The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea is an Inner London borough with royal status. It is the second smallest district in England, it includes affluent areas such as Notting Hill, South Kensington and Knightsbridge. The borough is west of the City of Westminster and east of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, it contains major museums and universities in Albertopolis, department stores such as Harrods, Peter Jones and Harvey Nichols, embassies in Belgravia and Kensington Gardens. The borough is home to the Notting Hill Carnival, Europe's largest, contains many of the most expensive residential properties in the world; the local authority is Chelsea London Borough Council. Its motto, adapted from the opening words of Psalm 133, is Quam bonum in Unum habitare, which translates as'How good it is to dwell in unity'; the borough was formed by the merger of the Royal Borough of Kensington and the Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea, under the London Government Act 1963, which reorganised 86 boroughs and urban districts into 32 London boroughs on 1 April 1965 together with the creation of the Greater London Council.
The new borough was intended to be called only "Kensington", but after protests from thousands of Chelsea residents, the Minister of Housing and Local Government, Sir Keith Joseph, announced on 2 January 1964 that the name of the new borough would be the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Of its history the council states: "Despite the boroughs being separate Kensington and Chelsea still retain their unique characters; the amalgamation of the two boroughs, unpopular as it was at the time, has been accepted. Today conservation combined with the adoption of sympathetic new architecture is seen as a key objective. In every corner of the borough signs of its history can be seen: from Grade 1 listed buildings Kensington Palace and the Royal Hospital, Chelsea to others recalled in street names such as Pottery Lane and Hippodrome Mews."In 200 years the area has been transformed from a "rural idyll" to a thriving part of the modern metropolis. Chelsea had been countryside upon which Thomas More built Beaufort House.
He came to Chelsea in 1520 and built the house, which in his day had two courtyards laid out between the house and the river, in the north of the site acres of gardens and orchards were planted. It was from here in 1535 that More was taken to the Tower and beheaded that year; this area of Cheyne Walk continued its historic significance. Kensington's royal borough status was granted in 1901 as it was the home of Kensington Palace, where Queen Victoria was born in 1819 and lived until her accession in 1837. Commissioned by King William III, Christopher Wren enlarged and rebuilt the original house in 1689, turning it into a fitting royal residence. With the King came many court officials and followers. Kensington Square, until a failing venture, became a popular residential area; the Palace was used by reigning monarchs until 1760 and since by members of the Royal family. Kensington's royal borough status was inherited by the new borough. During the Second World War, civilians suffered great hardship.
A huge army of civilian volunteers was raised, including Auxiliary Fire Service, Red Cross, Air Raid Wardens and Rescue Services. During the Blitz much damage was caused by explosive and incendiary bombs along Chelsea's riverside, but worse was to come in 1944 with flying bombs. Among the buildings either destroyed or damaged with terrible loss of life, were Chelsea Old Church, Church of Our Most Holy Redeemer, Our Lady of Victories, St Mary Abbots, St Stephens Hospital, St Mary Abbot's Hospital, Sloane Square tube station, World's End, the Royal Hospital and Holland House. Kensington and Chelsea is best known today for two events that demonstrate both their traditional and modern aspects; the Chelsea Flower Show, held in the grounds of the Royal Hospital every May, is attended by Royalty and the "cream of society". The borough may be split into the following districts. Due to its high French population it has long held the unofficial title of the 21st arrondissement of Paris. In 2005, the borough had more of its land covered by domestic buildings than anywhere else in England at 19%, over half the national average.
It had the fifth highest proportion of land covered by non-domestic buildings at 12%. As of 2010, statist
The C IV was a steam locomotive, built for goods train duties, manufactured between 1884 and 1897 for the Royal Bavarian State Railways. Between 1884 and 1893 a total of 87 units two-cylinder, saturated, they were followed by two compound engines in 1889 for testing and 98 more compounds from 1892 to 1897. The locomotives, which for the first time did not have the external frames typical in Bavaria up to that time, were soon no longer equal to the growing demands made on them. In spite of that, many were taken over by the Deutsche Reichsbahn, designated as Class 53.80-81 and allocated the operating numbers 53 8011 to 8064 and 53 8081 to 8168. The two-cylinder engines were equipped with a Bavarian Class 3 T 10.2 tender. The compound variants had a Class 3 T 10.5 tender. Royal Bavarian State Railways List of Bavarian locomotives and railbuses Railways of Germany forum
Morita Kanya XII was the leading Japanese theatre manager of the first half of the Meiji period, between 1868 and 1912. He built the first modern theater, the Shintomi-za, which incorporated Western features such as gaslights and chairs; the theater opened in June 1878, was located at a foreign settlement in Tsukiji, Tokyo. He was a crucial factor in attracting the new audience, the aristocracy, into the kabuki theaters, it is said that Morita Kanya XII, as a young boy of 12 years, ran to the port of Yokohama in an attempt to leave Japan and immigrate into the Western world for the sake of fulfilling his goal: becoming a millionaire. Although the shogunal police stopped him that time, his spirit and interest for the West remained an integral part of his personality. During the time of government takeover, the 22-year-old Morita Kanya XII became so obsessed with the Western world that he would eat sashimi with salt and pepper as opposed to soy sauce and wasabi. Kanya was friends with the father of the playwright Okamoto Kido.
According to Kido he was polite obsequious, in his Westernised way on one occasion brought a gift of a box of Western sweets to Kido's home, bought from a sweet shop Fūgetsudo. When residents of the British Legation headed up by Thomas McClatchie presented Kanya with a theatre curtain times were uncertain with an undercurrent of anti Western sentiment amongst some feudal domains. There was an exchange of letters between Kanya, McClatchie and an Austro-Hungarian diplomat, Heinrich Von Siebold about the curtain and an invitation from Kanya to a special inaugural event. I am writing this letter to say that, as a consequence of the rebuild, I would like to extend an honourable invitation to you two young foreign residents in Tōkyō to the occasion of the opening of the Shintomiza on 7th June 1879 and to offer you, along with my fellow countrymen, our hospitality at an august speech welcoming you and an expression of appreciation. Furthermore, as regards to the matter in question, I will measure the time until your kind response to this request.
Once it has been presented I will, on receiving the gift of this superb curtain, be hanging it to serve in a place of honour. I trust. On a separate note this curtain, the appearance of which more than meets expectations, will encourage those whose names will appear on the certificate of the impending gift to agree. On this the appeal of this proposal will be supported. Yours sincerely, 3rd February 1879, in Tōkyō to ASAP Hospitality Company, Heinrich Von Siebold, Thomas McClatchie from the head of the Tōkyō Shintomiza, Morita Kan’ya the younger To which McClatchie replied... I am coming to Japan to attend the upcoming occasion. I respectfully advise. In Japan people like the so called rōnin with their katana swords have long been in armed factions. Foreigners seen by them are killed. I am pleased to be able to travel in Japan. Coming to watch it’s not my intention to be beheaded by rōnin; the theatre is pretty and we will be watching a beautiful play. It’s so pleasant don’t you agree? I respectfully ask that I be provided with the details to be written and sent to me care of my friend the mother of Great Britain Kanya replied...
I read your gracious letter in response to all the invitations sent for which I would like to thank you for confirming that you will be a guest in on the said occasion in June. Such a magnificent set of stage curtains that you have so kindly and honourably given I received with humble thanks; as for the matter in question, the occasion of this inauguration, it will be my honour to organise to the best of my ability, the better the honour for future generations. After this the illustrations will be seen in Ōsaka. With all due respect to you my three noble friends you will be received with appropriate speeches of thanks and honour. I will measure the time preciously until your response for this article with the family crest which will in the named theatre be honoured. Respectfully, yours sincerely.4th February, Morita Kan’ya The Kabuki theater was affected during the reforms of the Meiji period. The main concern of the government was to transform the art of Kabuki into something similar to that of the western form.
This placed theater from a common into a high social role, in which aristocrats and nobles would come and view the performances. Kabuki was to represent a civilized Japan. In 1872, Kabuki leaders, including Morita Kanya XII were asked to participate in a discussion at the Tokyo city hall. There, the changes were addressed and Morita Kanya XII saw this as an opportunity to become a wealthy businessman with the hope to become the director of the future National Theatre of Japan; when he built his Shintomi-za he implemented the desired reforms, which were referred to as "engeki kairyo." Morita Kanya was the owner of one of the three theatres licensed under the Tokugawa shogun regime: the Morita-za. Following the government takeover in 1868, Morita Kanya built the Morita-za in 1872, which marked a transformation of the Japanese Kabuki theater structure. In 1875, he had financial difficulties and reorganized the Morita-za into a company, which changed the theater's name to Shintomi-za. A year in 1876, the theater burned down, but Morita Kanya rebuilt after its destruction.
In 1878 it was named Shintomi-za. The grand reopening ceremony took place on 7 June 1878 attended by the t