Astronomy & Geophysics
Astronomy & Geophysics is a scientific journal and trade magazine published on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society by Oxford University Press. It publishes a mixture of content of interest to astronomers and geophysicists: news reports, topical reviews, historical investigations, meeting reports and updates on the activities of the RAS. Full-length articles are peer reviewed. A&G was formed in 1997 as a'glossy' replacement for the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. Since its inception and as of 2018 the editor is Sue Bowler of the University of Leeds; the journal covers astronomy, cosmology, planetary science, solar-terrestrial physics and regional geophysics, the history of these subjects. It publishes thematic articles regarding interdisciplinary research, science policy, opinions and book and software reviews. Royal Astronomical Society communications about events and people and obituaries are within this journal's purview. Furthermore, in keeping with the tradition of the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, it publishes discussions of fundamental science and scientific debates.
The journal functions as a channel of communication between the membership, the Council, the Society's Officers. Contributions to Astronomy & Geophysics are not restricted to RAS members; the journal is abstracted and indexed in: Academic Search Current Contents/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences InfoTrac Meteorological & Geoastrophysical Abstracts ProQuest 5000 Science Citation Index ScopusAccording to the 2010 Journal Citation Reports, the journal has an impact factor of 0.339, ranking it 51st out of 54 journals in the category "Astronomy & Astrophysics" and 72nd out of 77 in the category "Geochemistry & Geophysics". The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society was published by the Royal Astronomical Society from September 1960 to December 1996, was produced by Blackwell Science in its period. During that time 37 volumes were issued; the journal included articles reviewing modern astronomy or geophysics, discussions about research topics, meeting reports, contributions about the history of science, reports of astronomical research groups and institutes.
It gave less emphasis to detailed scientific research papers, which instead were published in the society's Monthly Notices.. Before 1960 the Royal Astronomical Society had published proceedings of its activities in its Monthly Notices alongside research papers, published research reviews in its Occasional Notes; the Quarterly Journal was established in 1960 to free the Monthly Notices to concentrate on original research, the Occasional Notes were discontinued. David Dewhirst, 1960–1965 C. Andrew Murray, 1965–1970 A. Jack Meadows, 1970–1975 Simon Mitton, 1976–1980 David W. Hughes, 1981–1985 George H. A. Coles, 1986–1991 Robert C. Smith, 1992–1995 David W. Hughes, 1996; the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society was indexed in: GeoRef International Aerospace Abstracts Computer & Control Abstracts Electrical & Electronics Abstracts Physics Abstracts. Science Abstracts. Series A Chemical AbstractsAll articles are indexed, with abstracts, in the Astrophysics Data System, which includes scans of all pages.
The ADS bibliographic code is QJRAS. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Geophysical Journal International Official website
Piccadilly is a road in the City of Westminster, London to the south of Mayfair, between Hyde Park Corner in the west and Piccadilly Circus in the east. It is part of the A4 road that connects central London to Hammersmith, Earl's Court, Heathrow Airport and the M4 motorway westward. St James's is to the south of the eastern section, while the western section is built up only on the northern side. Piccadilly is just under 1 mile in length, is one of the widest and straightest streets in central London; the street has been a main thoroughfare since at least medieval times, in the Middle Ages was known as "the road to Reading" or "the way from Colnbrook". Around 1611 or 1612, a Robert Baker acquired land in the area, prospered by making and selling piccadills. Shortly after purchasing the land, he enclosed it and erected several dwellings, including his home, Pikadilly Hall. What is now Piccadilly was named Portugal Street in 1663 after Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, grew in importance after the road from Charing Cross to Hyde Park Corner was closed to allow the creation of Green Park in 1668.
Some of the most notable stately homes in London were built on the northern side of the street during this period, including Clarendon House and Burlington House in 1664. Berkeley House, constructed around the same time as Clarendon House, was destroyed by a fire in 1733 and rebuilt as Devonshire House in 1737 by William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire, it was used as the main headquarters for the Whig party. Burlington House has since been home to several noted societies, including the Royal Academy of Arts, the Geological Society of London and the Royal Astronomical Society. Several members of the Rothschild family had mansions at the western end of the street. St James's Church was consecrated in 1684 and the surrounding area became St James Parish; the Old White Horse Cellar, at No. 155, was one of the most famous coaching inns in England by the late 18th century, by which time the street had become a favoured location for booksellers. The Bath Hotel emerged around 1790, Walsingham House was built in 1887.
Both the Bath and the Walsingham were purchased and demolished, the prestigious Ritz Hotel built on their site in 1906. Piccadilly Circus station, at the east end of the street, was opened in 1906 and rebuilt to designs by Charles Holden between 1925 and 1928; the clothing store Simpson's was established at Nos. 203–206 Piccadilly by Alec Simpson in 1936. During the 20th century, Piccadilly became known as a place to acquire heroin, was notorious in the 1960s as the centre of London's illegal drug trade. Today, it is regarded as one of London's principal shopping streets, its landmarks include the Ritz, Park Lane and Intercontinental hotels, Fortnum & Mason, the Royal Academy, the RAF Club, the Embassy of Japan and the High Commission of Malta. Piccadilly has inspired several works of fiction, including Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest and the work of P. G. Wodehouse, it is one of a group of squares on the London Monopoly board. The street has been part of a main road for centuries, although there is no evidence that it was part of a Roman road, unlike Oxford Street further north.
In the Middle Ages it was known as "the road to Reading" or "the way from Colnbrook". During the Tudor period settled conditions made expansion beyond London's city walls a safer venture. Property speculation became a lucrative enterprise, developments grew so that the threat of disease and disorder prompted the government to ban developments. Owing to the momentum of growth, the laws had little real effect. A plot of land bounded by Coventry, Sherwood and Rupert streets and the line of Smith's Court was granted by Elizabeth I to William Dodington, a gentleman of London, in 1559–60. A year or so it was owned by a brewer, Thomas Wilson of St Botolph-without-Aldgate; the grant did not include a small parcel of land, 1 3⁄8 acres in area, on the east of what is now Great Windmill Street. That plot may have never belonged to the Crown, was owned by Anthony Cotton in the reign of Henry VIII. John Cotton granted it to John Golightly in 1547, his descendants sold it to a tailor, Robert Baker, in c. 1611–12.
Six or seven years Baker bought 22 acres of Wilson's land, thanks to money from his second marriage. Baker became financially successful by selling fashionable piccadills. Shortly after purchasing the land, he enclosed it and erected several dwellings, including a residence and shop for himself. A map published by Faithorne in 1658 describes the street as "the way from Knightsbridge to Piccadilly Hall". A nearby gaming house, known as Shaver's Hall and nicknamed "Tart Hall" or "Pickadell Hall", was popular with the gentry of London. Lord Dell lost £3000 gambling at cards there in 1641. After Robert Baker's death in 1623 and the death of his eldest son Samuel shortly afterward, his widow and her father purchased the wardship of their surviving children, their only daughter died, her widower Sir Henry Oxenden retained an interest in the land. Several relatives claimed it, but after Mary Baker's death in about 1665, the estate reverted to the Crown. A great-nephew, John Baker, obtained possession of part of it, but squabbled over the lands with his cousin, James Baker.
By the 1670s, Panton was developing the lands. Piccadilly was named Port
A research library is a library which contains an in-depth collection of material on one or several subjects. A research library will include primary sources as well as secondary sources. Large university libraries are considered research libraries, contain many specialized branch research libraries. Research libraries can be either reference libraries, which do not lend their holdings, or lending libraries, which do lend all or some of their holdings; some large or traditional research libraries are reference in this sense, lending none of their material. S. now lend books, but not other material. Academic library Trends in library usage Research Libraries Group JSTOR Saunders, Wilfred Leonard. University and Research Library Studies: Some Contributions from the University of Sheffield Postgraduate School of Librarianship and Information Science. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. ISBN 9780080127262. OCLC 441960. Young, Heartsill. ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.
ISBN 978-0838903711. OCLC 8907224. Association of Research Libraries
Planetary science or, more planetology, is the scientific study of planets and planetary systems and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, formation and history, it is a interdisciplinary field growing from astronomy and earth science, but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology, atmospheric science, hydrology, theoretical planetary science and exoplanetology. Allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun on the bodies of the Solar System, astrobiology. There are interrelated theoretical branches of planetary science. Observational research can involve a combination of space exploration, predominantly with robotic spacecraft missions using remote sensing, comparative, experimental work in Earth-based laboratories; the theoretical component involves mathematical modelling. Planetary scientists are located in the astronomy and physics or Earth sciences departments of universities or research centres, though there are several purely planetary science institutes worldwide.
There are several major conferences each year, a wide range of peer-reviewed journals. In the case of some exclusive planetary scientists, many of whom are in relation to the study of dark matter, they will seek a private research centre and initiate partnership research tasks; the history of planetary science may be said to have begun with the Ancient Greek philosopher Democritus, reported by Hippolytus as saying The ordered worlds are boundless and differ in size, that in some there is neither sun nor moon, but that in others, both are greater than with us, yet with others more in number. And that the intervals between the ordered worlds are unequal, here more and there less, that some increase, others flourish and others decay, here they come into being and there they are eclipsed, but that they are destroyed by colliding with one another. And that some ordered worlds are bare of animals and plants and all water. In more modern times, planetary science began from studies of the unresolved planets.
In this sense, the original planetary astronomer would be Galileo, who discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, the mountains on the Moon, first observed the rings of Saturn, all objects of intense study. Galileo's study of the lunar mountains in 1609 began the study of extraterrestrial landscapes: his observation "that the Moon does not possess a smooth and polished surface" suggested that it and other worlds might appear "just like the face of the Earth itself". Advances in telescope construction and instrumental resolution allowed increased identification of the atmospheric and surface details of the planets; the Moon was the most studied, as it always exhibited details on its surface, due to its proximity to the Earth, the technological improvements produced more detailed lunar geological knowledge. In this scientific process, the main instruments were astronomical optical telescopes and robotic exploratory spacecraft; the Solar System has now been well-studied, a good overall understanding of the formation and evolution of this planetary system exists.
However, there are large numbers of unsolved questions, the rate of new discoveries is high due to the large number of interplanetary spacecraft exploring the Solar System. This is both a theoretical science. Observational researchers are predominantly concerned with the study of the small bodies of the Solar System: those that are observed by telescopes, both optical and radio, so that characteristics of these bodies such as shape, surface materials and weathering are determined, the history of their formation and evolution can be understood. Theoretical planetary astronomy is concerned with dynamics: the application of the principles of celestial mechanics to the Solar System and extrasolar planetary systems; the best known research topics of planetary geology deal with the planetary bodies in the near vicinity of the Earth: the Moon, the two neighbouring planets: Venus and Mars. Of these, the Moon was studied first. Geomorphology studies the features on planetary surfaces and reconstructs the history of their formation, inferring the physical processes that acted on the surface.
Planetary geomorphology includes the study of several classes of surface features: Impact features Volcanic and tectonic features Space weathering - erosional effects generated by the harsh environment of space. For example, the thin dust cover on the surface of the lunar regolith is a result of micro meteorite bombardment. Hydrological features: the liquid involved can range from water to hydrocarbon and ammonia, depending on the location within the Solar System; the history of a planetary surface can be deciphered by mapping features from top to bottom according to their deposition sequence, as first determined on terrestrial strata by Nicolas Steno. For example, stratigraphic mapping prepared the Apollo astronauts for the field geology they would encounter on their lunar missions. Overlapping sequences were identified on images taken by the Lunar Orbiter program, these were used to prepare a lunar stratigraphic column and geolog
Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in Mayfair, London. It was a private Palladian mansion owned by the Earl of Burlington and was expanded in the mid-19th century after being purchased by the British government. Burlington House is most familiar to the general public as the venue for temporary art exhibitions from the Royal Academy, housed in the main building at the northern end of the courtyard. Five learned societies occupy the two wings on the east and west sides of the courtyard and the Piccadilly wing at the southern end. Collectively known as the Courtyard Societies, these societies are as listed below: Geological Society of London Linnean Society of London Royal Astronomical Society Society of Antiquaries of London Royal Society of Chemistry Burlington House has been listed Grade II* on the National Heritage List for England since February 1970; the house was one of the earliest of a number of large private residences built on the north side of Piccadilly a country lane, from the 1660s onwards.
The first version was begun by Sir John Denham in about 1664. It was a red-brick double-pile hip-roofed mansion with a recessed centre, typical of the style of the time, or even a little old fashioned. Denham may have acted as his own architect, or he may have employed Hugh May, who became involved in the construction after the house was sold in an incomplete state in 1667 to Richard Boyle, the first Earl of Burlington, from whom it derives its name. Burlington had the house completed, the largest structure on his land, the Burlington Estate. In 1704, the house was passed on to ten-year-old Richard Boyle, third Earl of Burlington, to become the principal patron of the Palladian movement in England, an architect in his own right. Around 1709, during Burlington's minority, Lady Juliana Boyle, the second Countess, commissioned James Gibbs to reconfigure the staircase and make exterior alterations to the house, including a quadrant Doric colonnade, praised by Sir William Chambers as "one of the finest pieces of architecture".
The colonnade separated the house from urbanized Piccadilly with a cour d'honneur. Inside, Baroque decorative paintings in the entrance hall and a staircase by Sebastiano Ricci and Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini makes it one of the richest interiors in London. In between his two Grand Tours of Italy, young Lord Burlington's taste was transformed by the publication of Giacomo Leoni's Palladio which made him develop a passion for Palladian architecture. In 1717 or 1718, the third Earl began making major modifications to Burlington House and the supervision of the work was undertaken by Gibbs. Colen Campbell was appointed to replace Gibbs, working in the Baroque style of Sir Christopher Wren, to recast the work in a new manner on the old foundation; this was a key moment in the history of English architecture, as Campbell's work was in a strict Palladian style, the aesthetic preferences of Campbell and Burlington, soon joined by the aesthetic style of their close associate William Kent, who worked on interiors at Burlington House, were to provide the leading strain in English architecture and interior decoration for two generations.
Campbell's work followed the form of the previous building and reused much of the structure, but the conventional front façade was replaced with an austere two-storey composition, taking Palladio's Palazzo Iseppo di Porti, for a model but omitting sculpture and substituting a balustrade for the attic storey. The ground floor became a rusticated basement, which supported a monumental piano nobile of nine bays; this had no centrepiece but was highlighted by venetian windows in the projecting end bays, the first to be seen in England. Other alterations included a monumental screening gateway to Piccadilly and the reconstruction of most of the principal interiors, with typical Palladian features such as rich coved ceilings; the Saloon, constructed after William Kent's return from Rome in December 1719, has survived in the most intact condition. Its plaster putti above the pedimented doorcases were by Giovanni Battista Guelfi. Lord Burlington transferred his architectural energies to Chiswick House after 1722.
After Burlington's death in 1753, Burlington House was passed on to the Dukes of Devonshire, but they had no need of it as they owned Devonshire House just along Piccadilly. The fourth Duke's younger son Lord George Cavendish and a Devonshire in-law, the third Duke of Portland, each used the house for at least two separate spells. Portland had some of the interiors altered by John Carr in the 1770s. Lord George, a rich man in his own right due to his having married an heiress, purchased the house from his nephew, the sixth Duke of Devonshire, for £70,000 in 1815. Lord George employed Samuel Ware to shift the staircase to the centre and reshape the interiors to provide a suite of "Fine Rooms" en filade linking the new state dining room at the west end to the new ballroom at the east end. Like Carr's work, Ware's was sympathetic with the Palladian style of the house, providing an early example of the "Kent Revival", a English prefiguration of Baroque Revival architecture. In 1819 the Burlington Arcade was built along the western part of the grounds.
In 1854, Burlington House was sold to the British government for £140,000 with the plan of demolishing the building and using the site to build the University of London. This plan, was abandoned in the face of strong opposition, in 1857 Burlington House was occupied by the Royal Society, the L
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, the use of quantitative methods for their analysis. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape. However, modern geophysics organizations use a broader definition that includes the water cycle including snow and ice. Although geophysics was only recognized as a separate discipline in the 19th century, its origins date back to ancient times; the first magnetic compasses were made from lodestones, while more modern magnetic compasses played an important role in the history of navigation. The first seismic instrument was built in 132 AD. Isaac Newton applied his theory of mechanics to the precession of the equinox. In the 20th century, geophysical methods were developed for remote exploration of the solid Earth and the ocean, geophysics played an essential role in the development of the theory of plate tectonics.
Geophysics is applied to societal needs, such as mineral resources, mitigation of natural hazards and environmental protection. In Exploration Geophysics, Geophysical survey data are used to analyze potential petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, locate groundwater, find archaeological relics, determine the thickness of glaciers and soils, assess sites for environmental remediation. Geophysics is a interdisciplinary subject, geophysicists contribute to every area of the Earth sciences. To provide a clearer idea of what constitutes geophysics, this section describes phenomena that are studied in physics and how they relate to the Earth and its surroundings; the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun give rise to two high tides and two low tides every lunar day, or every 24 hours and 50 minutes. Therefore, there is a gap of 12 hours and 25 minutes between every high tide and between every low tide. Gravitational forces make rocks press down on deeper rocks, increasing their density as the depth increases.
Measurements of gravitational acceleration and gravitational potential at the Earth's surface and above it can be used to look for mineral deposits. The surface gravitational field provides information on the dynamics of tectonic plates; the geopotential surface called. The geoid would be the global mean sea level if the oceans were in equilibrium and could be extended through the continents; the Earth is cooling, the resulting heat flow generates the Earth's magnetic field through the geodynamo and plate tectonics through mantle convection. The main sources of heat are the primordial heat and radioactivity, although there are contributions from phase transitions. Heat is carried to the surface by thermal convection, although there are two thermal boundary layers – the core-mantle boundary and the lithosphere – in which heat is transported by conduction; some heat is carried up from the bottom of the mantle by mantle plumes. The heat flow at the Earth's surface is about 4.2 × 1013 W, it is a potential source of geothermal energy.
Seismic waves are vibrations that travel along its surface. The entire Earth can oscillate in forms that are called normal modes or free oscillations of the Earth. Ground motions from waves or normal modes are measured using seismographs. If the waves come from a localized source such as an earthquake or explosion, measurements at more than one location can be used to locate the source; the locations of earthquakes provide information on mantle convection. Recording of seismic waves from controlled sources provide information on the region that the waves travel through. If the density or composition of the rock changes, waves are reflected. Reflections recorded using Reflection Seismology can provide a wealth of information on the structure of the earth up to several kilometers deep and are used to increase our understanding of the geology as well as to explore for oil and gas. Changes in the travel direction, called refraction, can be used to infer the deep structure of the Earth. Earthquakes pose a risk to humans.
Understanding their mechanisms, which depend on the type of earthquake, can lead to better estimates of earthquake risk and improvements in earthquake engineering. Although we notice electricity during thunderstorms, there is always a downward electric field near the surface that averages 120 volts per meter. Relative to the solid Earth, the atmosphere has a net positive charge due to bombardment by cosmic rays. A current of about 1800 amperes flows in the global circuit, it flows downward from the ionosphere over most of the Earth and back upwards through thunderstorms. The flow is manifested by lightning below the sprites above. A variety of electric methods are used in geophysical survey; some measure spontaneous potential, a potential that arises in the ground because of man-made or natural disturbances. Telluric currents flow in the oceans, they have two causes: electromagnetic induction by the time-varying, external-origin geomagnetic field and motion of conducting bodies across the Earth's per
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, moons and galaxies – in either observational or theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers study include planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. Related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology. Astronomers fall under either of two main types: observational and theoretical. Observational astronomers analyze the data. In contrast, theoretical astronomers create and investigate models of things that cannot be observed; because it takes millions to billions of years for a system of stars or a galaxy to complete a life cycle, astronomers must observe snapshots of different systems at unique points in their evolution to determine how they form and die. They use these data to create models or simulations to theorize how different celestial objects work.
Further subcategories under these two main branches of astronomy include planetary astronomy, galactic astronomy, or physical cosmology. Astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using physical laws. Today, that distinction has disappeared and the terms "astronomer" and "astrophysicist" are interchangeable. Professional astronomers are educated individuals who have a Ph. D. in physics or astronomy and are employed by research institutions or universities. They spend the majority of their time working on research, although they quite have other duties such as teaching, building instruments, or aiding in the operation of an observatory; the number of professional astronomers in the United States is quite small. The American Astronomical Society, the major organization of professional astronomers in North America, has 7,000 members; this number includes scientists from other fields such as physics and engineering, whose research interests are related to astronomy.
The International Astronomical Union comprises 10,145 members from 70 different countries who are involved in astronomical research at the Ph. D. beyond. Contrary to the classical image of an old astronomer peering through a telescope through the dark hours of the night, it is far more common to use a charge-coupled device camera to record a long, deep exposure, allowing a more sensitive image to be created because the light is added over time. Before CCDs, photographic plates were a common method of observation. Modern astronomers spend little time at telescopes just a few weeks per year. Analysis of observed phenomena, along with making predictions as to the causes of what they observe, takes the majority of observational astronomers' time. Astronomers who serve as faculty spend much of their time teaching undergraduate and graduate classes. Most universities have outreach programs including public telescope time and sometimes planetariums as a public service to encourage interest in the field.
Those who become astronomers have a broad background in maths and computing in high school. Taking courses that teach how to research and present papers are invaluable. In college/university most astronomers get a Ph. D. in astronomy or physics. While there is a low number of professional astronomers, the field is popular among amateurs. Most cities have amateur astronomy clubs that meet on a regular basis and host star parties; the Astronomical Society of the Pacific is the largest general astronomical society in the world, comprising both professional and amateur astronomers as well as educators from 70 different nations. Like any hobby, most people who think of themselves as amateur astronomers may devote a few hours a month to stargazing and reading the latest developments in research. However, amateurs span the range from so-called "armchair astronomers" to the ambitious, who own science-grade telescopes and instruments with which they are able to make their own discoveries and assist professional astronomers in research.
List of astronomers List of women astronomers List of Muslim astronomers List of French astronomers List of Hungarian astronomers List of Russian astronomers and astrophysicists List of Slovenian astronomers Dallal, Ahmad. "Science and Technology". In Esposito, John; the Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 0-300-15911-0. Kennedy, E. S.. "A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables. 46. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. Toomer, Gerald. "Al-Khwārizmī, Abu Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā". In Gillispie, Charles Coulston. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 7. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-16962-2. American Astronomical Society European Astronomical Society International Astronomical Union Astronomical Society of the Pacific Space's astronomy news