The Royal Bank of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba abbreviated as RBS, is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, together with NatWest and Ulster Bank. The Royal Bank of Scotland has around 700 branches in Scotland, though there are branches in many larger towns and cities throughout England and Wales. Both the bank and its parent, The Royal Bank of Scotland Group, are separate from the fellow Edinburgh-based bank, the Bank of Scotland, which pre-dates The Royal Bank of Scotland by 32 years; the Royal Bank of Scotland was established in 1724 to provide a bank with strong Hanoverian and Whig ties. Following ring-fencing of the Group's core domestic business, the bank became a direct subsidiary of NatWest Holdings in 2019. NatWest Markets comprises the Group's investment banking arm. To give it legal form, the former RBS entity was renamed NatWest Markets in 2018. Drummond and Child & Co. businesses in England. The bank traces its origin to the Society of the Subscribed Equivalent Debt, set up by investors in the failed Company of Scotland to protect the compensation they received as part of the arrangements of the 1707 Acts of Union.
The "Equivalent Society" became the "Equivalent Company" in 1724, the new company wished to move into banking. The British government received the request favourably as the "Old Bank", the Bank of Scotland, was suspected of having Jacobite sympathies. Accordingly, the "New Bank" was chartered in 1727 as the Royal Bank of Scotland, with Archibald Campbell, Lord Ilay, appointed its first governor. On 31 May 1728, the Royal Bank of Scotland invented the overdraft, considered an innovation in modern banking, it allowed a merchant in the High Street of Edinburgh, access to £ 1,000 credit. Competition between the Old and New Banks was centred on the issue of banknotes; the policy of the Royal Bank was to either drive the Bank of Scotland out of business, or take it over on favourable terms. The Royal Bank built up large holdings of the Bank of Scotland's notes, which it acquired in exchange for its own notes suddenly presented to the Bank of Scotland for payment. To pay these notes, the Bank of Scotland was forced to call in its loans and, in March 1728, to suspend payments.
The suspension relieved the immediate pressure on the Bank of Scotland at the cost of substantial damage to its reputation, gave the Royal Bank a clear space to expand its own business—although the Royal Bank's increased note issue made it more vulnerable to the same tactics. Despite talk of a merger with the Bank of Scotland, the Royal Bank did not possess the wherewithal to complete the deal. By September 1728, the Bank of Scotland was able to start redeeming its notes again, with interest, in March 1729, it resumed lending. To prevent similar attacks in the future, the Bank of Scotland put an "option clause" on its notes, giving it the right to make the notes interest-bearing while delaying payment for six months. Both banks decided that the policy they had followed was mutually self-destructive and a truce was arranged, but it still took until 1751 before the two banks agreed to accept each other's notes; the bank opened its first branch office outside Edinburgh in 1783 when it opened one in Glasgow, in part of a draper's shop in the High Street.
Further branches were opened in Dundee, Dalkeith, Port Glasgow, Leith in the first part of the nineteenth century. In 1821, the bank moved from its original head office in Edinburgh's Old Town to Dundas House, on St. Andrew Square in the New Town; the building as seen along George Street forms the eastern end of the central vista in New Town. It was designed for Sir Lawrence Dundas by Sir William Chambers as a Palladian mansion, completed in 1774. An axial banking hall behind the building, designed by John Dick Peddie, was added in 1857; the banking hall continues in use as a branch of the bank, Dundas House remains the registered head office of the bank to this day. The rest of the nineteenth century saw the bank pursue mergers with other Scottish banks, chiefly as a response to failing institutions; the assets and liabilities of the Western Bank were acquired following its collapse in 1857. By 1910, the Royal Bank of Scotland had around 900 staff. In 1969, the bank merged with the National Commercial Bank of Scotland to become the largest clearing bank in Scotland.
The expansion of the British Empire in the latter half of the nineteenth century saw the emergence of London as the largest financial centre in the world, attracting Scottish banks to expand southward into England. The first London branch of the Royal Bank of Scotland opened in 1874. However, English banks moved to prevent further expansion by Scottish banks into England. An agreement was reached, under which English banks would not open branches in Scotland and Scottish banks would not open branches in England outside London; this agreement remained in place until the 1960s, although various cross-border acquisitions were permitted. The Royal Bank's English expansion plans were resurrected after World War I, when it acquired various small English banks, including London-based Drummonds Bank.
Glen Winter is a Canadian television director and producer, well known for his work on The WB/The CW's Smallville and for his significant contributions to the Arrowverse. Winter began his career as a filmloader on Mark Rydell's Intersection, he worked on several films as a camera operator, such as The Crow: Stairway To Heaven, MVP: Most Vertical Primate, Air Bud: Seventh Inning Fetch. As a cinematographer his work included Stone of Destiny and Dead Heat, he serves as the director of the pilot episode of CBS' Supergirl, which premiered in late 2015. The series was developed by The New Normal co-creator Ali Adler, Arrow and The Flash executive producers Andrew Kreisberg and Greg Berlanti. Winter has directed seven episodes of the series. Winter had a mainstay position on the Superman prequel series Smallville, on which he first served as second unit director of photography, series cinematographer, he went on to direct 12 episodes, including "Cyborg", introducing the titular hero, "Fallout", "Crimson", "Blue", "Traveler", "Committed", "Legion".
He did the first collaboration with DC Comics' Geoff Johns and introduced the titular group of heroes from the future. In spring 2012, Winter signed on to another DC Comics produced series, Arrow. After starting as series cinematographer, he segued to episode directing, his first effort was written by frequent collaborator, DC Comics CCO, Geoff Johns. Entitled "Dead to Rights", the installment was met with critical acclaim, he went on to direct second-season episodes "Broken Dolls", "Blind Spot", "The Promise". He helmed Arrow's third-season premiere, "The Calm", he directed the first episode of 2015, "Left Behind". Starting with the fourth-season premiere, "Green Arrow", Winter was named a producer on Arrow, he served as the director of photography on the pilot of Arrow's sister-series The Flash. He went on to direct the fourth episode, "Going Rogue", in which the supervillain Captain Cold is introduced, he next helmed the series' 8th installment, which features a crossover event with Arrow, "Flash vs. Arrow".
During the latter portion of the season, he was named as producer. In September 2015, it was confirmed that Winter would helm the pilot for the Arrow/Flash spin-off Legends of Tomorrow; the series focuses on a band of tag-team heroes and villains made up from the Arrowverse, traveling through space and time to stop the maniacal Vandal Savage. It was confirmed that Winter would serve as a producer on the series. Winter said of directing the two-part pilot episode that he was most proud of a technically challenging battle involving The Atom. "He flies out of Stein's pocket. Write, "Atom comes in and shoots up the place." I'm like, "Oh, my god. How am I going to do that? What is that? What does that look like?" I decided. I wanted it to feel like big piece. I shot it on the camera car. I shot it on high-res at 6k. We did it in one take." Arrow / 1.16: Dead to Rights, 2.3: Broken Dolls, 2.11: Blind Spot, 2.15: The Promise, 3.1: The Calm, 3.10: Left Behind, 4.22: Lost in the Flood, 7.12 Emerald Archer & 8.08 Crisis on Infinite Earths, Part 4 The Flash / 1.4: Going Rogue, 1.8: Flash Vs. Arrow, 1.13: The Nuclear Man, 2.16: Trajectory & 4.1: The Flash Reborn Supergirl / 1.1: Pilot, 1.2: Stronger Together, 1.11: Strange Visitor from Another Planet, 2.1: The Adventures of Supergirl, 2.2: The Last Children of Kyrpton, 2.5: Crossfire, 2.7: The Darkest Place,2.22: Neverless, She Persisted, 3.9 Reign & 3.14 Scott Through The Heart Legends of Tomorrow / 1.1: Pilot Part 1 & 1.2: Pilot Part 2 Blindspot / 2.2 Name Not One Men & 3.6 Adoring Suspect Deception / 1.8: Multiple Outs Titans / 1.11: Dick Grayson & 2.15 Aqualad Doom Patrol / episode #1: "Pilot" Prodigal Son / episode #13: "Wait & Hope" Glen Winter on IMDb
The American Billboard magazine, publishes a weekly chart that ranks the highest-selling albums in the country. In 1962, the album chart was known as "Top LP's" and was divided between the mono format, with 150 chart positions and stereo with 50. In 1962, six mono and stereo albums topped the chart; the first record to top the mono chart was the soundtrack to the 1961 film Blue Hawaii recorded by Elvis Presley. The soundtrack album reached the top in early December 1961 and stayed atop till late April for 20 consecutive weeks. In July 2002, it was certified three times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America; the soundtrack of the American film West Side Story replaced Blue Hawaii for seven weeks in May and June and for three additional weeks in September and October. Ray Charles' Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music replaced the aforementioned album and topped the chart for 14 consecutive weeks from June till September; the last number on the mono chart in the year was recorded by Vaughn Meader.
His comedy album The First Family, which made fun of then-President John F. Kennedy, topped the chart for the last three weeks in December. On the stereo chart, Stereo 35/MM by Enoch Light & the Light Brigade could continue its reign which started in mid-November of 1961; the album topped the chart in the first week of January. Presley's Blue Hawaii was able to top the chart, but only for four nonconsecutive weeks. Henry Mancini's soundtrack Breakfast at Tiffany's for the film of the same name, spent twelve weeks atop, making it the second longest reigning album atop the stereo chart. West Side Story replaced it in May and topped the chart till May of the following year, for a total of 54 weeks, the longest ever. In August, Ray Charles' Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music, topped it for one week, bringing his total to 15 weeks in both charts. Over 104 combined chart weeks, West Side Story was the best performing album of the year, spending a combined 53 weeks atop the chart. In 1963, it could extend its record to 71 weeks.
Furthermore, West Side Story would go on to be the best-selling album in the US of the 1960s and being certified triple platinum by the RIAA. The album went on to win a Grammy in the category Grammy Award for Best Sound Track Album or Recording of Original Cast From a Motion Picture or Television in 1962. Albums released by Columbia Records topped the chart for 55 weeks, by RCA Victor for 33 weeks and by ABC/Paramount for 15 weeks. 1962 in music List of number-one albums