proposal. With the historic centre of the city as a stage, Manny Manuel filmed video of the song "No Me Hagas Sufrir". "Fuego" - 3:51 "Dejame Saber" - 3:03 "Se Me Olvido" - 3:24 "Yo Voy A Darte" - 3:30 "Tengo Tanto" - 3:24 "Sin Remedio" - 3:21 "A Una Mujer" - 3:55 "Ay Bendito" - 3:49 "La Fiesta" - 3:09 "No Me Hagas Sufrir" - 3:33'Tengo Tanto', Lo nuevo de MANNY MANUEL | terra Amazon.com: Tengo Tanto: Manny Manuel: Music CD Universe Sorry Manny Manuel filma video de'Tengo Tanto' | terra

Daniel Tzvetkoff

Daniel Kim Tzvetkoff is the founder of Intabill. He began his own web design business at the age of 13. At 16, he was animating cartoons for The New York Times website, he left school in 2000 having developed software for processing online payments securely just as a worldwide boom in Internet shopping was occurring globally. In 2004 Tzvetkoff teamed up with lawyer Sam Sciacca, a cousin of former federal Labor MP Con Sciacca, to run Intabill. Sciacca would handle the business side while Tzvetkoff focused on the software and product development. Intabill became one of the world's largest online billing companies, he appeared on the 2008 edition of the BRW Young Rich List. His business had grown "10 to 20 per cent" every month since its inception. Five thousand clients in 70 countries - many of them online gambling operators - were using the company's technology to take payments from customers. With the large amount of cash flow from processing Sciacca & Tzvetkoff began to make a number of large investments.

In early 2008 Tzvetkoff & Sciacca formed Hugo Services and Trendsact in partnership with Curtis Pope and John Scott Clark. The payday lender was named after Tzvetkoff’s son. Hugo Services was launched with over $27m USD in capital loaned from BT Projects the parent company of Intabill. Hugo was a runaway success, more than doubling in value over its initial nine months of operation to over $60 million. Hugo Services was formed Quid pro quo in exchange for Pope and Clark forming upstream processing relationships for Intabill, they would process the Poker transactions in exchange Intabill would invest in the payday lending partnership. Hugo Services was employed over 150 staff. With the huge success of both Intabill and the payday lending business Tzvetkoff & Sciacca began to invest in numerous properties and businesses. Both businesses continued to expand until late 2008. In late 2008 Intabill began to have cash flow issues with a number of upstream processors having large sums of funds frozen by the DOJ/FBI efforts to curb illegal online Poker.

In total Intabill had over $20 million frozen or forfeited due to processing for online Poker operators. Around the same time processing volumes began to decline and due to both of these issues Intabill was left owing more to its clients than it had cash flow. By early 2009 Tzvetkoff and Sciacca began to take drastic measures and made the decision to draw down profits from the Pay Day lending business to repay Intabill's clients. A repayment agreement was reached with key clients for a flat sum per week until the amount owing was paid in full. Intabill and Sciacca gave personal guarantees ensuring payment in full. Everything was going to plan until Intabill stopped receiving payments from the Payday lending entity. Unbeknown to Tzvetkoff and Sciacca, Pope had transferred the assets of the Payday lending business to entities that he and Clark controlled. In essence blocking any access to the funds required to pay back Intabill's clients. Sciacca and Intabill Executives urgently flew to Las Vegas to address the issue.

On arrival they were locked out of their own offices. Pope and Clark had secretly taken control of the business. Sciacca and Tzvetkoff low on funds, unable to repay their clients or take legal action enough against Pope & Clarke are forced to place Bt Projects into receivership. In 2009 US poker sites Full Tilt Poker and PokerStars complained. Full Tilt Poker sued Intabill claiming it had breached its pay down agreement and owed tens of millions of dollars. In late 2008 Sciacca and Tzvetkoff had hired a CFO, tasked with bringing Intabills books up to date; until early 2009 Sciacca & Tzvetkoff were unaware of the true financial position of the company. Operating costs had been far more as were the profits lower. In July 2009, Intabill collapsed. Sciacca sued Tzvetkoff for $100 million and claimed he'd mismanaged the company accounts and led Sciacca to believe the profits were higher than they in fact were. In mid-2009 Curtis Pope & John Scott Clark were arrested and reported Tzvetkoff as being involved to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for money laundering in connection with helping Full Tilt Poker, PokerStars, Absolute Poker process funds for United States players.

Pope was sentenced to 20 Months in Prison and was ordered to forfeit the funds he had siphoned from the Payday lending business. When Tzvetkoff arrived in Las Vegas for an internet billings conference in April 2010, he was arrested. After a few months in United States custody, facing a possible 75-year sentence for alleged UIGEA violations, he opted to become a government informant, his insider knowledge has allowed prosecutors in the Southern District of New York to file United States v. Scheinberg et al.. Team IntaRacing "Witness protection for Tzvetkoff". Sydney Morning Herald. 2011-04-22. Sullum, Jacob. "Getting Away With Poker: How is helping people play a card game like murder?". Reason. Toohey, Paul. "Web king behind FBI raids". The Courier-Mail. McKenna, Michael. "Arrests follow internet high-flyer's release". The Australian

Capital punishment in Michigan

Capital punishment in Michigan was legal from statehood in 1837 until it was abolished in 1846 for murder. Michigan is one of the few U. S. states never to have executed anyone following admission into the Union. Michigan's death penalty history is unusual, as Michigan was the first English-speaking government in the world to abolish the death penalty for ordinary crimes; the Michigan State Legislature voted to do so on May 18, 1846, which has remained in law since. Although the death penalty was formally retained as the punishment for treason until 1963, no person was tried for treason against Michigan. Thus, Michigan has not executed any person since statehood. With one exception, all executions in areas which are now part of the State of Michigan were performed before the state was admitted to the Union, when Michigan became the 26th State on January 26, 1837. About a dozen people are known to have been executed from 1683 to 1836; the area, now Michigan was part of colonial New France from 1612 to 1763, when the Treaty of Paris transferred New France to Great Britain.

It was part of 1763 to 1774 when it became part of the Province of Quebec. The Treaty of Paris, 1783 transferred the area to the new United States of America but Lower Michigan remained under British control until 1796, Upper Michigan until 1818. In this early period, there were a number of cases where persons who had committed a capital crime in Detroit were transported to Montreal for trial and execution; the first person known to be executed in Michigan was an Aboriginal North American named Folle-Avoine. The first person executed under US Jurisdiction was a Native American named Buhnah. Two women were executed in Michigan, both during the British colonial period – an unnamed Native American slave in 1763, a black slave named Ann Wyley in 1777, both when Michigan was under British jurisdiction. By race, seven of 15 were Native Americans; the 1830 hanging of a white tavern keeper, Stephen Gifford Simmons, who had in drunken fit killed his wife, generated more popular opposition to the death penalty than the prior hanging of Native Americans.

Simmons' was the last execution under Michigan law. Although Michigan had outlawed the death penalty after becoming a state, the United States Government hanged Anthony Chebatoris at the Federal Correctional Institution, Milan near Milan, Michigan in 1938, for a murder he had committed while robbing a federal bank in Midland; the death penalty has been unconstitutional in Michigan since the 1963 constitution became effective in 1964. The 2002 conviction of Marvin Gabrion received national attention when he was sentenced to death for the murder of Rachel Timmerman in Newaygo County, Michigan. Gabrion is suspected of four other killings but was never tried for them, including the murder of Rachel Timmerman's 11-month-old daughter Shannon Verhage. Prosecutors were able to use the dual sovereignty doctrine to seek a death sentence because the murder took place on federal land. Gabrion was the first person in the United States to receive the federal death penalty for a crime committed in a non-death penalty state since the federal death penalty was reinstated in 1988, as well as the first person to be sentenced to death in the state of Michigan since 1937.

The sentence was overturned in 2013 by a panel of the Sixth Circuit, but was reinstated 12–4 by the full court sitting en banc. List of people executed in Michigan Crime in Michigan Law of Michigan Chardavoyne, David G.. A Hanging in Detroit: Stephen G. Simmons and the Last Execution Under Michigan Law. Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press. Burton, Clarence M.. The city of Detroit, Michigan, 1701–1922. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Library. Retrieved 2007-09-08. Catlin, George B.. The story of Detroit. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library. Retrieved 2007-09-08

Economy of the British Empire

After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman. In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain; the following table gives gross domestic product estimates of the British Empire and its territories in 1870 and 1913, as a percentage of the world economy and the empire's economy, along with comparisons to the United States and Russian Empire. The British imperial territory with the largest economy in 1870 was British India, followed by the United Kingdom; the territory with the largest economy in 1913 was the United Kingdom, followed by British India. The table does not include GDP estimates for British African territories other than British Egypt.

Demographics of the British Empire Economic history of the United Kingdom Economy of India under Company rule Economy of India under the British Raj

Breznica pod Lubnikom

Breznica pod Lubnikom is a village in the Municipality of Škofja Loka in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia. Breznica pod Lubnikom is a village with a clustered core on the south slope of Mount Lubnik, it included the hamlets and isolated farms of Dolinček, Potočnik, Pri Nacetu, Zalubnikar, Žerinc. The Breznica Gorge lies to the east, the Potočnik Gorge to the northwest below Pleše Hill, the Sopotnik Gorge to the west below Hoje Hill; the village is connected by road to Podpulfrca in the Poljane Sora Valley to the southeast. The name of the settlement was changed from Breznica to Breznica pod Lubnikom in 1953; the name is derived from the common noun breza'birch'. Like similar toponyms in Slovenia, it referred to the local vegetation. Ancient settlement in the area is attested by the discovery of Neolithic artifacts above the village in Lubnik Cave on the south slope of Mount Lubnik. During the Second World War, the Partisans Peter Kavčič and Danila Kumar named a People's Hero of Yugoslavia, were killed in fighting here.

They are commemorated by a monument. Breznica pod Lubnikom is the site of an unmarked grave from the Second World War; the Breznica Grave is located on a steep slope 10 m below the road northwest of the village. It contains the remains of the civilian Gabrijela Lukanc, whom the Partisans abducted from her home in Puštal and murdered after several days. Notable people that were born or lived in Breznica pod Lubnikom include: Frank J. Kern, editor and physician Lovro Sušnik, philologist Media related to Breznica pod Lubnikom at Wikimedia Commons Breznica pod Lubnikom at Geopedia