South London is the southern part of London, England. Situated south of the River Thames, it includes the historic districts of Southwark, Lambeth and Greenwich. South London emerged from Southwark, first recorded as Suthriganaweorc, meaning "fort of the men of Surrey". From Southwark, London extended further down into northern Surrey and western Kent. South London consists of 11 whole boroughs, plus Richmond which includes land on both sides of the river, with part of its Twickenham district lying north of the river. South London began at Southwark at the southern end of London Bridge, the first permanent crossing over the river, with the initial development of the area being a direct result of the existence and location of the bridge. In 1720, John Strype’s ‘Survey of London’ described Southwark as one of the four distinct areas of London; the area now referred to as North London developed later. As late as the mid 18th century, there were no other bridges crossing the river and as a result urban growth was slower in the south than in areas north of the Thames.
The opening of Westminster Bridge and other subsequent bridges to the west encouraged growth in the south-west, but only Tower Bridge was built to the east of London Bridge, so south-east London grew more at least until the Surrey Commercial Docks were built. The development of a dense network of railway lines in the mid nineteenth century accelerated growth. A significant feature of south London’s economic geography is that while there are more than thirty bridges linking the area with West London and the City, there is only one, Tower Bridge, linking the area with East London. Little of London’s underground rail network lies south of the river due to the challenging geology, however 21st century technology makes tunnelling much cheaper than before and this may well lead to an improved underground provision in south London with the Crossrail 2 line proposed alongside extensions to the Northern and Bakerloo Lines. South London contains a extensive overground rail network and all of London’s trams operate within the area.
The 12 boroughs included, in whole or part are: The term ‘south London' has been used for a variety of formal purposes with the boundaries defined according to the purposes of the designation. In 2013 the government asked the Boundary Commission for England to reconsider the boundaries of parliamentary constituencies; the Commission's study, was to start with existing regions of England and group the local authorities within that area into sub-regions for further sub-division. The south London sub-region included all 12 boroughs which lay in part south of the river; the recommendations of the report were not adopted, the 2017 study has taken a different approach. For the purposes of progress reporting on the London Plan, there was a south London sub-region in operation from 2004 to 2008 consisting of Bromley, Kingston, Merton and Sutton. In 2001 this area had a population of 1,329,000; this definition is used by organisations such as Connexions. Between 2008 and 2011 it was replaced with a South East sub-region consisting of Southwark, Greenwich and Bromley and a South West sub-region consisting of Croydon, Lambeth, Sutton and Wandsworth.
In 2011 a new south London region was created consisting of Bromley, the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames, Sutton, Bexley and Lewisham. South London is, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Three Met Office weather stations collect climate data south of the river. Long term climate observations dating back to 1763 are available for Greenwich, although observations ceased here in 2003. Temperatures increase towards the Thames, firstly because of the urban warming effect of the surrounding area, but secondly due to altitude decreasing towards the river, meaning the southern margins of south London are a couple of degrees cooler than those areas adjacent to the Thames. Snow can be seen to lie on the North Downs near Croydon when central London is snow free; the record high temperature at Greenwich is 37.5 °C recorded during August 2003. Sunshine is notably lower than other London area weather stations, suggesting Greenwich may be a fog trap in winter, that the hillier land to the south may obscure early morning and late evening sunshine.
The highest temperature recorded across south London was 38.1 °C on the same occasion at Kew Gardens. Although the Met Office accepts a higher reading from Brogdale in Kent, many have questioned the accuracy of this and regard the Kew reading as the most reliable highest UK temperature reading. South Bank Time Out editors. "North London v South London – The debate". Time Out London. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Alan Rutter and Peter Watts. "North London v South London – The debate". Time Out London
Falconwood is an area of south east London within both the London Boroughs of Bexley and Greenwich. It is located south west of Welling. Falconwood forms part of the Falconwood and Welling ward in the London Borough of Bexley, borders the Eltham North and Eltham South wards in the Royal Borough of Greenwich. Falconwood is served by one National Rail train station. Falconwood station, opened in 1936, is served by Southeastern on the Bexleyheath Line; the station is situated in London Travelcard Zone 4. The Green Chain walking network runs through Shepherdleas Wood, Oxleas Wood, Eltham Common, Eltham Park North and Eltham Park South. All these wooded and open areas are accessible via footpaths from Rochester Way, Welling Way and Riefield Road. Falconwood Community Centre, next to Falconwood Park, was opened in 1954; the Falconwood Community Association meets here 5 times a week along with many other groups. The Falconwood and District Horticultural Society stages the Annual Fruit and Vegetable Show on the third Saturday in August.
In 2008 the Mayor of Bexley, Falconwood & Welling Councillor Nigel Betts, inaugurated the Community Centre as the local Children's Centre. The Falconwood Park Estate was designed and constructed by housing developers Ideal Homesteads in the 1930s. Situated between Welling and Eltham, the estate occupies the site of the former Westwood Farm. Regarding housing styles, the majority of the estate consists of semi-detached and terraced houses, with bungalows scattered across the roads within the estate. There are flats above the shops on Falconwood Parade. There are 3/4 storey blocks of flats on Lingfield Crescent, at the corner of Rochester Way and Riefield Road, near the A2 and Eltham Cemetery & Crematorium. Maisonettes are on Millbrook Avenue. See London Borough of Bexley and Royal Borough of Greenwich education services. Bishop Ridley CofE Primary School Harris Academy Falconwood Westwood College Stationers' Crown Woods Academy Bishop Ridley CofE Primary School was Westwood Primary School until Westwood Primary Schoolit became a Church of England school.
Westwood Primary School was formed from two separate schools - Westwood Infant & Junior Schools in the late 1990s. Harris Academy Falconwood is an academy sponsored by the Harris Federation; the academy occupied the original secondary school and the old junior school buildings, but was replaced by a £27 million new school in 2011 built on some of the old playing fields. Stationers' Crown Woods Academy is an academy sponsored by the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers, it is located in a £50million rebuilt school building and community learning facility that opened on 26 April 2011. Falconwood forms part of 2 post codes; these being: Bexley - DA16 - The rest of DA16 being formed by Welling and East Wickham. Greenwich - SE9 - The rest of SE9 being formed by Eltham, New Eltham and Mottingham; the SE9 roads in Bexley became part of LB Bexley under the 1994 boundary change. The Royal Mail have refused many attempts to change the postcode of these roads to DA16. Nearest train stations Falconwood, Lingfield Crescent, London, SE9 2RN.
Eltham, Well Hall Road, London, SE9 6SL. Welling, Station Approach, London, DA16 3AU. Central London bound, trains run to London Bridge, London Waterloo East, London Charing Cross, London Victoria and London Cannon Street. Travelling away from London, trains terminate at Dartford, but with some trains terminating before reaching Kent: at Barnehurst, Crayford or Slade Green. There are less frequent services for further into Kent, with most services requiring alighting and changing at Dartford. 621 - Lewisham station - Avery Hill. 624 - Grove Park - Welling Corner, for Welling station. B15 - Horn Park - Bexleyheath Shopping Centre. B16 - Kidbrooke station / Kidbrooke Ferrier Estate - Bexleyheath Bus Garage. Falconwood is a junction on the A2. London bound on the A2 will lead to the A102, the Blackwall Tunnel under the River Thames to the A12 in East London, unless changing onto the old A2 at the Sun In The Sands junction; the London bound A2 isn't accessible directly from Falconwood. Access is from the Eltham junction with the South Circular.
The Kent bound A2 is accessible from Falconwood. Rochester Way leads to Eltham town centre. Turning right at the junction with Welling Way will lead to Shoulder of Mutton Green and Welling town centre. In the opposite direction, Rochester Way will lead to the dual carriageway Kent-bound A2, unless bearing right on Riefield Road; this leads to Avery Hill, Eltham town centre. Lingfield Crescent leads towards the Falconwood Park Estate, Falconwood Park and Welling town centre. Lingfield Crescent. Falconwood Parade, The Green. Both Welling and Eltham town centres are very accessible. Eltham Common Eltham Park north Eltham Park south Falconwood Field Falconwood Park Oxleas Meadow Oxleas Wood Shepherdleas Wood
A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders as a distribution of profits. When a corporation earns a profit or surplus, the corporation is able to re-invest the profit in the business and pay a proportion of the profit as a dividend to shareholders. Distribution to shareholders may be in cash or, if the corporation has a dividend reinvestment plan, the amount can be paid by the issue of further shares or share repurchase; when dividends are paid, shareholders must pay income taxes, the corporation does not receive a corporate income tax deduction for the dividend payments. A dividend is allocated as a fixed amount per share with shareholders receiving a dividend in proportion to their shareholding. For the joint-stock company, paying dividends is not an expense. Retained earnings are shown in the shareholders' equity section on the company's balance sheet – the same as its issued share capital. Public companies pay dividends on a fixed schedule, but may declare a dividend at any time, sometimes called a special dividend to distinguish it from the fixed schedule dividends.
Cooperatives, on the other hand, allocate dividends according to members' activity, so their dividends are considered to be a pre-tax expense. The word "dividend" comes from the Latin word "dividendum". In financial history of the world, the Dutch East India Company was the first recorded company to pay regular dividends; the VOC paid annual dividends worth around 18 percent of the value of the shares for 200 years of existence. Cash dividends are the most common form of payment and are paid out in currency via electronic funds transfer or a printed paper check; such dividends are a form of investment income and are taxable to the recipient in the year they are paid. This is the most common method of sharing corporate profits with the shareholders of the company. For each share owned, a declared amount of money is distributed. Thus, if a person owns 100 shares and the cash dividend is 50 cents per share, the holder of the stock will be paid $50. Dividends paid are not classified as an expense, but rather a deduction of retained earnings.
Dividends paid does appear on the balance sheet. Stock or scrip dividends are those paid out in the form of additional stock shares of the issuing corporation, or another corporation, they are issued in proportion to shares owned. Nothing tangible will be gained if the stock is split because the total number of shares increases, lowering the price of each share, without changing the market capitalization, or total value, of the shares held. Stock dividend distributions do not affect the market capitalization of a company. Stock dividends are not includable in the gross income of the shareholder for US income tax purposes; because the shares are issued for proceeds equal to the pre-existing market price of the shares. Property dividends or dividends in specie are those paid out in the form of assets from the issuing corporation or another corporation, such as a subsidiary corporation, they are rare and most are securities of other companies owned by the issuer, however they can take other forms, such as products and services.
Interim dividends are dividend payments made before a company's Annual General Meeting and final financial statements. This declared dividend accompanies the company's interim financial statements. Other dividends can be used in structured finance. Financial assets with a known market value can be distributed as dividends. For large companies with subsidiaries, dividends can take the form of shares in a subsidiary company. A common technique for "spinning off" a company from its parent is to distribute shares in the new company to the old company's shareholders; the new shares can be traded independently. The most popular metric to determine the dividend coverage is the payout ratio. Most the payout ratio is calculated based on earnings per share: Payout ratio = x 100A payout ratio greater than 1 means the company is paying out more in dividends for the year than it earned. Dividends are paid in cash. On the other hand, earnings are an accountancy measure and do not represent the actual cash-flow of a company.
Hence, a more liquidity-driven way to determine the dividend’s safety is to replace earnings by free cash flow. The free cash flow represents the company’s available cash based on its operating business after investments: Payout Ratio = x 100 A dividend, declared must be approved by a company's board of directors before it is paid. For public companies, four dates are relevant regarding dividends:Declaration date — the day the board of directors announces its intention to pay a dividend. On that day, a liability is created and the company records that liability on its books. In-dividend date — the last day, one trading day before the ex-dividend date, where the stock is said to be cum dividend. In other words, existing holders of the stock and anyone who buys it on this day will receive the dividend, whereas any holders selling the stock lose their right to t
Woolwich Dockyard was an English naval dockyard along the river Thames at Woolwich in north-west Kent, where a large number of ships were built from the early 16th century until the late 19th century. William Camden called it'the Mother Dock of all England'. By virtue of the size and quantity of vessels built there, Woolwich Dockyard is described as having been'among the most important shipyards of seventeenth-century Europe'. During the Age of Sail, the yard continued to be used for shipbuilding and repair work more or less consistently. At its largest extent it filled a 56-acre site north of Woolwich Church Street, between Warspite Road and New Ferry Approach; the former dockyard area is now residential industrial, with remnants of its historic past having been restored. Woolwich Dockyard was founded by King Henry VIII in 1512 to build his flagship Henri Grâce à Dieu, the largest ship of its day; the ship was built in Old Woolwich, where the dockyard was established: past Bell Water Gate, east of the area known as Woolwich Dockyard.
The site consisted of one or more rudimentary dry docks, a long storehouse and a small assortment of other buildings. Like its counterpart Deptford Dockyard, Woolwich was chosen for its position - on the south bank of the tidal River Thames conveniently close to Henry's palace at Greenwich - and for its proximity to deep water. Several other ships were built here after Great Harry, but in the 1520s shipbuilding appears to have ceased. By 1540, the royal shipwrights had begun operating on higher ground further to the west at what was to become the permanent site of the Dockyard, where a pair of dry docks formed the centre of operations; the site was purchased by the Crown in 1546 and in the second half of the century several sizeable ships were built there. The yard was used for heavy repair work; the two dry docks were rebuilt in the early 17th century and the western dock was expanded, enabling it to accommodate two ships, end to end. In the years that followed, the dockyard was expanded. There were houses on site for the senior officers of the yard.
A clock house was built in 1670 and in 1698 a palatial Great Storehouse was erected. Apart from the brick-built mast house and Great Storehouse, the buildings were entirely of timber construction; as at other Royal Dockyards, the Ordnance Office maintained a Gun Wharf at Woolwich for storage and provision of guns and ammunition for the ships based there. The Gun Wharf was sited east of Bell Water Gate, it was here that Woolwich Dockyard had been founded in 1512 and the Great Harry was built in 1515. Gun carriage repair was undertaken on site. Use of the Gun Wharf was shared with the nearby Royal Ropeyard, which maintained a storehouse there for hemp and other materials; the wharf and its buildings were improved and rebuilt at regular points through the 16th and 17th centuries. The wharf was still subject to frequent flooding and from the 1650s the Board of Ordnance began to make use of open land at Tower Place, to the east of the Gun Wharf, as a site for proving and storing cannons and other large guns.
Known as'The Warren', this was the beginning of what would become the Woolwich Royal Arsenal. The Ordnance Office withdrew from Gun Wharf in 1671, but the Ropeyard continued to make use of the wharf and its associated storehouses into the 19th century. In the 1570s the Crown established a naval Ropeyard in Woolwich, one of the largest in the world at the time. Too long to fit within the confines of the Dockyard, its parallel sheds lay along the line of present-day Beresford Street; as first built it consisted of a 600ft'cable house' along with a series of sheds accommodating different parts of the ropemaking process. In 1695-7 the ropeyard was rebuilt, under the supervision of Edmund Dummer. Parts of the yard had to be rebuilt after a fire in 1759, again after another fire in 1813; the ropeyard remained in service until 1832, by which time similar establishments in other Royal Dockyards had begun to come to the fore. The fortunes of the yard had waned toward the end of the seventeenth century.
Charles Booth (social reformer)
Charles James Booth was an English social researcher and reformer known for his innovative work in documenting working class life in London at the end of the 19th century. His work, along with that of Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree, influenced government intervention against poverty in the early 20th century and contributed to the creation of Old Age pensions and free school meals for the poorest children. Charles Booth was born in Liverpool, Lancashire on 30 March 1840 to Charles Booth and Emily Fletcher, his father was a wealthy corn merchant as well as being a prominent Unitarian. He attended the Royal Institution School in Liverpool before being apprenticed in the family business at the age of sixteen. Booth married Mary Macaulay in niece of the historian Thomas Babington Macaulay, she was a cousin of the Fabian socialist and author Beatrice Webb. They had 3 sons and 4 daughters, his eldest daughter Antonia married the Hon Sir Malcolm Macnaghten, others married into the Ritchie and Gore Browne families.
Booth's father died in 1860. He entered the skins and leather business with his elder brother Alfred, they set up Alfred Booth and Company with offices in Liverpool and New York City using a £20,000 inheritance. After learning the shipping trades, Booth was able to persuade Alfred and his sister Emily to invest in steamships and established a service to Pará, Maranhão and Ceará in Brazil. Booth himself went on the first voyage to Brazil on 14 February 1866, he was involved in the building of a harbour at Manaus which overcame seasonal fluctuations in water levels. Booth described this as his "monument" when he visited Manaus for the last time in 1912. Booth was critical of the existing statistical data on poverty. By analysing census returns he argued that they were unsatisfactory and sat on a committee in 1891 which suggested improvements which could be made to them. Booth publicly criticised the claims of the leader of the Social Democratic Federation H. M. Hyndman – leader of Britain's first socialist party.
In the Pall Mall Gazette of 1885, Hyndman stated. Booth investigated poverty in London, working with a team of investigators which included his cousin Beatrice Potter and the chapter on women's work was conducted by the budding economist Clara Collet; this research, which looked at incidences of pauperism in the East End of London, showed that 35% were living in abject poverty – higher than the original figure. This work was published under the title Life and Labour of the People in 1889. A second volume, entitled Labour and Life of the People, covering the rest of London, appeared in 1891. Booth popularised the idea of a'poverty line', a concept conceived by the London School Board. Booth set this line at 10 to 20 shillings, which he considered to be the minimum amount necessary for a family of 4 or 5 people to subsist. After the first two volumes were published Booth expanded his research; this investigation was carried out by his team of researchers. Nonetheless Booth continued to operate his successful shipping business while these investigations were taking place.
The fruit of this research was a second expanded edition of his original work, published as Life and Labour of the People in London in nine volumes between 1892 and 1897. A third edition appeared 1902-3, he used this work to argue for the introduction of Old Age Pensions which he described as "limited socialism". Booth argued. Booth was far from tempted by the ideals of socialism, but had sympathy with the working classes and, as part of his investigations, he took lodgings with working-class families and recorded his thoughts and findings in his diaries; the London School of Economics keeps his work on an online searchable database. Booth's 1902 study included antisemitic references to the impact of Jewish immigration, comparing it to the "slow rising of a flood" and that "no Gentile could live in the same house with these poor foreign Jews, as neighbours they are unpleasant. Although Jews were statistically only a small part of the cigar trade in the United Kingdom, Booth saw the trade as "almost in the hands of the Jewish community" in the East End.
Life and Labour of the People in London can be seen as one of the founding texts of British sociology, drawing on both quantitative methods and qualitative methods. Because of this, it was an influence on Chicago School sociology and the discipline of community studies associated with the Institute of Community Studies in East London; the importance of Booth's work in social statistics was recognised by the Royal Statistical Society, which in 1892 elected him president and awarded him the first Guy Medal in Gold. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1899. Booth had some involvement in politics, although he canvassed unsuccessfully as the Liberal parliamentary candidate in the General Election of 1865. Following the Conservative Party victory in municipal elections in 1866, his interest in active politics waned; this result changed Booth's attitudes, he foresaw that he could influence people more by educating the electorate, rather than by being a representative in Parliament. He rejected subsequent offers from Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone of elevation to the House of Lords as a Peer.
Co-operative Women's Guild
The Co-operative Women's Guild was an auxiliary organisation of the co-operative movement in the United Kingdom which promoted women in co-operative structures and provided social and other services to its members. The guild was founded in 1883 by Alice Acland, who edited the "Women's Corner" of the Co-operative News, Mary Lawrenson, a teacher who suggested the creation of an organization to promote instructional and recreational classes for mothers and girls. Acland began organizing a Women's League for the Spread of Co-operation which held its first formal meeting of 50 women at the 1883 Co-operative Congress in Edinburgh and established local branches, it began as an organization dedicated to spreading the co-operative movement, but soon expanded beyond the retail-based focus of the movement to organizing political campaigns on women's issues including health and suffrage. In 1884 the league changed its name to the Women's Co-operative Guild and to the Co-operative Women's Guild. In 1899, Margaret Llewelyn Davies was elected general secretary of the Guild and was credited with increasing the success of the Guild.
By 1910 it had 32,000 members. Maternity benefits were included in the National Insurance Act 1911 because of the guild's pressure; the guild became more politically active, expanded its work beyond the British Isles. After World War I the guild became more involved in peace activism, concentrating on the social and political conditions that encouraged or gave rise to war, as well as opposition to the arms trade. In 1933 they introduced the White Poppy as a pacifist alternative to the British Legion's annual red poppy appeal. At this time membership of the guild was with 1,500 branches and 72,000 members; the guild continues with several local branches, although it does not have the visibility within the co-operative movement it once did. The National Cooperative Women's Guild closed after 133 years on 25 June 2016. 1883: Alice Acland 1885: Mary Lawrenson 1889: Margaret Llewelyn Davies 1922: Honora Enfield 1927: Eleanor Barton 1937: Rose Simpson 1940: Cecily Cook 1953: Mabel Ridealgh 1963: Kathleen Kempton 1983: Diane Paskin Sue Bell 2005: Claire Morgan 2011: Colette Harber Official website Centenary history CWG Archive at the National Co-operative Archive CWG Archive at the Bishopsgate Institute CWG Archive at LSE Archives
Powis Street is a pedestrianised shopping street in Woolwich in the Royal Borough of Greenwich, south east London, England. It was laid out in the late 18th century and was named after the Powis brothers, who developed most of the land in this part of the town; the street has been rebuilt several times but has retained some notable examples of late-Victorian and Art Deco architecture. Powis Street is situated in central Woolwich, to the south of, more or less parallel to the main thoroughfare, the A206 dual carriageway, locally known as Woolwich High Street and Beresford Street; the western end of the street meets the South Circular Road at Parson's Hill. At its eastern end are the town's two main squares, Beresford Square and General Gordon Square; this is where Woolwich Arsenal railway and DLR stations are situated and where the future Crossrail station is being built. Since the pedestrianisation of the street, busses are only allowed to pass through a small section of the street but there are many busstops in the vicinity around the stations.
A large multi-storey carpark exists in Monk Street / Calderwood Street. Other car parks are available in Macbean Street. Up to the late 18th century, the military and naval town of Woolwich was situated along the High Street, to the north of that street along the banks of the river Thames, crammed in between Woolwich Dockyard and The Warren. Most shops in Old Woolwich would have been with a market at Market Hill. After numerous redevelopments little of historic value remains here; the area that presently forms the commercial heart of Woolwich - south of Old Woolwich, around Powis Street, Beresford Square and General Gordon Square - was still rural, with a small cluster of cottages around Green's End and the so-called New Road. To the north and east of the future Powis Street were some gardens; as the town was growing - from 6,500 in 1720 to 17,000 in 1811 - the need arose for a new town centre and the obvious location was the area south of the ropeyard, more or less between the old town and the main entrance of the Arsenal.
In 1782, the Powis brothers, Greenwich brewers, took a lease of 43 acres of these fields which were part of the Bowater Estate. Shortly afterwards a road was laid out here, it connected Green's End and the parish church of St Mary Magdalene, providing an alternative to the busy High Street. The artist Paul Sandby, who lived in Woolwich, painted the road in its earliest appearance. A watercolour of 1783 shows the road from Green's End as no more than a dirt track. Another watercolour by Sandby shows the same area from the west with the ropeyard visible to the north of the road. An octagonal house stood at its west end an outbuilding of the Dog Yard brewery on the High Street, or a lavoir. A laundress lived there in 1841. In 1853 it was demolished; as the lease that the Powis brothers took out was only for 22 years, the land was not profitable for development and, apart from the road little happened until 1799, when a 99-year development lease was signed. Plans were made to fill in the entire area of 43 acres with houses.
In fact, work had started in 1798. In less than 30 years the project would be completed, presenting Woolwich with a municipal precinct, the area now known as Bathway Quarter, a new shopping precinct, the Powis and Hare Street area; the development of the Powis estate went smoothly during the Napoleonic Wars, because in Woolwich wartime brought prosperity. In 1810 there were 141 houses in Powis Street; the long period of peace after the Battle of Waterloo brought population decline. Powis Street was in 1821 the first street to be finished, with a total of 158 houses built. Most houses were two storeys high three; the narrowest frontages measured 4.3 m. Some were put up by shipwrights from Woolwich Dockyard, sub-leased. From the beginning there were shops in Powis Street. After rebuilding Kent House in the 1830s, Garrett's, a draper's, was the largest shop. There were several chapels, a Freemasons' hall, a theater and a number of public houses, two of which, the Shakespeare and the Star & Garter, were owned by the Powis brothers.
In the late 1840s around 1,000 people lived in Powis Street. Most shops were at the east end of the street, close to Woolwich market and the railway station, which opened in 1849. At this time Woolwich was considered "the emporium for all the surrounding towns and villages". Compared to the High Street, Powis Street shops were fashionable. In 1827 Henry Hudson Church was born in Powis Street. Church became a prominent surveyor in Woolwich. In the early 1860s he laid out new streets in the area between Powis Street and the Bathway Quarter, where the railway had cut through; the streets were all named after members of the Powis family: Monk Street, Clara Place and Eleanor Road. In the 1890s Church was responsible for the rebuilding of most of the commercial buildings in Powis Street, his style has been characterized as "conservative but eclectic, clumsy but lively". The redevelopment of Powis street was stimulated, strangely enough, by the impending end of the Powis lease in 1898; the owner of the freehold, Maj. Robert Alexander Ogilby, encouraged rebuilding by granting favourable new leases to those who did.
Around 1890, 75% of the buildings in Powis Street were commercial, although exclusively so. There were 39 drapers' and milliners' shops in central Woolwich, most of them in Powis S