Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck
The Avro Canada CF-100 Canuck was a Canadian twinjet interceptor/fighter serving during the Cold War both in NATO bases in Europe and as part of NORAD. The CF-100 was the only Canadian-designed fighter to enter mass production, serving with the Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Armed Forces and in small numbers in Belgium. For its day, the CF-100 featured a short takeoff run and high climb rate, making it well suited to its role as an interceptor. In the early 1950s, Canada needed an all-weather interceptor able to patrol the vast areas of Canada's north and operate in all weather conditions; the two-seat fighter crewed by a pilot and navigator was designed with two powerful engines and an advanced radar and fire control system housed in its nose that enabled it to fly in all-weather or night conditions. Design of the XC-100 to meet a Royal Canadian Air Force specification for an all-weather fighter was initiated at Avro Canada in October 1946. Chief Engineer Edgar Atkin's work on the CF-100 was subsequently passed to John Frost who, along with Avro's Chief Aerodynamacist Jim Chamberlin, reworked the original fuselage design.
The CF-100 Mark 1 prototype, "18101," emerged from the factory, painted gloss black overall with white lightning bolts running down the fuselage and engines. The CF-100 prototype flew its maiden flight on 19 January 1950 with Gloster Aircraft Company Chief Test Pilot Squadron Leader Bill Waterton at the controls; the Mark 1 was powered by two Rolls-Royce Avon RA 3 turbojets with 28.9 kN thrust each. The second prototype, serial number 18102, was powered by Rolls-Royce Avons, although subsequent pre-production and production series aircraft used the Avro Orenda turbojet. Five pre-production Mk 2 test aircraft were produced, all fitted with Orenda 2 engines; the first production version, designated Mk 3, incorporated the APG-33 radar and was armed with eight.50 caliber Browning M3 machine guns. The Mk 3CT and Mk 3DT were again dual control versions supplied to operational training units. A CF-100 arrived at Eglin AFB, Florida, in mid-January 1955 for cold-weather tests in the climatic hangar. A seven-man RCAF team, headed by Flight Lieutenant B. D. Darling, which had conducted tests at Namao Air Base, were part of the climatic detachment of Central Experimental and Proving Establishment.
Tests were to begin in February. In March 1956, four CF-100 Canucks were sent to Eglin AFB for comparative armament trials, flown by USAF crews; the operational suitability tests, dubbed Project Banana Belt, were carried out by the 3241st Test Group of the APGC's Air Force Operational Test Center, in conjunction with a project team from the Royal Canadian Air Force. In September 1950, the RCAF ordered 124 Mk 3s, the first entering service in 1953; these were armed with eight.50 caliber machine guns. The definitive rocket-armed Mk 4A was based on the prototype Mk 4, which first flew on 11 October 1952; the nose housed the much larger APG-40 radar with wingtip pods, each containing up to 29 Mk 4/Mk 40 "Mighty Mouse" Folding-Fin Aerial Rocket in addition to the guns. As the last 54 of an order for the Mk 3 were changed into the Mk 4 in 1954, total orders for the Mk 4 rose to 510; the Mk 4B version had more powerful Orenda 11s. Five versions, or marks, were produced, from 1955 onwards, with the high-altitude Mk 5 that featured a 1.06 m -longer wingtip and enlarged tailplane, along with removal of the machine guns.
The proposed Mk 6 was to have mounted Sparrow II missiles and been powered by afterburning Orenda 11IR engines in an effort to provide an "interim" fighter prior to the introduction of the Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow. A projected transonic swept-wing CF-103 was built in mock-up form in 1951, but was considered obsolescent before the CF-100's demonstrated ability to exceed the speed of sound in a dive. On 18 December 1952, Squadron Leader Janusz Żurakowski, the Avro company chief development test pilot, took the CF-100 Mk 4 prototype to Mach 1.0 in a dive from 9,100 m, the first straight-winged jet aircraft to achieve controlled supersonic flight. The Canuck was affectionately known in the RCAF as the "Clunk" because of the noise the front landing gear made as it retracted into its well after takeoff, its less-attractive nickname was the "Lead Sled", a reference to its heavy controls and general lack of maneuverability, a nickname it shared with a number of other 1950s aircraft. Others included CF-Zero, the Zilch, the Beast, all references to an aircraft many pilots considered less glamorous than RCAF day fighters like the Canadair Sabre.
The aircraft operated under the US/Canadian North American Air Defense Command to protect North American airspace from Soviet intruders such as nuclear-armed bombers. Additionally, as part of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, four Canuck squadrons were based in Europe with 1 Air Division from 1956–1962, were for some time the only NATO fighters capable of operating in zero visibility and poor weather conditions; when the Korean War started, the USAF was in urgent need of a jet-propelled, all-weather, interdiction/surveillance aircraft. The urgency was so great that the USAF was willing to consider two foreign designs: the CF-100 and the English Electric Canberra; the CF-100 was payload. The English Electric design was developed into the Martin B-57 Canberra; the CF-100 served with nine RCAF squadrons at its peak in the mid-1950s. Four of these squadrons were deployed to Europe from
History of aviation in Canada
The history of aviation in Canada begins with the first manned flight in a balloon at Saint John, New Brunswick in 1840. Development of the aviation industry in Canada was shaped by the interplay of Canadian national ambitions and international politics and technology. Experimental aviation started in Canada with the test flights of Bell's Silver Dart in 1909, following the epochal flight of the Wright Brothers in 1903; the experimental phase gave way to use of aircraft in warfare and many Canadians served in the British Royal Flying Corps and Royal Air Force during the First World War. After the war, aircraft turned from an expensive novelty into a vital transportation tool useful in exploration and development of Canada's North. Canadians who had served with the RAF put their acquired aviation skills to peacetime use. Aviation was applied to the task of tying together far-flung communities in the North, to gather information on the natural resources of the country. Aircraft were as important to opening up the North as the railway was to opening the West in the previous century.
Between the wars many small regional airlines were founded. A lack of national transportation policy delayed the creation of a national carrier until the foundation of the government-subsidized Trans Canada Airlines in 1937. World War II forced more technological development and brought Canadian industry into the vanguard of aircraft manufacture. Canadian airspace and facilities provide training for more than one hundred thousand Commonwealth aircrew, the wartime facilities supported growing commercial aviation; the Jet Age brought air travel into the lives of displacing passenger rail. Deregulation of airlines with less government control brought forth new competitors to the prewar airlines. Thin operating margins and aggressive competition led to periodic failures. Today aviation is an integral part of the Canadian economy. Scheduled airline passenger service, air mail and air freight connect Canadian cities and cities around the world. General aviation provides medical evacuation, air photography, support for resource development.
In August 1840 at Saint John, New Brunswick, Louis Anselm Lauriat became the first person to complete a balloon ascent in Canada, which he did in his balloon Star of the East. On September 8, 1856, French aeronaut, Eugène Godard, operating a balloon called Canada, piloted the country's first successful passenger flight, carrying three passengers from Montreal to Pointe-Olivier, Quebec. Free balloon and dirigible balloon exhibitions were popular attractions in the first years of the 20th century; the first power-driven dirigible flight in Canada was completed by C. K. Hamilton at Montreal in 1906; the British airship R100 visited Canada in August 1930, overflying both Toronto. After the crash of the R101, British airships no longer crossed the ocean and the mooring mast was demolished in 1938. Periodically, lighter-than-air vehicles and hybrid airships are promoted for use in remote northern areas, on the basis of lower cost of operation than conventional aircraft. While vehicles such as Skyhook and Zeppelin NT obtain press coverage, no company has yet undertaken commercial cargo operations by airship in Canada.
Alexander Graham Bell had organized the Aerial Experiment Association for the development of aviation, funded by his wife Mabel Gardiner Hubbard from sale of some of her real estate. AEA member Frederick Walker Baldwin was the first Canadian to pilot an aircraft in 1908, although not in Canada; the first powered heavier-than-air flight in Canada occurred on Bras d'Or Lake at Baddeck, Nova Scotia on February 23, 1909, when John Alexander Douglas McCurdy piloted the AEA Silver Dart over a flight of less than 1 kilometer. McCurdy and Baldwin in August 1909 demonstrated the Silver Dart and the Baddeck No.1, a second aircraft built in Canada, to Canadian military authorities at Camp Petawawa. Both aircraft were damaged during the demonstrations and so did not impress the military authorities, who lost interest in using such aircraft. McCurdy flew a record-setting over water flight from Florida nearly to Cuba in 1910. A trial flight to transport newspapers from Montreal to Ottawa in 1913 ended in a crash.
Many man-carrying kites and powered aircraft were constructed by individual private experimenters in Canada before outbreak of war. At Montreal in August 1907, Lawrence Lesh completed the first heavier-than-air flights in Canada with a towed glider. Experimenters were handicapped by limited personal financing, the high cost and short supply of suitable engines of sufficient power, sometimes by the lack of technical literature describing current aerodynamic theory and successful experiments. In 1910 two large "aviation meet" exhibitions were held at Montreal and Toronto, where several Canadian aviation records were set. In October 1910, at an air exhibition near Belmont, New York, Grace Mackenzie, daughter of Sir William Mackenzie and her sisters became the first Canadian women to fly. De Lesseps Field near Toronto was named for the French aviator. Aviation exhibitions were common in Canada until the outbreak of war. American barnstormers participated in Canadian events such as fairs, where an exhibition of an aircraft was an attraction due to its novelty.
The first aviation fatality in Canada, the only one before the First World War was John Bryant, killed in a crash in Victoria on 6 August 1913. Bryant was visiting British Columbia from the US with his w
The Bellanca Aircruiser and Airbus were high-wing, single-engine aircraft built by Bellanca Aircraft Corporation of New Castle, Delaware. The aircraft was built as a "workhorse" intended for use as a cargo aircraft, it was available with floats or skis. The aircraft was powered by either Pratt and Whitney Hornet engine; the Airbus and Aircruiser served as both military transports. The first Bellanca Airbus was built in 1930 as the P-100. An efficient design, it was capable of carrying 12 to 14 passengers depending on the cabin interior configuration, with versions carrying up to 15. In 1931, test pilot George Haldeman flew the P-100 a distance of 4,400 miles in a time aloft of 35 hours. Although efficient, with a cost per mile figure of eight cents per mile calculated for that flight, the first Airbus did not sell due to its water-cooled engine; the next model, the P-200 Airbus, was powered by a larger, more reliable air-cooled engine. One version came with floats and operated as a ferry service in New York City, flying between Wall Street and the East River.
Other versions included a P-200 Deluxe model, with seating for nine. The P-300 was designed to carry 15 passengers; the final model, the "Aircruiser," was the most efficient aircraft of its day, would rank high amongst all aircraft designs. With a Wright Cyclone air-cooled supercharged radial engine rated at 715 hp, the Aircruiser could carry a useful load greater than its empty weight. In the mid-1930s, the Aircruiser could carry 4,000 lb payloads at a speed of between 145 and 155 mph, a performance that multi-engine Fokkers and Ford Trimotors could not come close to matching. In 1934, United States federal regulations prohibited single-engine transports on United States airlines eliminating future markets for the Aircruiser. Where the workhorse capabilities of the Aircruiser stood out was in Canada. Several of "The Flying Ws", as it was dubbed in Canada, were used in northern mining operations, ferrying ore and the occasional passenger, into the 1970s. Bellanca P Commercial version of Bellanca K, powered by a 500 hp Whitney R-1860 Hornet.
P-100 Airbus 14-passenger monoplane powered by a 600 hp Curtiss Conqueror engine, one built converted into a P-200. P-200 Airbus 12-passenger monoplane, nine built and one converted from P-100. P-300 Airbus 15-seater monoplane powered by a Wright R-1820 Cyclone engine. Y1C-27 United States Army Air Corps designation for four P-200 Airbuses powered by 550 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1860 Hornet B engine. All converted to C-27C. C-27A Airbus Production version of the Y1C-27 powered by a 650 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1860 Hornet B engine, ten built. One converted to a C-27B the rest converted to C-27Cs. C-27B Airbus One C-27A re-engined with a 675 hp Wright R-1820-17 Cyclone engine. C-27C Airbus Four Y1C-27s and nine of the C-27A re-engined with a 750 hp Wright R-1820-25 Cyclone engine. Aircruiser 66-67 Improved structure modified from a P-200 with a 675 hp Wright SR-1820 Cyclone engine Aircruiser 66-70 An Aircruiser with a 710 hp Wright SGR-1820 Cyclone engine, five built - exported to Canada. Aircruiser 66-75 An Aircruiser with a 730 hp Wright Cyclone engine, three built.
Aircruiser 66-76 A cargo-version of the Aircruiser with a 760 hp Wright Cyclone. Aircruiser 66-80 An Aircruiser with an 850 hp Wright Cyclone engine. CanadaCanadian Pacific Airlines Central Northern Airways Mackenzie Air Service United StatesNew York and Suburban Airlines United States Army Air Corps Mexico Philippines The last flying Aircruiser, "CF-BTW," a 1938 model, after serving in Manitoba, is now on display at the Erickson Aircraft Collection in Madras, Oregon. Another Bellanca Aircruiser, "CF-AWR" named the "Eldorado Radium Silver Express", built in 1935, is under restoration at the Western Canada Aviation Museum in Winnipeg, Manitoba. General characteristics Crew: one, pilot Capacity: 16 passengers Length: 43 ft 4 in Wingspan: 65 ft 0 in Height: 11 ft 6 in Wing area: 520 ft² Empty weight: 6,072 lb Loaded weight: 10,000 lb Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9 9-cylinder supercharged air-cooled radial engine, 710 hp Performance Maximum speed: 144 knots Range: 608 nm Service ceiling: 22,000 ft Giuseppe Mario Bellanca Related lists List of civil aircraft List of military aircraft of the United States www.wingsovercanada.ca – Bellanca's Big Birds www.friendsofbellanca.org – Friends of Bellanca Field
Amelia Mary Earhart was an American aviation pioneer and author. Earhart was the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean, she received the United States Distinguished Flying Cross for this accomplishment. She set many other records, wrote best-selling books about her flying experiences and was instrumental in the formation of The Ninety-Nines, an organization for female pilots. In 1935, Earhart became a visiting faculty member at Purdue University as an advisor to aeronautical engineering and a career counselor to women students, she was a member of the National Woman's Party and an early supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment. During an attempt to make a circumnavigational flight of the globe in 1937 in a Purdue-funded Lockheed Model 10-E Electra and navigator Fred Noonan disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean near Howland Island. Fascination with her life and disappearance continues to this day. Earhart was the daughter of Samuel "Edwin" Stanton Earhart and Amelia "Amy".
She was born in Atchison, Kansas, in the home of her maternal grandfather, Alfred Gideon Otis, a former federal judge, the president of the Atchison Savings Bank and a leading citizen in the town. Amelia was the second child of the marriage, after an infant was stillborn in August 1896, she was of part German descent. Alfred Otis had not favored the marriage and was not satisfied with Edwin's progress as a lawyer. According to family custom, Earhart was named after her two grandmothers, Amelia Josephine Harres and Mary Wells Patton. From an early age, Amelia was the ringleader while her sister Grace Muriel Earhart, two years her junior, acted as the dutiful follower. Amelia was nicknamed "Meeley" and Grace was nicknamed "Pidge", their upbringing was unconventional since Amy Earhart did not believe in molding her children into "nice little girls". Meanwhile their maternal grandmother disapproved of the "bloomers" worn by Amy's children and although Earhart liked the freedom they provided, she was aware other girls in the neighborhood did not wear them.
A spirit of adventure seemed to abide in the Earhart children, with the pair setting off daily to explore their neighborhood. As a child, Earhart spent long hours playing with sister Pidge, climbing trees, hunting rats with a rifle and "belly-slamming" her sled downhill. Although the love of the outdoors and "rough-and-tumble" play was common to many youngsters, some biographers have characterized the young Earhart as a tomboy; the girls kept "worms, katydids and a tree toad" in a growing collection gathered in their outings. In 1904, with the help of her uncle, she cobbled together a home-made ramp fashioned after a roller coaster she had seen on a trip to St. Louis and secured the ramp to the roof of the family toolshed. Earhart's well-documented first flight ended dramatically, she emerged from the broken wooden box that had served as a sled with a bruised lip, torn dress and a "sensation of exhilaration". She exclaimed, "Oh, Pidge, it's just like flying!"Although there had been some missteps in Edwin Earhart's career up to that point, in 1907 his job as a claims officer for the Rock Island Railroad led to a transfer to Des Moines, Iowa.
The next year, at the age of 10, Earhart saw her first aircraft at the Iowa State Fair in Des Moines. Her father tried to interest her sister in taking a flight. One look at the rickety "flivver" was enough for Earhart, who promptly asked if they could go back to the merry-go-round, she described the biplane as "a thing of rusty wire and wood and not at all interesting". The two sisters and Muriel, remained with their grandparents in Atchison, while their parents moved into new, smaller quarters in Des Moines. During this period, Earhart received a form of home-schooling together with her sister, from her mother and a governess, she recounted that she was "exceedingly fond of reading" and spent countless hours in the large family library. In 1909, when the family was reunited in Des Moines, the Earhart children were enrolled in public school for the first time with Amelia Earhart entering the seventh grade at the age of 12 years. While the family's finances improved with the acquisition of a new house and the hiring of two servants, it soon became apparent that Edwin was an alcoholic.
Five years in 1914, he was forced to retire and although he attempted to rehabilitate himself through treatment, he was never reinstated at the Rock Island Railroad. At about this time, Earhart's grandmother Amelia Otis died leaving a substantial estate that placed her daughter's share in a trust, fearing that Edwin's drinking would drain the funds; the Otis house was auctioned along with all of its contents. In 1915, after a long search, Earhart's father found work as a clerk at the Great Northern Railway in St. Paul, where Earhart entered Central High School as a junior. Edwin applied for a transfer to Springfield, Missouri, in 1915 but the current claims officer reconsidered his retirement and demanded his job back, leaving the elder Earhart with nowhere to go. Facing another calamitous move, Amy Earhart took her children to Chicago, where they lived with friends. Earhart made an unusual condition in the choice of her next schooling, she rejected the high school nearest her home when she complained that the chemistry lab was "just like a kitchen sink".
She enrolled in Hyde Park High School but
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport
Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport is an international airport located in Winnipeg, Canada. It is the seventh busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic, serving 4,305,744 passengers in 2017, the 11th busiest airport by aircraft movements, it is a hub for passenger airlines Calm Air, Perimeter Airlines, Flair Airlines, cargo airline Cargojet. It is a focus city for WestJet; the airport is co-located with Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg. An important transportation hub for the province of Manitoba, Winnipeg International Airport is the only commercial international airport within the province as the other airports of entry serve domestic flights and general aviation only; the airport is operated by the Winnipeg Airport Authority as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System and is one of eight Canadian airports that has US Border Pre-clearance facilities. Winnipeg's isolated geographical location in relation to other major population centres makes Winnipeg International Airport the primary airport for a large area.
As such, it is used as a gateway not only to all of Manitoba, but large parts of neighbouring provinces and territories. Daily non-stop flights are operated from Winnipeg International Airport to destinations across Canada as well as to the United States and the Caribbean, along with summer seasonal flights to the United Kingdom. In addition scheduled flights to numerous small remote communities in the northern regions of Canada Northern Manitoba, Northwestern Ontario, Nunavut, are served from the airport; the airport opened in 1928 as Stevenson Aerodrome in honour of the noted Manitoba aviator and pioneer bush pilot, Captain Fred J. Stevenson. Stevenson Aerodrome known as Stevenson Field, was Canada's first international airport with Northwest Airways inaugurating a passenger and mail service between Winnipeg and Pembina, North Dakota on February 2, 1931. By 1935, Northwest Airlines was operating daily service from the airport with Hamilton H-47 prop aircraft on a routing of Winnipeg - Pembina, ND - Grand Forks, ND - Fargo, ND - Minneapolis/St.
Paul, MN - Milwaukee, WI - Chicago, IL. The City of Winnipeg and the Rural Municipality of St. James agreed to develop Stevenson Field as a modern municipal airport in 1936. In 1938 the Manitoba Legislative Assembly passed the St. James-Winnipeg Airport Commission Act creating a commission of the same name with full control over the operation of the airport. In 1940 during the Second World War the Government of Canada placed the airport under the direction of the Minister of Transport and the Royal Canadian Air Force where it remained until 1997. In 1940, Trans-Canada Air Lines was operating daily round trip transcontinental service across Canada via the airport with a routing of Montreal - Ottawa - North Bay - Kapuskasing - Wagaming - Winnipeg - Regina - Lethbridge - Vancouver flown with Lockheed Model 10 Electra twin prop aircraft with connecting service to and from Toronto being offered via North Bay. In 1962 Stevenson Field was renamed Winnipeg International Airport and in 1997 the airport was transferred to the control of the Winnipeg Airports Authority.
The airport was served by Scandinavian Airlines during the mid 1950s on the world's first regular Polar route, which linked Copenhagen and Los Angeles with Douglas DC-6B propliner flights via Søndre Strømfjord and Winnipeg. By 1962, Trans-Canada Air Lines was operating weekly nonstop service between Winnipeg and London Heathrow Airport with Douglas DC-8 jetliners. In 1963, Northwest Airlines was serving the airport with Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprops operated on multi-stop routings of Winnipeg - Grand Forks, ND - Fargo, ND - Minneapolis/St. Paul - Milwaukee - New York City Idlewild Airport and Miami - Fort Lauderdale - St. Petersburg, FL - Atlanta - Chicago O'Hare Airport - Minneapolis/St. Paul - Fargo, ND - Grand Forks, ND - Winnipeg. By 1970, Air Canada was operating twice weekly nonstop service to Glasgow, Scotland with both flights continuing on to London Heathrow, a weekly nonstop flight to London Heathrow, a twice weekly nonstop to Copenhagen with both flights continuing on to Frankfurt and a weekly nonstop to Frankfurt with this flight continuing on to Zurich with all of these services being operated with Douglas DC-8 jets as part of Air Canada's "Western Arrow" international flights at the time.
In 1970, CP Air was operating direct, no change of plane Boeing 737-200 service to San Francisco via stops in Calgary and Vancouver. The original main terminal building was built in 1964, was designed by the architectural firm of Green Blankstein Russell and Associates, it was expanded and renovated in 1984 by the architectural firm of IKOY, a hotel was built across from the terminal in 1998. The original main terminal building was closed on Sunday October 30, 2011 and has since been demolished. Two airlines operating jet aircraft in passenger service were based at the airport: Transair and Greyhound Air. During the mid 1970s, Transair was operating Boeing 737-200 and Fokker F28 Fellowship jets in addition to NAMC YS-11 and de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter turboprops on scheduled flights in Manitoba and Ontario provinces as well as the Northwest Territories and the Yukon with service as far west as Whitehorse and as far east as Toronto from its Winnipeg hub in addition to operating charter services from the airport with Boeing 707 jetliners with charter flights to Europe, the Caribbean and Mexico as well as to Flori
The Canadair CL-84 "Dynavert", designated by the Canadian Forces as the CX-131, was a V/STOL turbine tiltwing monoplane designed and manufactured by Canadair between 1964 and 1972. Only four of these experimental aircraft were built with three entering flight testing. Two of the CL-84s crashed due to mechanical failures, with no fatalities occurred in either of the accidents. Despite the fact that the CL-84 was successful in the experimental and operational trials carried out between 1972 and 1974 however, none of the prospective customers placed any orders for the type. Between 1957 and 1963, Canadair carried out research in VTOL technology with the assistance of the National Research Board and the Defense Research Board of Canada; the studies pointed the way to a unique tilt-wing design. The wing and the powerplants of the aircraft could be tilted hydro-mechanically so that the wing incidence changed through 100 degrees from a normal flight angle to those for STOL and VTOL; the incidence of the tailplane was automatically altered to deal with trim changes as the wing-incidence varied.
The two sets of tail rotor blades were locked in aft position in conventional flight. The design team included Canadair's chief designer, Frederick Phillips and Karlis Irbitis as well as many other designers. At the time of the CL-84 project, Canadair was a subsidiary of General Dynamics and the parent company christened the new aircraft, the "Dynavert." Canadair project personnel referred to it as the "84". Contra-rotating rotors on a vertical axis in the tail provided fore-and-aft control during hovering and transitional flight; the propulsion and lifting propellers were handed and were interconnected by shafts through a central gearbox from which the tail rotors and accessories were driven. The thrust from the propellers was matched automatically except when over-ridden by the pilot for lateral control in slow or hovering flight. A mechanical "mixing" unit was used to adjust the functions of the various controls in the different modes of flight; the flap/ailerons gave yaw control. In the cockpit fore and aft stick was always pitch, side to side was always roll and the rudder pedals were always yaw, irrespective of the wing position through its full range.
Two 1,500 shp Lycoming T53 shaft-turbines were used to drive the two 14 ft four-bladed propellers. The engines were interconnected by cross shafts, so that in the event of the failure of one engine, it would automatically disconnect through torque spring clutches and both propellers would be driven by the remaining engine. There were two main reasons for the technical success of the CL-84 design. Aerodynamic considerations were given a high priority, the controlling of power was kept as simple and direct as possible; the propeller disks extended beyond the wingtips, so the whole of the wing was immersed in the propeller slipstream. This, together with full-span leading edge and trailing edge flaps which were programmed with wing tilt angle, ensured that the wing was never stalled. Trim changes were minimized by programmed tilting of the tailplane. All programming was based on an outdoor mobile test rig; the power of both engines was controlled by a single "power lever" in all flight regimes. To provide crisp thrust control during hover, movement of the power lever caused a direct adjustment of blade angle, analogous to the collective pitch control of a helicopter, with the propeller cpu governor making a follow-up adjustment of blade angle to maintain the selected rpm.
The direct adjustment of blade angle was faded out automatically as the blade angle increased with increasing forward speed. The only unfamiliar control function the pilot had to deal with was the wing tilt control, a switch on the power lever; the combination of smooth aerodynamics and simple power control made it easy for fixed-wing pilots to perform transitions between hover and wing-down modes on their first flight in the CL-84. CF-VTO-X, the CL-84 prototype first flew in hover on 7 May 1965, flown by Canadair Chief Pilot Bill Longhurst. On 12 September 1967, after 305 uneventful flights, CF-VTO-X was at 3,000 ft when a bearing in the propeller control system failed. Both pilot and observer ejected but the prototype was lost. Canadair redesigned its replacement, the CL-84-1 incorporating over 150 engineering changes including the addition of dual controls, upgraded avionics, an airframe stretch and more powerful engines; the first newly designed CL-84-1 flew on 19 February 1970 with Bill Longhurst at the controls.
He continued with the CL-84 program until his retirement from active flying in January 1971. Doug Atkins assumed the role of chief test pilot. At about the same time, at the height of the Vietnam War, the US Navy expressed interest in the concept. Atkins was dispatched on a cross-country tour that took a CL-84-1 to Washington DC where he landed on the White House lawn, Virginia, Edwards Air Force Base and full trials on USS Guam; the CL-84-1 performed flawlessly, demonstrating versatility in a wide range of onboard roles, including troop deployment, radar surveillance and anti-submarine warfare. It could accelerate to 100 knots in 8 seconds; the potency of the CL-84-1 as a gun platform was illustrated in a Canadair promotional film. Fitted with a General Electric SUU 11A/A pod with a 7.62 mm minigun, Adkins maintained a rock-stead