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Royal Australian Navy

The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force, called the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, became responsible for defence of the region. Britain's Royal Navy’s Australian Squadron was assigned to the Australia Station and provided support to the RAN; the Australian and New Zealand governments helped to fund the Australian Squadron until 1913, while the Admiralty committed itself to keeping the Squadron at a constant strength. The Australian Squadron ceased on 4 October 1913, when RAN ships entered Sydney Harbour for the first time; the Royal Navy continued to provide blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of the Second World War. Rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships.

In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a small number of aircraft carriers, the last of, decommissioned in 1982. Today, the RAN consists of 48 commissioned vessels, 3 non-commissioned vessels and over 16,000 personnel; the navy is one of the largest and most sophisticated naval forces in the South Pacific region, with a significant presence in the Indian Ocean and worldwide operations in support of military campaigns and peacekeeping missions. The current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Michael Noonan; the Commonwealth Naval Forces were established on 1 March 1901, two months after the federation of Australia, when the naval forces of the separate Australian colonies were amalgamated. A period of uncertainty followed as the policy makers sought to determine the newly established force's requirements and purpose, with the debate focusing upon whether Australia's naval force would be structured for local defence or whether it would be designed to serve as a fleet unit within a larger imperial force, controlled centrally by the British Admiralty.

In 1908–09, the decision was made to pursue a compromise solution, the Australian government agreed to establish a force that would be used for local defence but which would be capable of forming a fleet unit within the imperial naval strategy, albeit without central control. As a result, the navy's force structure was set at "one battlecruiser, three light cruisers, six destroyers and three submarines". On 10 July 1911, King George V granted the service the title of "Royal Australian Navy"; the first of the RAN's new vessels, the destroyer Yarra, was completed in September 1910 and by the outbreak of the First World War the majority of the RAN's planned new fleet had been realised. The Australian Squadron was placed under control of the British Admiralty, it was tasked with capturing many of Germany's South Pacific colonies and protecting Australian shipping from the German East Asia Squadron. In the war, most of the RAN's major ships operated as part of Royal Navy forces in the Mediterranean and North Seas, later in the Adriatic, the Black Sea following the surrender of the Ottoman Empire.

In 1919, the RAN received a force of six destroyers, three sloops and six submarines from the Royal Navy, but throughout the 1920s and early 1930s, the RAN was drastically reduced in size due to a variety of factors including political apathy and economic hardship as a result of the Great Depression. In this time the focus of Australia's naval policy shifted from defence against invasion to trade protection, several fleet units were sunk as targets or scrapped. By 1923, the size of the navy had fallen to eight vessels, by the end of the decade it had fallen further to five, with just 3,500 personnel. In the late 1930s, as international tensions increased, the RAN was modernised and expanded, with the service receiving primacy of funding over the Army and Air Force during this time as Australia began to prepare for war. Early in the Second World War, RAN ships again operated as part of Royal Navy formations, many serving with distinction in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean, off the West African coast.

Following the outbreak of the Pacific War and the virtual destruction of British naval forces in south-east Asia, the RAN operated more independently, or as part of United States Navy formations. As the navy took on an greater role, it was expanded and at its height the RAN was the fourth-largest navy in the world, with 39,650 personnel operating 337 warships. A total of 34 vessels were lost during the war, including four destroyers. After the Second World War, the size of the RAN was again reduced, but it gained new capabilities with the acquisition of two aircraft carriers and Melbourne; the RAN saw action in many Cold War–era conflicts in the Asia-Pacific region and operated alongside the Royal Navy and United States Navy off Korea and Vietnam. Since the end of the Cold War, the RAN has been part of Coalition forces in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, operating in support of Operation Slipper and undertaking counter piracy operations, it was deployed in support of Australian peacekeeping operations in East Timor and the Solomon Islands.

The high demand for personnel in the Second World War led to the establishment of the Women's Royal Australian Naval Service branch in 1942, where over 3,000 women served in shore-based positions. The WRANS was disbanded in 1947, but re-established in 1951 during the Cold War, it was given permanent status in 1959, the RAN was the final branch to integrate women in the Australian military in 1985. The strategic command structure of the RAN was overhauled during the New Generation Navy

Attribution of the 2008 Mumbai attacks

Attribution of the 2008 Mumbai attacks were first made by the Indian authorities who said that the Mumbai attacks were directed by Lashkar-e-Taiba militants inside Pakistan. American intelligence agencies agree with this attribution. Pakistan contested this attribution, but agreed this was the case on 7 January 2009. To back up its accusations, the Indian government supplied a dossier to Pakistan's high commission in Delhi; the Pakistan government dismissed the dossier as "not evidence," but announced that it had detained over a hundred members of Jamaat-ud-Dawa, a charity linked with Lashkar-e-Taiba. In February 2009, Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik agreed that "some part of the conspiracy" did take place in Pakistan. Moreover, Indian government officials have said that the attacks were so sophisticated that they must have had official backing from Pakistani "agencies", an accusation denied by Pakistan; the Mumbai attacks were planned and directed by Lashkar-e-Taiba militants inside Pakistan, carried out by ten young armed men trained and sent to Mumbai and directed from inside Pakistan via mobile phones and VoIP.

In July 2009 Pakistani authorities confirmed to their Indian counterparts that their investigations confirmed that LeT plotted and financed the attacks. Investigations conducted in LeT camps in Karachi and Thatta revealed diaries, training manuals, maps of India and operational instructions. According to a report from Pakistani investigators to Indian authorities, "the investigation has established beyond any reasonable doubt that the defunct LeT activists conspired, planned and established communication network to carry out terror attacks in Mumbai."The criminal investigation begun by the Mumbai police has identified 37 suspects – including two army officers – wanted for their alleged involvement in the plot. All but two of the suspects, many of whom are identified only through aliases, are Pakistani. David Headley was a member of Lashkar-e-Taiba, between 2002 and 2009 Headley travelled extensively as part of his work for LeT. Headey received training in small arms and countersurveillance from LeT, built a network of connections for the group, was chief scout in scoping out targets for the Mumbai attacks.

Lashkar-e-Taiba was created and sponsored by Pakistan's intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate. US officials have stated that current or retired ISI officers played some role in the Mumbai attacks. An ISI officer known as Major Iqbal gave Headley $25,000 in cash in 2006 to scout out the target sites in Mumbai, helped him arrange a communications system for the attack, oversaw a model of the Taj Mahal Hotel so that gunmen could know their way inside the target, according to Headley's testimony to Indian authorities. Headley helped ISI recruit Indian agents to monitor Indian troop levels and movements, according to a US official. At the same time, Headley was an informant for the US Drug Enforcement Administration, Headley's wives warned American officials of Headley's involvement with LeT and his plotting of terrorist operations, warning that the Taj Mahal Hotel may be their target. Pakistan contested that Pakistanis were responsible for the attacks, but agreed this was the case on 7 January 2009.

A year after the attacks, Mumbai police continued to complain that Pakistani authorities are not co-operating by providing information for their investigation. Meanwhile, journalists in Pakistan said security agencies were preventing them from interviewing people from Kasab's village; the Indian government supplied evidence to Pakistan's high commission in Delhi, in the form of interrogations and call records of conversations during the attacks. The evidence, shown to friendly governments and media, provided a detailed sequence of training and constant communications of attackers with handlers from Pakistan. In addition, Indian government officials said that the attacks were so sophisticated that they must have had official backing from Pakistani "agencies", an accusation denied by Pakistan. In February 2009, Pakistani newspaper The Dawn, citing Pakistani investigators, claimed that the attacks were planned in Bangladesh and refined in India with significant support being provided by Indian-based militant groups and criminal organisations.

However, Indian investigators refuted this claim, with the Home Minister Palaniappan Chidambaram dismissing the claim as "rubbish". On 12 February 2009, Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik agreed that some part of the conspiracy did take place in Pakistan. Malik said that Pakistan had lodged a First Information Report under Anti-Terrorism Act against three persons. Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi said on 15 February 2009 that the 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings and the Mumbai attacks were linked, that Pakistan needed information from India to continue its investigation. There were one captured by security forces. Witnesses reported that they looked to be in their early twenties, wore black T-shirts and jeans, that they smiled and looked happy as they shot their victims, it was reported that some of the attackers were British citizens, but the Indian Government stated that there was no evidence to confirm this. Early reports of twelve gunmen were later shown to be incorrect.

On 9 December, the ten attackers were identified by Mumbai police, along with their home towns in Pakistan: Ajmal Amir from Faridkot, Abu Ismail Dera Ismail Khan from Dera Ismail Khan, Hafiz Arshad and Babr Imran from Multan, Javed from Okara, Shoaib from Sialkot and Nasr from Faisalabad, Abdul Rahman from Arifwalla, Fahad Ullah from Dipalpur Taluka. Dera Ismail Khan is in the North-

Old Tai Po Police Station

The Old Tai Po Police Station is a former Hong Kong police station at the top of Tai Po Wan Tau Tong Hill. It is located at No. 11 Wan Tau Kok Lane, Tai Po, New Territories, Hong Kong, near the Old District Office North. The Old Tai Po Police Station was built in 1899, shortly after the British leased the New Territories in 1898, it was the first police police headquarters in the New Territories. It is said to have been built at the site of the British flag raising ceremony which marked the official British take-over of the New Territories, it operated as a police station until the new district police station of Tai Po started its service in 1987. The Old Tai Po Police Station is listed as a Grade II historic building since 1988. In 2008, it was part of the seven buildings of Batch I of the Hong Kong Government's Revitalising Historic Buildings Through Partnership Scheme seeking adaptive reuse of government-owned historic buildings; the project was awarded by UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage Awards in 2016 with honourable Mention.

Revitalising Historic Buildings Through Partnership Scheme Historic police station buildings in Hong Kong


HealthTap is a technology company delivering a suite of connected health apps. Their customers include health systems, insurance companies, employers; the company received Series A funding from the Mayfield Fund, Eric Schmidt’s Innovation Endeavors and Mohr Davidow VenturesThe main service offered by HealthTap is the ability to ask health questions and via mobile devices, to a network of U. S.-licensed physicians for free. They offer the ability to connect or by appointment with a doctor for a consultation via video conference, phone call, or text chat. There are a number of versions of HealthTap available across several platforms and devices, including a version for the web along with applications for iPhone, iPad and Android. Health information on the service is supplied interactively by a network of nearly 140,000 licensed doctors in good standing. HealthTap provides the opportunity for peer review, which consists of doctors rating each other and self-identifying specializations. HealthTap says.

HealthTap has garnered media coverage in publications including The New York Times, Forbes and TIME. HealthTap started its Medical Expert Network with U. S.-licensed OBGYN and Pediatrics physicians, which the company describes as the largest network of interactive, engaged physicians online. In December 2011, HealthTap announced that it had secured $11.5 Million in Series A funding, led by The Mayfield Fund, Eric Schmidt’s Innovation Endeavors and Mohr Davidow Ventures. In November 2012, HealthTap acquired the doctor rating business from Avvo. In March 2016, HealthTap acquired DocPhin, a startup designed to make finding and reading medical research easier for doctors. In December 2017, the New Zealand Government's Auditor General launched a review into the cancelled implementation of a HealthTap-based system at the Government's Waikato District Health Board; the results of the review were overwhelmingly negative and found, amongst other things, that the platform was not fit for purpose

Red squirrel

The red squirrel or Eurasian red squirrel is a species of tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus common throughout Eurasia. The red squirrel is an omnivorous rodent. In Great Britain, in Italy numbers have decreased drastically in recent years; this decline is associated with the introduction by humans of the eastern grey squirrel from North America. However, the population in Scotland is stabilising due to conservation efforts and the increasing population of the pine marten, a European predator that selectively controls grey squirrels; the red squirrel has a typical head-and-body length of 19 to 23 cm, a tail length of 15 to 20 cm, a mass of 250 to 340 g. Males and females are the same size; the red squirrel is somewhat smaller than the eastern grey squirrel which has a head-and-body length of 25 to 30 cm and weighs between 400 and 800 g. The long tail helps the squirrel to balance and steer when jumping from tree to tree and running along branches, may keep the animal warm during sleep; the red squirrel, like most tree squirrels, has sharp, curved claws to enable it to climb and descend broad tree trunks, thin branches and house walls.

Its strong hind legs enable it to leap gaps between trees. The red squirrel has the ability to swim; the coat of the red squirrel varies in colour with time of location. There are several different coat colour morphs ranging from black to red. Red coats are most common in Great Britain; the underside of the squirrel is always white-cream in colour. The red squirrel sheds its coat twice a year, switching from a thinner summer coat to a thicker, darker winter coat with noticeably larger ear-tufts between August and November. A lighter, redder overall coat colour, along with the ear-tufts and smaller size, distinguish the Eurasian red squirrel from the American eastern grey squirrel. Red squirrels occupy boreal, coniferous woods in northern Europe and Siberia, preferring Scots pine, Norway spruce and Siberian pine. In western and southern Europe they are found in broad-leaved woods where the mixture of tree and shrub species provides a better year round source of food. In most of the British Isles and in Italy, broad-leaved woodlands are now less suitable due to the better competitive feeding strategy of introduced grey squirrels.

Mating can occur in late winter in summer between June and July. Up to two litters a year per female are possible; each litter averages three young, called kits. Gestation is about 38 to 39 days; the young are looked after by the mother alone and are born helpless and deaf. They weigh between 10 and 15 g, their body is covered by hair at 21 days, their eyes and ears open after three to four weeks, they develop all their teeth by 42 days. Juvenile red squirrels can eat solids around 40 days following birth and from that point can leave the nest on their own to find food. During mating, males detect females that are in oestrus by an odor that they produce, although there is no courtship, the male will chase the female for up to an hour prior to mating. Multiple males will chase a single female until the dominant male the largest in the group, mates with the female. Males and females will mate multiple times with many partners. Females must reach a minimum body mass before they enter oestrus, heavy females on average produce more young.

If food is scarce breeding may be delayed. A female will produce her first litter in her second year. Red squirrels that survive their first winter have a life expectancy of 3 years. Individuals may reach 7 years of age, 10 in captivity. Survival is positively related to availability of autumn–winter tree seeds; the red squirrel is found in temperate broadleaf woodlands. The squirrel makes a drey out of twigs in a branch-fork, forming a domed structure about 25 to 30 cm in diameter; this is lined with moss, leaves and bark. Tree hollows and woodpecker holes are used; the red squirrel is shy and reluctant to share food with others. However, outside the breeding season and in winter, several red squirrels may share a drey to keep warm. Social organization is based on dominance hierarchies between sexes; the red squirrel eats the seeds of trees, neatly stripping conifer cones to get at the seeds within, nuts and young shootsMore red squirrels may eat bird eggs or nestlings. A Swedish study shows that out of 600 stomach contents of red squirrels examined, only 4 contained remnants of birds or eggs.

Thus, red squirrels may exhibit opportunistic omnivory to other rodents. Excess food is put into caches, either buried or in nooks or holes in trees, eaten when food is scarce. Although the red squirrel remembers where it created caches at a better-than-chance level, its spatial memory is less accurate and durable than that of grey squirrel.

Huntley, Wyoming

Huntley is a census-designated place in Goshen County, United States. The population was 30 at the 2010 census. Former Wyoming Governor Stanley K. Hathaway grew up on a farm here, graduated from Huntley High School as class valedictorian in 1941, he was the only one in his senior class. Around 1900, a fund established by the wealthy European philanthropist Baron Maurice de Hirsch to promote farming in the United States, sponsored about 50 families by supporting them in establishing a new community around what is now Huntley, eight miles south of the North Platte River, five miles west of the Nebraska border; the new residents came from New York and Pennsylvania, as well as some from Europe. And, on July 6, 1906, six men from the community first filed claims for 160-acre homesteads located in and around present-day Huntley. Most of the homesteaders and their families started out there living in sod dugouts that they built for use as dwellings. Among the challenges for the new residents was that the nearest water was about half a mile away in the Katzer Canal, obtaining needed supplies was difficult, as the closest general store was in Mitchell, about 15 miles to the east.

Most of the settlers did not own horses, walked to Mitchell to purchase supplies—carrying flour, beans and salt back to their homesteads in knapsacks. About a year however, Baron de Hirsch's fund sent five hundred dollars, a huge sum in those days, to each family. With this generous financial support from de Hersch, the settlers were able to purchase horses, machinery, a milk cow, tools. And, before long, Huntley had a post office, a church, a grocery store, a lumber yard. In 1908, de Hirsch sponsored another 40 or 45 more families coming to Wyoming, who settled in an area a few miles northeast of present-day the Huntley, known as the community of Allen, a school and a synagogue were established. Huntley is located at 41°55′57″N 104°8′47″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 21 people, 9 households, 6 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 77.3 people per square mile.

There were 9 housing units at an average density of 33.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 100.00% White. Of the 9 households, 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.7% were married couples living together, 33.3% were non-families. Another 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 persons, the average family size was 3.00. In the CDP, the population consisted of 28.6% under the age of 18, 28.6% from age 25 to 44, 28.6% from age 45 to 64, 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 61.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $30,625, the median income for a family was $30,625. Males had a median income of $13,750 versus $0 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $9,688. None of the population or families were below the poverty line.

Public education for the community of Huntley is now provided by Goshen County School District #1 in Torrington. U. S. Highway 85 WYO 92 WYO 158 WYO 161 Torrington Municipal Airport, a public use airport, is located 12 miles north of Huntley, two nautical miles east of the central business district of Torrington. Stanley K. Hathaway - 27th Governor of Wyoming, 1967–1975. S. Secretary of the Interior, 1975. List of census-designated places in Wyoming Media related to Huntley, Wyoming at Wikimedia Commons